← 3rd century B.C.
1 Sulpicius puts forward a motion to declare war on Philippus, but it is rejected by a popular assembly.
3 An embassy from Ptolemaeus V discusses intervention in Greece; the senate sends M.Lepidus to be Ptolemaeus' adviser.
5 The Egyptian general Scopas invades Palestine.
8 Athens declares war on Philippus.
9 The Roman people declare war on Philippus; the start of the Second Macedonian War.
14 The praetor L.Furius defeats the Gauls near Cremona.
15 Philippus captures Abydus.
16 Antiochus defeats the Egyptians at Panium.
20 Sulpicius crosses over to Macedonia with a Roman army.
22 Philippus invades Attica.
23 The Jews transfer their allegiance to Antiochus after his victory.
11 Skirmishes between Philippus and the Roman army near Athacus.
12 The Roman fleet, aided by Attalus, captures Oreus.
14 The Romans invade Eordaea.
18 The censors Scipio and Paetus review the senate without any disputes.
3 Philippus takes up a strong position by the river Aous.
4 The consuls leave for their provinces in Cisalpine Gaul and Macedonia.
6 Inconclusive peace negotiations between Philippus and Flamininus by the river Aous.
7 The Romans attack Philippus and force him to retreat from the river Aous.
9 Antiochus occupies Coele Syria.
10 Philopoemen goes to Crete for a second time, to fight for the people of Gortyn.
11 An earthquake results in the emergence of an island (? Hiera) near Thera.
13 Flamininus suffers a repulse at Atrax.
14 The assembly of the Achaean League decides to abandon its alliance with Philippus and to support the Romans.
17 Peace negotiations between Philippus and Flamininus at Nicaea.
19 The Lex Porcia forbids violence against Roman citizens.
23 Cato as praetor clears up corruption in Sardinia.
24 The new consuls enter office; the envoys of Philippus are dismissed by the senate and Flamininus is allowed to remain as commander in Greece.
1 Philippus allows Nabis to take possession of Argos.
2 Flamininus forces the Boeotians to enter into alliance with the Romans.
8 Attalus I dies at Thebes after suffering a stroke there.
9 The Romans advance into Thessaly.
14 Cethegus defeats the Insubres and Cenomani near the river Mincius.
17 Flamininus defeats Philippus at the battle of Cynoscephalae.
20 The Rhodians send an embassy to Antiochus, in an attempt to restrain his advance to the west.
23 Flamininus agrees peace terms with Philippus; the end of the Second Macedonian War.
31 The consuls enter office and the Romans ratify the peace with Philippus.
1 Lampsacus and Smyrna appeal to Rome against Antiochus.
2 The Romans force the Boeotians to agree to peace terms after the assassination of the Macedonian sympathizer Brachylles.
5 Ten Roman commissioners revise the peace terms with Philippus.
6 Flamininus proclaims the independence of the Greek states at the Isthmian Games.
7 The Roman commissioners monitor the carrying out of the peace settlement.
9 The consuls defeat the Insubres and Boii in separate battles.
10 Antiochus restores Lysimacheia.
11 The Thessalians adopt new laws, and start electing annual magistrates; the first to hold office is Pausanias of Pherae.
13 Hannibal as sufete reforms the Carthaginian government and finances.
1 Hannibal is forced to leave Carthage.
2 The Lex Oppia, a sumptuary law, is repealed despite the opposition of Cato.
4 Cato arrives at Emporiae.
5 Cato defeats the Spanish rebels near Emporiae.
6 Syria and Egypt agree peace terms; the end of the Fifth Syrian War.
9 Cato orders the walls of all the Spanish cities to be demolished.
11 Nabis is forced to come to terms with the Romans.
20 The new consuls enter office, and the peace terms with Nabis are agreed by the senate.
21 The senate is given separate seats at the Megalensia for the first time.
1 The Romans send colonists to Puteoli, Volturnum, Liternum, Salernum, Buxentum, Sipontum, Tempsa, and Croton.
2 Flamininus addresses the Greeks at a congress at Corinth, and announces the withdrawal of the Roman forces.
3 Cato fails to bring the Turdetani and their Celtiberian allies to battle.
5 Eratosthenes measures the circumference of the earth.
8 The death of Eratosthenes.
15 Cato returns from Spain, and celebrates a triumph.
18 Flamininus celebrates a triumph for his victories over Philippus and Nabis.
19 Scipio opens up the public treasury after the quaestors refuse to do so for legal reasons.
6 Antiochus gives his daughters in marriage to Ptolemaeus and Ariarathes, but Eumenes refuses to marry the third daughter.
7 Hannibal sends Ariston of Tyre on a secret mission to Carthage.
10 The praetor Sex.Digitius is defeated by Spanish rebels in several battles, but P.Scipio prevents the rebellion from spreading.
16 The Aetolians stir up anti-Roman feelings in Greece.
18 A Roman embassy (possibly including Scipio Africanus) goes to Ephesus, but fails to reach agreement with Antiochus; negotiations are interrupted by the death of Antiochus, eldest son of the king.
19 Antiochus discusses plans for a war against Rome with his advisers at Ephesus.
2 Philopoemen invades Laconia and defeats Nabis.
5 Roman envoys tour the Greek cities, in an attempt to retain their support.
6 The assembly of the Aetolian League invites Antiochus to "liberate" the Greek states.
7 L.Flamininus attacks the Boii, and allegedly treats his captives with extreme cruelty.
12 Nabis is assassinated by a detachment of Aetolians.
14 The Romans make preparations for a war against Antiochus.
15 Antiochus crosses to Demetrias.
17 The Achaean League refuses to support Antiochus.
18 Antiochus conquers Euboea.
22 The Romans declare war on Antiochus.
25 The Boeotians and others give their support to Antiochus.
27 Antiochus holds a council at Demetrias; Hannibal is present, but Antiochus fails to follow his advice.
3 Acilius crosses over to Greece from Brundisium.
4 Antiochus captures many Thessalian cities, but fails to captures Larissa.
5 Antiochus marries the daughter of Cleoptolemus in his winter quarters at Chalcis.
7 Philippus and the Romans capture numerous towns in Thessaly.
8 Antiochus captures the son of Scipio Africanus.
9 Antiochus occupies and fortifies the pass at Thermopylae.
10 The Romans defeat Antiochus at Thermopylae.
12 Antiochus returns to Ephesus.
13 Cato returns to Rome.
14 Acilius captures Heracleia.
15 The Aetolians reject peace terms.
16 Scipio Nasica decisively defeats the Boii.
19 Floruit of Jesus son of Sirach, author of "Ecclesiasticus".
20 Onias III becomes Jewish high priest.
21 Flamininus forces Diophanes, the general of the Achaean League, to abandon the siege of Messene.
22 The Aetolians agree to a truce.
27 The Romans and Eumenes defeat the fleet of Antiochus at Corycus.
29 The Romans release Demetrius the son of Philippus V.
32 L.Scipio is allotted the province of Greece, after Scipio Africanus agrees to serve as his legate against Antiochus.
5 Polyxenidas defeats the Rhodian fleet at Panormus by trickery.
6 A truce is agreed between the Romans and the Aetolians.
7 The Roman army advances to the Hellespont, with the active assistance of Philippus.
8 L.Regillus takes over command of the Roman fleet, but makes little progress in his attacks on Antiochus.
9 Seleucus attacks Pergamum.
10 Paullus is defeated by the Lusitani at Lyco.
15 The Rhodians defeat a Syrian fleet led by Hannibal and Apollonius at Side.
19 The Romans and Rhodians defeat the Syrian fleet under Polyxenidas at Myonnesus; before the battle Regillus vows to build a temple to the Lares.
20 Antiochus abandons Lysimacheia.
23 The Roman army under L.Scipio crosses the Hellespont.
27 Antiochus sends Heracleides of Byzantium to negotiate with the Romans, but they reject his peace terms.
31 The Romans decisively defeat the army of Antiochus at Magnesia.
3 Scipio and Antiochus agree peace terms, by which Antiochus is forced to withdraw from Asia Minor; the end of the war against Antiochus.
6 Manlius takes over command of the Roman army in Asia and advances against the Galatians.
7 King Eumenes addresses the senate, together with embassies from Antiochus and the Rhodians.
9 Fulvius besieges Ambracia, with the poet Ennius in his retinue.
11 Manlius defeats the Galatians at Mt.Olympus.
15 Peace terms are agreed between the Romans and the Aetolians.
16 Chiomara, the wife of Orgiagon, takes revenge on a centurion who had raped her.
17 Manlius defeats the Galatians at Mt.Magaba.
24 L.Scipio celebrates a triumph for his victory over Antiochus, and brings back an enormous amount of booty to Rome.
25 The censors Flamininus and Marcellus review the senate.
29 Hannibal leaves Antiochus and goes via Crete to Armenia, where Artaxias has established himself as king.
1 Fulvius captures Same.
3 Philopoemen captures Sparta.
4 Ariarathes enters into alliance with Rome.
5 The treaty of Apameia between the Romans and Antiochus.
6 Ten Roman commissioners settle the government of Asia Minor.
8 Manlius leaves Asia and is ambushed while returning through Thrace.
6 The death of Antiochus III, and accession of Seleucus IV.
7 Scipio Africanus is brought to trial by the Petillii, but wins the sympathy of the audience by recalling his victory over Carthage.
8 Scipio Africanus tears up his account books, when they are demanded as evidence in the prosecution of L.Scipio.
9 Scipio Africanus leaves Rome, and the tribune Ti.Gracchus intervenes to prevent his trial continuing in his absence.
10 The consuls subdue some more Ligurian tribes.
12 Gracchus saves L.Scipio from imprisonment.
13 Gracchus marries Cornelia.
14 The triumph of M.Fulvius, over the Aetolians and Cephallenia.
19 Renewal of the treaty between the Achaean League and Egypt.
20 The triumph of Cn.Manlius, over the Galatians, which brings back new luxuries to Rome.
8 The senate suppresses the Bacchanalia.
12 Hannibal is allowed by Prusias to settle in Bithynia.
2 Roman commissioners at Tempe order Philippus to withdraw his garrisons from Thessaly; Philippus begins to plan for another war with Rome.
4 The Roman commissioners go to Thessalonice to learn about Philippus's activities in Thrace.
6 Q.Metellus meets the magistrates of the Achaean League at Argos.
2 M.Porcius Cato and L.Valerius Flaccus are elected censors.
10 The censors review the senate, and impose penalties on L.Flamininus and L.Scipio.
11 Cato continues his efforts to stop the spread of luxury.
18 Demetrius defends his father Philippus before the senate.
9 P.Scipio visits the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol before making important decisions.
19 The death of Scipio Africanus.
20 Ennius:Fr_(Loeb)p400'1-6, an epitaph for Scipio.
29 Hannibal commits suicide after being surrounded by soldiers belonging to T.Flamininus.
1 The Achaean League declares war on Messene.
4 Philopoemen is captured by the Messenians.
8 Philopoemen is put to death by the Messenians.
12 Messene surrenders to the Achaeans.
20 Envoys from Eumenes, Ariarathes, Pharnaces, and Philippus, and from the Spartans and Achaeans, appear before the senate.
3 Paullus decisively defeats the Ingauni in Liguria.
5 The temple of Pietas is dedicated by M'.Glabrio.
8 Flaccus defeats the Celtiberi near Aebura and captures Contrebia.
11 The "books of Numa" are discovered, but they are publicly burnt by the praetor Q.Petillius.
12 Roman colonies are founded at Aquileia and Graviscae.
6 Philippus has Demetrius put to death, on a charge of treason.
13 The death of Ptolemaeus V, and accession of Ptolemaeus VI.
2 M.Lepidus and M.Fulvius are elected censors, and agree to co-operate despite their previous disagreements.
11 The death of Philippus, and accession of Perseus.
18 Gracchus subdues the Celtiberi.
19 The censors review the senate, and carry out building works, including the first stone bridge in Rome.
22 The Thracian king Abrupolis invades Macedonia.
23 The Thracians prevent the Bastarnae from migrating.
30 Perseus renews the alliance between Macedonia and Rome, and is officially recognized as king by the Romans.
2 Gracchus establishes peace in eastern Spain.
3 Manlius attacks the Istrians; he is saved from an ambush by the bravery of the tribune C.Aelius.
4 A Lycian embassy complains to the senate about their treatment by the Rhodians.
5 The triumph of Gracchus, over the Celtiberi.
7 The consul Petillius is killed while attacking a mountain-top in Liguria.
9 Demetrius replaces Antiochus as a Syrian hostage at Rome.
6 Heliodorus, the minister of Seleucus, visits Jerusalem, but is deterred from robbing the temple treasury.
7 The Jewish high priest Onias visits Seleucus to seek his support against his rival Simon.
12 Antiochus IV suppresses Heliodorus and establishes himself as king of Syria, with his (?) son Antiochus as co-ruler.
5 Jesus (also known as Jason) replaces Onias as high priest.
9 Perseus visits Delphi with his army, and attempts to maintain friendly relations with the countries through which he passes.
14 The censors, Flaccus and Albinus, review the senate and remove nine senators, including Cn.Fulvius, the brother of Flaccus.
2 Q.Fulvius dedicates the temple of Fortuna Equestris, for which he strips the roof tiles off the temple of Juno at Lacinium.
4 M.Popillius ruthlessly subdues the Ligurians.
11 Eumenes visits Rome and accuses Perseus before the senate.
1 Eumenes is hit by a rock fall near Delphi, allegedly as a result of a plot by Perseus.
2 C.Valerius reports to the senate on the situation in Greece and Macedonia, and supports the accusations made by Eumenes.
13 Neighbouring kings and states decide what line to take in the imminent war between Rome and Macedonia.
14 The senate authorizes the new consuls to declare war on Perseus immediately.
15 Q.Marcius Philippus persuades Perseus not to start fighting until he has sent one more delegation to Rome.
6 The envoys of Perseus are given an audience outside Rome and then ordered to leave Italy.
9 Perseus holds a council at Pella and decides to fight the Romans rather than make any further concessions.
14 Perseus defeats the Romans in a cavalry engagement at Callinicus.
15 Perseus offers to renew peace negotiations after his victory, but the offer is rejected by Crassus.
18 Onias (also known as Menelaus) becomes the Jewish high priest.
20 The Romans defeat Perseus at Phalanna.
3 Atrocities committed by Crassus and Lucretius against the Greek states.
5 Perseus captures more towns in Thessaly.
20 Ptolemaeus VII becomes joint ruler with his brother.
27 Perseus attacks the Dardani, and captures (?) Chalestrum.
28 Antiochus learns of Egyptian plans for a war against him.
4 Perseus attempts to persuade Genthius the Illyrian king to join him in the war against Rome.
8 The armies of Antiochus and Ptolemaeus advance to meet each other.
11 The death of the poet Ennius.
15 Philippus penetrates into Macedonia.
16 Antiochus defeats the Egyptians near Pelusium.
18 Antiochus captures Pelusium.
19 The tribune P.Rutilius brings the censors to trial.
20 Philippus advances to Dium.
21 The Romans capture Heracleium.
23 Ptolemaeus VI joins Antiochus, who promises to support him against his brother, and sets up a rival seat of government at Memphis.
26 An embassy from Rhodes tries to maintain friendly relations with Rome.
30 Antiochus robs the temple at Jerusalem.
32 Paullus is assigned Macedonia as his province immediately after his election as consul.
33 Genthius joins the war as an ally of Perseus against Rome.
34 Alleged negotiations between Perseus and Eumenes.
35 Reconciliation between Ptolemaeus VI and his brother Ptolemaeus VII.
36 The lex Voconia restricts women's rights of inheritance.
3 The legates from Macedonia appear before the senate; Paullus makes a speech to the people.
4 Paullus leaves for Macedonia, after celebrating the Latin Festival.
5 Perseus fails to win the support of the Bastarnae.
8 Antiochus IV invades Egypt for a second time.
11 Paullus sets sail from Brundisium for Corcyra.
12 Paullus arrives at Delphi.
13 Paullus reaches the Roman army at the river Elpeus.
14 Anicius captures Genthius, the king of the Illyrians.
15 Paullus decides to attack Perrhaebia.
18 Nasica defeats the Macedonian garrison at Pythium.
19 Paullus advances to Pydna; Sulpicius Gallus predicts a lunar eclipse, which occurs during the night.
20 Paullus defeats Perseus at the battle of Pydna.
22 P.Vatinius has a divine revelation from the Dioscurides, announcing Paullus' victory.
23 Perseus arrives at Amphipolis.
24 Perseus takes refuge in Samothrace.
25 An unsubstantiated rumour about victory in Macedonia spreads at Rome.
27 Jason attacks Menelaus, who appeals for help to Antiochus.
34 Envoys from Paullus arrive at Rome.
38 Perseus surrenders to the Romans; the end of the war against Perseus, the last king of Macedonia.
39 Popillius meets Antiochus near Alexandria, and promptly orders him to withdraw from Egypt.
41 Paullus receives Perseus at the Roman camp.
42 Rhodian envoys, led by Agepolis, address the senate, and are accused of supporting Perseus.
47 Antiochus captures Jerusalem, and massacres the inhabitants.
50 Paullus rewards Q.Tubero with some silver from the Macedonian spoils.
51 The Galatians attack Eumenes.
53 Prusias of Bithynia calls himself a freedman of Rome.
54 Anicius subdues Illyria and Epirus, and organizes their administration.
57 Paullus tours the Greek cities.
2 Attalus the brother of Eumenes appears before the senate.
4 The Rhodian envoys address the senate; they are supported by M.Cato.
5 The Rhodians are relieved to learn that Rome has not declared war on them; but they are forced to evacuate Caria and Lycia.
7 Paullus and the ten envoys announce the division of Macedonia into four independent states.
8 Paullus holds his victory games at Amphipolis.
10 Apollonius, the general of Antiochus, suppresses his opponents in Jerusalem, and establishes a garrison there.
11 Paullus pillages Epirus, sacks seventy cities and carries off 150,000 slaves to Rome.
16 Over a thousand of the leading Achaeans are deported to Rome.
17 Paullus arrives at Rome.
18 A motion to grant a triumph to Paullus is passed, despite the strong opposition of Ser.Galba.
19 Antiochus issues a decree forcing the Jews to adopt Hellenic customs and make pagan sacrifices.
20 The death of Paullus' younger son.
21 The first day of Paullus' triumph: a display of statues and pictures.
22 The second day of Paullus' triumph: Perseus' treasury, consisting of more than 6,000 talents of gold and silver, is brought to Rome.
23 The last day of Paullus' triumph: Perseus and his children are led before the chariot of Paullus.
24 The "naval" triumph of Octavius.
25 The death of Paullus' elder son.
26 Paullus' speech to the people on the death of his sons.
27 Perseus is emprisoned at Alba Fucens.
28 The Achaean detainees are distributed amongst the Etruscan cities; but the historian Polybius is allowed to stay at Rome, where he becomes the mentor of Scipio Aemilianus.
30 The senate agrees to Athenian control of Lemnos, Haliartus, and Delos, which becomes a free port.
32 The triumph of Anicius, over Genthius and the Illyrians.
34 Prusias visits Rome, and congratulates the senate on the victory in Macedonia.
35 Eumenes arrives at Brundisium, but he returns home after the Roman senate issues a decree discouraging visits by kings.
36 The Syrians set up the "abomination of the desolation" in the temple at Jerusalem.
37 Pagan sacrifices are performed at Jerusalem and throughout Judaea, with brutal punishment for any resistance.
2 Terentius' comedy "Andria", which is first performed at the Megalensia.
3 Eleazar is put to death for refusing to eat unclean meat.
4 Seven brothers and their mother are put to death for refusing to eat unclean meat.
5 Mattathias disrupts the pagan sacrifices at Modin: beginning of the Maccabaean revolt.
11 Mattathias escapes with others into the wilderness, and instructs his followers to fight on the sabbath day, when necessary.
13 Antiochus holds a magnificent festival and games at Daphne.
15 Mattathias and his supporters carry out attacks on hellenizing Jews.
4 The death of Mattathias; his dying address to his sons.
5 Judas defeats a Syrian force led by Apollonius.
7 Antiochus appoints Lysias as viceroy during his expedition to the East.
8 Judas defeats a Syrian force led by Seron.
10 Antiochus defeats Artaxias, king of Armenia.
11 Judas defeats a Syrian force led by Gorgias at Emmaeus.
14 Judas defeats a Syrian force led by Lysias at Bethsur.
16 Perseus dies in prison at Alba.
5 Ptolemaeus VI is expelled from Egypt by his brother.
7 Purification of the temple at Jerusalem.
12 Antiochus IV pays for temples at Antioch and Athens, and many other building projects.
14 Death of Antiochus IV, after an unsuccessful attack on a temple in Elymais; accession of Antiochus V.
16 The censor Q.Philippus sets up a sun-dial, and a statue of Concordia.
2 Ptolemaeus VI goes to Rome to get support for his restoration to Egypt.
5 A Roman embassy, led by Cn.Octavius, is sent to Syria.
8 The accession of Ariarathes V.
13 The censors, Paullus and Philippus, complete the census.
19 Judas defeats Timotheus, the leader of the Ammonites.
20 The territories of the Ptolemaic kingdom are divided up between Ptolemaeus VI and Ptolemaeus VIII.
23 Antiochus V defeats the Jewish army at Bethzacharia.
24 Antiochus agrees peace terms with the defenders of Jerusalem, but afterwards pulls down the walls of the temple.
26 Ptolemaeus VIII persuades the senate to award him a larger share of the Ptolemaic territories.
28 Ti.Gracchus makes a small technical error while taking the auspices during elections for new consuls.
29 Antiochus captures and kills the usurper Philippus.
30 The Jewish high priest Menelaus is put to death by Antiochus.
1 Construction of the portico of Octavius.
2 The Roman legate Cn.Octavius is murdered at Laodiceia.
3 The consuls resign because of an irregularity in their election.
6 Demetrius makes a second unsuccessful appeal to the senate for his release.
7 Demetrius escapes from Italy.
9 Onias, the son of a Jewish high priest, goes to Egypt and builds a new temple at Leontopolis.
10 Demetrius arrives at Tripolis and proclaims himself king.
12 The death of Aemilia, grandmother of Scipio Aemilianus.
1 The senate confirms its support for Ptolemaeus VIII.
4 Demetrius captures and kills Antiochus V and Lysias.
7 Bacchides installs Alcimus as high priest by force.
8 Nicanor enters Judaea with a large Syrian force and is defeated by Judas in a minor engagement near Capharsalama.
9 Nicanor agrees peace terms with Judas, but makes threats against the temple at Jerusalem.
11 Cato criticizes Roman extravagance.
12 The Lex Fannia, a law to curb private expenditure, is passed.
3 Nicanor is defeated and killed at Adasa.
4 A treaty between Judas and the Romans.
5 Judas is defeated by Bacchides and killed at Berea.
6 Demetrius suppresses a rebellion by Timarchus, satrap of Media.
10 Carneades becomes head of the Academy at Athens.
11 Antipater of Tarsus sails to Athens and joins the Stoic school there.
14 Jonathan becomes Jewish leader.
16 The death of John the brother of Jonathan.
17 An embassy from Ariarathes of Cappadocia brings a crown as a symbol of his friendship.
22 Death of M.Aemilius Paullus.
23 The funeral of Paullus; composition and first performance of Terentius' "Adelphi".
24 Scipio Aemilianus makes over his inheritance to his brother.
2 An embassy from Demetrius appears before the senate.
6 The death of Alcimus, the high priest.
12 The censors remove all unauthorised statues from the forum, including some statues of Scipio Nasica.
2 Orophernes drives Ariarathes out of Cappadocia.
8 The death of Eumenes II, and accession of Attalus II.
9 The censors P.Scipio Nasica and M.Popillius complete the census.
2 Ariarathes and his opponents compete for the support of the Romans.
8 Ariarathes defeats Orophernes, and regains control of Cappadocia.
10 Peace between Jonathan and the Syrians.
11 The Romans declare war on the Dalmatians.
8 The Sicyonians fine the Athenians 500 talents for the sack of Oropus.
9 Figulus besieges Delminium.
5 The Athenians send the philosophers Carneades, Diogenes, and Critolaus to appeal against the decision of the Sicyonians.
7 Prusias advances as far as Pergamum.
9 The floruit of Aristarchus the grammarian.
12 Scipio Nasica captures Delminium; the end of the Dalmatian War.
18 Cato marries Salonia, the daughter of his secretary.
20 Scipio refuses to celebrate a triumph, despite the approval of the senate.
4 The Cretans defeat a Rhodian fleet, commanded by Aristocrates.
7 Archias the governor of Cyprus accepts bribes from Demetrius, but is detected and commits suicide.
9 Opimius defeats the Oxybii and Decietae, two Ligurian tribes.
10 Punicus leads the Lusitani in revolt and defeats the Romans; the start of Lusitanian War.
16 The birth of Cato's son Salonianus.
17 Scipio Nasica prevents the censor Cassius from building a theatre.
1 The consuls enter office early because of the fighting in Spain.
6 The censors, M.Valerius and C.Cassius, complete the census.
7 The Celtiberi, led by (?) Carus, kill 6000 Roman soldiers in an ambush.
14 The Rhodians make an unsuccessful appeal to the Achaean assembly for help against the Cretans.
20 Cato defends himself against an accusation in court, for the last time.
2 Alexander Balas captures Ptolemais.
4 Marcellus forces the Celtiberi to come to terms.
6 M.Cato goes as ambassador to Carthage.
8 Alexander Balas appoints Jonathan as high priest of the Jews.
10 Cato urges the destruction of Carthage, and illustrates the threat by showing a fresh fig from the city.
14 The death of Cato's eldest son, Licinianus.
15 Conflicting accounts of the early life of Andriscus, who claims to be a son of Perseus.
16 Demetrius sends Andriscus to Rome.
1 Demetrius makes further concessions to the Jews, including an exemption from paying tribute.
5 P.Scipio volunteers to go to Spain.
8 Lucullus massacres the Vaccaei.
9 The Lusitani defeat Galba.
10 Scipio slays a Spaniard in single combat during the siege of Intercatia.
14 Lucullus captures Intercatia: Scipio is first to scale the walls.
3 A battle between Masinissa and the Carthaginians.
4 Galba massacres the Lusitani.
5 Masinissa forces the Carthaginian army to surrender.
7 Demetrius is defeated and killed by the army of Alexander Balas.
8 The Romans start to raise an army to fight against the Carthaginians.
9 The wedding of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemaeus VI; Alexander summons Jonathan and treats him with great honour.
12 The senate votes to allow the Achaean exiles to return home, after a caustic comment from Cato.
14 The Carthaginians send an embassy to defend their action against Masinissa.
15 Cato persuades to senate to go to war against Carthage, despite the opposition of Nasica.
16 The Lex Aelia et Fufia confirms the right of magistrates to obstruct plebeian assemblies.
1 Andriscus escapes to Asia Minor.
3 Prusias plots against Nicomedes.
4 Utica surrenders to Rome.
5 The Romans declare war on Carthage: start of the Third Punic War.
6 The Carthaginians send an embassy to try to avert war.
7 The Carthaginian embassy decides to formally surrender to the Romans.
8 Andriscus crosses to Thrace, where he is welcomed by a chieftain called Teres and begins to collect an army.
9 The Carthaginians hand over hostages to the Romans.
10 The Carthaginians hand over their weapons to the Romans.
12 The Romans order the Carthaginians to abandon their city.
13 The Carthaginians decide that war is inevitable, and begin to make preparations.
15 The tribune Libo attempts to condemn Galba for his behaviour in Spain, and Cato joins in the accusation.
16 The Romans send three envoys to Bithynia, causing Cato to comment caustically on the quality of the chosen envoys.
19 Andriscus gains control of Macedonia.
20 The Achaean League seeks to impose its authority in Sparta by threatening war.
21 The consuls assault Carthage.
23 Censorinus returns to Rome.
24 Phameas attacks Roman foraging parties.
25 Andriscus is driven back from Thessaly by the Romans and their allies.
28 Prusias, king of Bithynia, is killed at Nicomedeia.
29 The Romans are defeated at Nepheris; Scipio rescues three cohorts which were trapped after the fighting.
31 Cato praises Scipio.
34 Cato learns the Greek language in his old age.
36 Sayings and witticisms of Cato.
38 The death of Cato.
40 L.Piso passes a law against extortion, the Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis.
41 The Ludi Saeculares are celebrated.
7 The Roman ambassador M.Marcellus dies in a shipwreck while travelling to visit Masinissa.
9 The death of Masinissa; Scipio divides the kingdom of Numidia between Masinissa's sons.
10 Andriscus defeats the praetor Juventius.
11 Manilius captures Tezaga and other towns.
12 Negotiations between Phameas and Scipio.
13 The Spartans secede from the Achaean League.
14 Phameas deserts to the Romans.
16 Piso is repulsed from Aspis.
18 Metellus defeats Andriscus.
19 An Achaean army, led by Damocritus, attacks Sparta.
22 Metellus captures Andriscus; end of the rebellion in Macedonia.
23 Viriathus becomes the leader of the Lusitanian rebels.
25 Scipio is elected consul.
26 Hasdrubal, grandson of Masinissa, is murdered at Carthage.
27 Scipio is given command of the war in Africa, and carefully chooses the officers to serve with him there.
31 Cornelia bears twelve children to Ti.Gracchus, alternating between sons and daughters.
33 Ti.Gracchus the elder dies, shortly after discovering two snakes on his bed.
1 Mancinus captures part of Carthage.
6 Scipio breaks into the Megara district of Carthage.
7 Hasdrubal tortures and kills Roman prisoners.
8 Viriathus escapes from Vetilius.
9 Mithridates of Parthia conquers large areas of Media and the East, as far as the borders of India.
11 Roman envoys, led by L.Orestes, address the Achaeans at Corinth, and are allegedly assaulted there.
14 Demetrius II invades Syria.
16 Scipio cuts off Carthage by land.
17 Viriathus defeats Vetilius.
18 Scipio builds a mole to prevent supplies reaching Carthage by sea, and defeats the Carthaginians in a sea battle.
22 An inconclusive meeting between Critolaus and the Roman envoys at Tegea.
23 Scipio captures Nepheris.
24 Negotiations between Hasdrubal and Gulussa.
3 Laelius captures Cothon.
4 The Roman army advances to the Byrsa of Carthage.
5 Critolaus urges the assembly of the Achaean League towards war with Sparta and Rome.
6 Macedonia is organized into a Roman province.
7 Hasdrubal surrenders to the Romans; his wife and the deserters commit suicide.
8 The censors, Lentulus and Censorinus, complete the census of Roman citizens.
11 Carthage is destroyed by fire, and razed to the ground: the end of the Third Punic War.
12 The destruction of Carthage, and the lack of a powerful rival, are prime causes of moral degeneration at Rome.
13 The Romans declare war on the Achaean League.
14 Ptolemaeus VI transfers his support from Alexander Balas to Demetrius II.
15 The Achaeans besiege Heracleia.
16 Metellus defeats the Achaeans at Scarpheia; Critolaus is killed.
17 Metellus defeats the Arcadians in Phocis.
18 Thebes is abandoned by its inhabitants.
20 Diaeus frees slaves and raises another Achaean army.
23 Laelius returns to Rome to announce the capture of Carthage.
24 Scipio sends back spoils from Carthage to Sicily, without taking anything for himself.
26 Mummius arrives in Greece and takes over the command from Metellus.
27 Mummius defeats the Achaeans at the Isthmus.
28 Diaeus commits suicide.
29 The Romans capture Corinth.
30 Viriathus defeats the Roman praetor C.Plautius.
32 Mummius loots and destroys Corinth, allegedly causing "Corinthian bronze" to be formed: the end of the Achaean War.
33 Africa is organized into a Roman province.
34 Scipio holds victory games, and punishes deserters.
35 The Romans send out ten envoys to organise Achaea into province.
36 The triumph of Metellus, who brings back some statues by Lysippus from Macedonia.
2 The triumph of Scipio Aemilianus.
3 The consul Q.Fabius is given command of the Roman army in Spain.
7 Mummius goes on a tour of Greek cities.
10 Ptolemaeus VI supports the Jews of Alexandria against the Samaritans.
11 Ptolemaeus VI enters Antioch.
16 The battle of Oenoparus: the defeat and death of Alexander Balas.
18 Ptolemaeus dies of wounds sustained at the battle of Oenoparus.
21 Accession of Ptolemaeus VIII.
22 War between Attalus of Pergamum and Diegylus the Thracian.
25 Jonathan meets Demetrius at Ptolemais, and wins his support.
26 The triumph of Mummius, who brings many paintings and statues back from Greece.
27 Diodotus, called Tryphon, sets up Antiochus VI as a rival king.
30 Demetrius' Cretan and Jewish mercenaries massacre the inhabitants of Antioch.
10 Tryphon captures Antioch.
15 The construction of the Aqua Marcia, by the praetor Q.Marcius.
2 Outbreak of war between Numantia and Rome.
3 The "Wicked Priest" pursues (? and kills) the "Teacher of Righteousness", the leader of the Essenes, who is in exile at Damascus.
4 Jonathan sends an embassy to renew the treaties with Rome and Sparta.
6 The Salassi defeat Ap.Claudius.
7 Metellus subdues the Arevaci.
8 Viriathus defeats Claudius Unimanus.
12 Metellus besieges Contrebia.
13 Tryphon lures Jonathan to Ptolemais and captures him.
14 Ap.Claudius holds an unauthorized triumph, with the support of his daughter Claudia, who is a Vestal virgin.
16 Simon becomes the leader of the Jews.
17 Tryphon invades Judaea, and attempts to extort a ransom from Simon.
2 Tryphon kills Jonathan the high priest.
3 Scipio Africanus is elected censor despite criticism from Ap.Claudius, a rival candidate.
4 Simon wins fresh concessions from Demetrius, and the Jews are in effect freed from direct Syrian rule.
7 The quaestor Tremellius defeats and kills another pretender to the Macedonian throne.
8 Viriathus defeats Servilianus; the bravery of Fannius enables the Roman army to escape to Itucci.
9 C.Laelius is unsuccessful in consular elections.
10 Simon renews the alliance with Sparta and Rome.
12 Mummius donates many statues and paintings, brought back from the sack of Corinth, to the cities of Italy.
13 The censorship of Scipio Africanus and Mummius; Scipio speaks out against C.Licinius, but does not condemn him.
16 Lucullus dedicates a temple to Felicitas.
1 Pompeius succeeds Metellus as Roman commander.
2 Simon captures Gazara and the citadel of Jerusalem.
3 Pompeius unsuccessfully attacks Numantia.
5 Fabius defeats Viriathus, captures several Lusitanian towns, and punishes 500 of the leading rebels.
9 Tryphon puts Antiochus VI to death.
11 L.Tubulus is accused of accepting bribes while praetor, and goes into exile.
1 T.Torquatus judges his son Silanus guilty of extortion in Macedonia, and Silanus commits suicide.
3 Treaty between Viriathus and Fabius.
5 Demetrius invades Mesopotamia.
6 Ptolemaeus Physcon marries his step-daughter Cleopatra, and brutally suppresses opposition in Alexandria, forcing many scholars to emigrate.
11 Scipio Aemilianus is brought to trial by the tribune Claudius Asellus.
2 Pompeius agrees to a treaty with the Numantines, after his army suffers severely during the winter.
3 Scipio visits Egypt, where his companions privately express their contempt for king Ptolemaeus.
4 The senate disowns Pompeius' treaty.
7 The voting reform of the lex Gabinia tabellaria.
9 Caepio forces Viriathus to retreat, but his severity makes him unpopular with his own soldiers.
10 Scipio visits Syria.
11 Demetrius is captured by the Parthians.
15 Stratagems employed by Viriathus against Segobriga, Segovia, and the Romans.
17 Viriathus is treacherously assassinated by Audas and others.
19 Scipio visits Asia and Rhodes, where he meets Panaetius.
1 The Romans refuse to reward Viriathus' murderers.
4 The consuls punish C.Matienius and other deserters.
5 C.Curiatius gives Nasica the nickname Serapio, because of his likeness to a certain slave.
6 The tribunes Licinius and Curiatius place the consuls in prison.
8 Antiochus VII marries Cleopatra, his brother's wife, and becomes the official king of Syria.
9 Antiochus drives out Tryphon, who takes refuge in Dora.
10 Galaestes gathers together exiles from Egypt and starts a revolt against Ptolemaeus.
17 The death of Attalus II of Pergamum, and accession of Attalus III.
18 The death of Mithridates I of Parthia and accession of Phraates II.
21 Popillius is defeated at Numantia.
27 Tryphon escapes from Dora, but is killed at Apameia.
29 L.Cotta is accused by Scipio Aemilianus of taking bribes, but he is acquitted.
31 The birth of L.Sulla.
3 Inauspicious omens as the consul Mancinus leaves for Spain.
4 D.Brutus subdues Lusitania.
5 D.Brutus crosses the river Oblivio and invades Gallaecia.
8 Mancinus is completely defeated by the Numantines and forced to make a treaty with them.
10 The tribune L. Cassius passes a law to introduce secret ballots in all trials before the people, despite the opposition of his colleague Briso.
1 The senate refuses to endorse Mancinus' treaty.
2 M.Lepidus is defeated at Pallantia.
5 Cendebaeus the general of Antiochus invades Judaea.
6 Furius hands over Mancinus to the Numantines, but they do not accept him.
9 The censorship of Ap.Claudius Pulcher and Q.Fulvius Nobilior; Fulvius dissuades Claudius from handing out harsh punishments.
1 Eunus starts a slave revolt, following the murder of Damophilus at Enna.
3 Cleon joins Eunus' revolt.
7 The praetor Hypsaeus is defeated by the rebel slaves.
8 Scipio is elected consul.
2 Murder of Simon and accession of John Hyrcanus.
7 Scipio restores discipline in the Roman army.
12 Scipio attacks Pallantia, where he rescues Rutilius Rufus from an ambush.
15 Scipio defeats the Numantines.
17 Antiochus VII attacks Jerusalem.
3 Scipio encircles Numantia.
5 Negotiations between the Numantines and Scipio break down.
6 Ti.Gracchus proposes an agrarian law.
7 M. Octavius vetoes the agrarian law, but is deposed.
8 Gracchus' agrarian law is passed, and three commissioners are appointed to supervise the distribution of land.
11 The grammarian Daphitas (or Daphidas) is put to death by Attalus.
14 Death of Attalus III of Pergamum, who bequeaths his kingdom to Rome.
15 Gracchus proposes to share out the money left by Attalus.
17 The Numantines surrender, after being forced by hunger to resort to cannibalism.
21 Scipio destroys Numantia; the end of the Numantine War.
22 The slave revolt continues; the Roman prefect C.Titius is punished after being defeated by the slaves, but Piso recaptures some towns.
23 The elections for new tribunes end in deadlock.
25 Gracchus is killed by his opponents, led by P.Scipio Nasica.
28 Aristonicus leads a rebellion against the imposition of Roman rule in Asia.
34 Gracchus' supporters try to bring Scipio Nasica to trial, but Scaevola defends him and he is sent away to settle affairs in Asia.
35 The Romans send a religious embassy to Enna, after consulting the Sibylline books.
2 The trial of the followers of Ti.Gracchus, and death of Diophanes.
3 C.Blossius is freed after being questioned by the consuls, and escapes to Asia.
8 Rupilius captures Enna: end of the slave wars.
10 Hyrcanus comes to terms with Antiochus.
12 A treaty of friendship between Hyrcanus and the Romans.
16 The triumph of Scipio Aemilianus, over the Numantines.
1 Rupilius restores order in Sicily, and draws up the regulations known as the lex Rupilia.
2 Crassus is sent to command the Roman forces in Asia.
5 The tribune C.Atinius Labeo attacks Q.Metellus, and threatens to throw him off the Tarpeian rock.
6 Scipio Aemilianus opposes C.Carbo's bill for the re-election of tribunes, and says that the killing of Ti.Gracchus was justified.
7 The birth of Mithridates Eupator.
14 Crassus is defeated and killed by Aristonicus.
16 D.Brutus adorns temples with his spoils from Spain, and inscribes verses of Accius on their walls.
3 Perperna defeats Aristonicus.
4 Perperna captures Stratoniceia: end of the war against Aristonicus.
8 Ptolemaeus VII murders his son Memphites.
11 The Scythians defeat and subjugate the Greeks in Bactria.
12 Death of Perperna at Pergamum.
17 The death of P.Rupilius, allegedly caused by disappointment at his brother's failure to be elected consul.
2 Phraates releases Demetrius.
5 Antiochus VII is defeated and killed by Phraates.
8 Scipio speaks in defence of the Italian allies.
9 Demetrius is established as king.
10 Omens, including the doubling of the sun and a weeping statue of Apollo.
11 The dramatic date of Cicero's "De Re Publica".
18 The sudden and unexplained death of Scipio Aemilianus; his political foe Metellus acknowledges his greatness.
23 The death of Antipater of Tarsus, the head of the Stoic school.
24 Aquillius subdues the remaining rebels.
27 Tuditanus defeats the Iapydes.
28 Hyrcanus invades the neighbouring parts of Syria.
29 Cleopatra II appeals to Demetrius for help against Ptolemaeus.
34 Carneades has many pupils, including Aeschines, Cleitomachus, Mentor, Metrodorus and Q.Metellus.
36 The death of Carneades son of Epicomus.
2 Crates becomes head of the Academy, following the death of Carneades son of Polemarchus.
3 Himerus becomes notorious for greed and cruelty, after Phraates appoints him to be viceroy of Babylon.
6 Ptolemaeus VII sets up Alexander Zabinas as a pretender to the throne of Syria.
7 The organization of the Roman province of Asia: the allied kings are rewarded.
1 M.Junius Pennus passes a law banning all foreigners from Rome.
8 Alexander Zabinas defeats Demetrius near Damascus.
10 The triumph of M'.Aquillius, over Aristonicus.
11 Mt. Aetna erupts, and another eruption at sea leads to the formation of an island near Lipara.
2 Demetrius is killed at Tyre.
3 Cleopatra kills her son Seleucus, after he proclaims himself king.
4 Flaccus proposes a law to extend Roman citizenship to the Italian allies, but he is opposed by the senate.
5 Fregellae revolts from Rome.
6 Massilia appeals for help against the Salluvii, and the senate sends out the consul Flaccus.
9 Fregellae is captured and destroyed by the praetor Opimius.
10 Flaccus defeats the Salluvii.
14 A plague of locusts causes devastation in Africa and Numidia.
1 C.Gracchus returns to Rome from Sardinia, and defends his conduct before the censors.
2 M'.Aquillius is tried for extortion, but is defended by M.Antonius and acquitted.
4 Gracchus is elected tribune for the following year.
3 C.Gracchus passes a law to prohibit the execution of Roman citizens without a trial, and P.Popillius goes into voluntary exile.
4 C.Sextius defeats the Salluvii.
5 Q.Metellus conquers the Balearic islands.
7 Antiochus Grypus defeats Alexander Zabinas.
9 Antiochus Grypus captures and kills Alexander Zabinas.
10 C.Gracchus passes an agrarian law.
12 C.Gracchus passes a law to introduce a corn dole at Rome, despite the opposition of L.Piso.
13 C.Gracchus passes a law to transfer the membership of the courts from the senate to the equites.
14 C.Gracchus encourages the foundation of Roman colonies, especially at Scylacium and Tarentum.
17 Elections for new tribunes at Rome: C.Gracchus is re-elected.
2 C.Gracchus passes a law about the allocation of provinces to the consuls.
3 C.Gracchus passes a law about the taxation of the provinces (? i.e. Asia).
5 Gracchus proposes more colonies and citizenship for the Italian allies, but is opposed by the consul Fannius.
7 Drusus proposes some popular laws, in opposition to Gracchus.
8 Gracchus goes to Carthage to organize the refounding of the city.
9 Drusus attacks Flaccus while Gracchus is absent in Carthage.
10 The Allobroges aid the Salluvii, and attack the Aedui, who appeal to the Romans for help.
19 Glabrio, a colleague of Gracchus, passes a law against extortion, the Lex Acilia de Repetundis.
22 An eruption of Mt. Aetna devastates the territory of Catana.
1 Minucius and Opimius revoke some of Gracchus' laws.
4 Q.Antyllius is killed by supporters of Gracchus.
8 After the senate passes the Ultimate Decree, Gracchus and Flaccus are killed in fighting at Rome.
9 Cn.Domitius defeats the Allobroges at the battle of Vindalium.
10 The consul Opimius punishes the supporters of Gracchus severely.
11 Cornelia reacts stoically to the death of her sons, and a statue is erected of her as "the mother of the Gracchi".
12 Q.Fabius Maximus defeats Bituitus, the king of the Arverni, by the river Isara.
14 The senate instructs Opimius to restore the temple of Concordia.
15 Domitius captures Bituitus.
19 The year of Opimius' consulship is famous for its excellent vintage.
1 Death of Mithridates V and accession of Mithridates VI.
2 Opimius is accused of putting citizens to death without trial, but he is defended by Carbo, and acquitted.
2 Marius opposes the extension of the corn dole, and M.Octavius passes a law to reduce the dole.
10 C.Carbo is brought to trial by L.Crassus, and commits suicide.
15 Sp.Thorius, as tribune, passes an agrarian law.
2 The Romans found a colony at Narbo Martius, with the support of the orator L.Crassus.
5 Q.Scaevola is accused of extortion by T.Albucius.
10 The death of king Micipsa, who is succeeded by his three sons, Adherbal Hiempsal and Jugurtha.
2 Hiempsal is murdered by the soldiers of Jugurtha.
3 The triumph of Metellus Delmaticus.
6 Elections at Rome: C.Marius fails to be elected aedile, and M.Scaurus fails to be elected consul.
2 Adherbal complains to the senate about Jugurtha's aggression; Jugurtha's envoys allegedly bribe senators to win support.
8 The death of Ptolemaeus VIII and accession of Ptolemaeus IX.
9 A Roman commision led by Opimius partitions Numidia between the kings.
11 Scaurus unsuccessfully prosecutes P.Rutilius after the consular elections.
2 The sumptuary law of Aemilius Scaurus.
4 The death of Metellus Macedonicus, who is regarded as an example of extreme good fortune up to the end of his life.
9 The censors Metellus and Domitius review the senate.
13 The censors redistribute public land in Italy and Africa.
6 The consul Cato is defeated by the Scordisci.
18 The daughter of L.Helvius is killed by a bolt of lightning.
19 The Vestal virgin Aemilia is found guilty of breaking her vow of chastity.
20 The Vestal virgin Licinia is acquitted after a speech by L.Crassus.
22 Sulpicia is chosen, as the chastest woman in Rome, to dedicate the temple of Venus Verticordia.
23 The birth of the orator Q.Hortensius.
4 L.Cassius is appointed to head an enquiry into the Vestal Virgins, and condemns Marcia, Licinia, and others.
7 The migration of the Cimbri and Teutones, southwards through Gaul.
8 The Cimbri arrive in Illyricum and defeat Cn. Carbo.
9 Jugurtha captures Adherbal's camp, and the Romans send an embassy to restrain him.
10 Antiochus Cyzicenus marries Cleopatra of Egypt and attacks Antiochus Grypus.
13 Mithridates murders his mother and brother.
6 Jugurtha captures Cirta, and kills Adherbal.
7 C.Cato is tried and convicted of extortion.
8 Drusus defeats the Scordisci.
12 The Romans declare war on Jugurtha.
16 L.Cassius' famous legal maxim, "Cui bono?".
5 M. and C.Metellus celebrate triumphs on the same day, from Sardinia and Thrace respectively .
6 Bestia agrees to a truce with Jugurtha, allegedly after he and Scaurus had received bribes.
9 Antiochus Grypus holds magnificent games at Daphne.
12 Jugurtha is brought to Rome by L.Cassius, but he is prevented from addressing the people by the tribune C.Baebius.
14 The death of the consul Nasica.
1 The birth of T.Pomponius Atticus.
2 Jugurtha procures the murder of the pretender Massiva.
4 The senate orders Jugurtha to leave Rome, and the war is resumed.
6 Mithridates defeats the Scythians and gains control of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
1 Jugurtha defeats A.Albinus and forces him to agree to a humiliating treaty.
3 The tribune C.Mamilius sets up a commission to enquire into corruption in the war against Jugurtha; Bestia, Galba, and others are found guilty.
4 Metellus recruits extra soldiers, and laws which hinder the preparations for war are repealed.
6 Metellus arrives in Africa, and restores discipline in the Roman army.
11 M.Minucius defeats the Scordisci.
12 Metellus defeats Jugurtha near the river Muthul.
13 The Cimbri defeat Silanus.
16 Marius makes himself popular in the Roman army.
18 The censor Scaurus organises building works, including temples of Fides and Mens, but is forced to resign after his colleague Drusus dies.
23 L.Crassus travels to Athens as quaestor, and meets some of the eminent philosophers there.
25 Opimius is condemned by Mamilius' commision.
27 The birth of C.Marius, son of Marius.
2 Jugurtha enters into negotiations about surrender, but then decides to continue the conflict.
3 Marius plans to stand for the consulship, but does not get the support of Metellus.
4 Vaga revolts from the Romans, but is recaptured by Metellus.
7 Metellus defeats Jugurtha in another battle.
9 Marius returns to Rome and is elected consul for the following year.
10 Metellus captures Thala.
13 Ptolemaeus Lathyrus sends six thousand soldiers as aid to Antiochus Cyzicenus.
1 The people assign the command in Numidia to Marius, who begins his preparations.
2 The Tigurini defeat and kill L.Cassius; the remnants of the Roman army are allowed to escape after surrendering their possessions.
4 Marius arrives in Numidia, and captures Capsa.
5 Cleopatra forces Ptolemaeus Lathyrus to escape to Cyprus, and Ptolemaeus Alexander takes over as king.
7 Hyrcanus destroys Samaria.
10 The occupation of Paphlagonia by Mithridates and Nicomedes - regarded by some as the start of the Mithridatic Wars.
11 The tribune C.Coelius charges C.Popillius with treason for his part in Cassius' defeat, and passes a law to extend the secret ballot to such cases.
1 The birth of M.Tullius Cicero.
2 Caepio passes a law to share the membership of juries between senators and equites.
4 Metellus is accused of extortion, but is acquitted.
5 Marius captures a fort near the river Muluccha.
8 The triumph of Metellus Numidicus.
10 The quaestor L.Sulla arrives at Marius' camp with reinforcements from Italy.
11 Caepio recaptures Tolosa and removes its sacred treasures.
12 Marius defeats the joint forces of Jugurtha and Bocchus.
13 The birth of Cn.Pompeius Magnus.
14 Marius defeats Jugurtha and Bocchus in a second battle near Cirta, while on his way to winter quarters.
1 Further negotiations between Sulla and Bocchus.
2 An embassy from Bocchus receives a favourable response at Rome.
6 Bocchus seizes Jugurtha and hands him over to Sulla and the Romans.
10 The Cimbri capture and kill M.Aurelius Scaurus.
11 Disputes between Mallius and Caepio.
13 The Cimbri defeat Caepio and destroy the Roman army at Arausio.
14 Omens and emergency measures following the battle of Arausio.
15 Marius is elected consul in his absence.
17 Rutilius improves the training of his army.
1 The triumph of Marius, after which Jugurtha is put to death.
3 The Sicilian slaves rebel against the praetor Licinius Nerva, but are defeated by C.Titinius.
7 The death of John Hyrcanus of Judaea, and the accession of Aristobulus, who assumes the title of "king".
8 The senate removes the quaestor Saturninus from control of the corn supply.
9 The Cimbri invade Spain.
12 Athenion starts another slave uprising, and joins up with Salvius, who assumes the title of Tryphon.
14 Trebonius is accused of the murder of C.Lusius, but is acquitted by Marius.
15 Aristobulus kills his mother and his brother Antigonus.
21 Silanus is prosecuted by Cn.Domitius, but is acquitted.
22 Scaurus is prosecuted by Cn.Domitius, and is also acquitted.
23 Cn.Domitius passes a law for new priests to be elected by the people.
24 C.Marius reforms the Roman army.
27 Omens, including the appearance of armies fighting in the sky near Ameria and Tuder, and the miraculous restoration of an elm tree at Nuceria.
2 The death of Aristobulus, and the accession of Alexander Jannaeus.
8 The Cimbri return from Spain and rejoin the Teutones.
12 Caepio and Mallius are both exiled, following riots instigated by the tribune Norbanus.
13 T.Albucius is convicted of extortion, following his return from Sardinia.
4 Marius fortifies his camp and digs a new channel at the mouth of the Rhone.
7 Scaurus accuses Memmius and Fimbria of extortion.
12 M.Antonius suppresses the pirates; M.Gratidius is killed during the campaign.
14 Marius keeps his army in camp and avoids combat.
16 The Teutones march towards the Alps.
17 The first battle at Aquae Sextiae.
18 The second battle at Aquae Sextiae: Marius destroys the Teutones.
19 Marius is elected consul again.
20 Catulus retreats from the Alps as the Cimbri advance.
22 The son of M.Scaurus commits suicide, after being disowned by his father because he had retreated from the Tridentine pass.
25 The censor Metellus Numidicus is attacked by armed supporters of Saturninus and Glaucia, when he attempts to remove them from the senate.
26 Metellus refuses to accept L.Equitius as the "son" of Ti.Gracchus.
1 The Cimbri develop a taste for Italian luxuries.
3 Omens, including the spontaneous movement of the sacred shields.
6 Marius joins up with the army of Catulus.
7 Marius and Catulus destroy the Cimbri at Campi Raudii, near Vercellae.
9 News of the battle of Vercellae miraculously reaches Rome on the same day.
10 Marius grants Roman citizenship to soldiers from Camerinum.
15 Aquillius defeats the remaining rebel slaves and ends their revolt.
18 The triumph of Marius and Catulus.
20 The death of Queen Cleopatra, allegedly murdered by her son, Ptolemaeus Alexander.
22 Elections for new tribunes: A.Nunnius, one of the candidates, is murdered by supporters of Saturninus.
24 The aediles L.Crassus and Q.Scaevola hold magnificent games.
25 Publicius Malleolus is convicted of matricide.
26 Glaucia passes a law on extortion.
29 Catulus dedicates a temple to Fortuna Huiusce Diei, and uses the booty from the war against the Cimbri to build a portico.
1st century B.C. →
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