← 4th century B.C.
1 The foundation of Seleuceia on the Orontes.
3 The foundation of Antioch.
5 Agathocles captures Corcyra.
16 The foundation of the other two cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, Apameia and Laodiceia.
5 Simon "the Just" becomes high priest of the Jews.
3 Seleucus meets Demetrius at Rhossus, and marries his daughter Stratonice.
9 Death of Cassander.
17 Death of Philippus, son of Cassander.
20 Demetrius Phalereus leaves Greece, and goes to the court of Ptolemaeus in Egypt.
1 Pyrrhus marries Antigone, the daughter of Berenice, and returns to Epirus, where he becomes joint king with Neoptolemus.
2 Lachares enriches himself by plundering the public buildings of Athens.
5 Claudius and Volumnius defeat a combined Etruscan and Samnite army in Etruria.
10 Omens at Rome, which the seer Manius interprets as portending victory.
2 Fabius reports to the senate on the situation in Etruria, and Decius is sent to join him there.
9 Sayings of Alexinus, Crates, Glycera, and Theodorus about Stilpon.
10 Sayings of Stilpon, addressed to Bion, Crates, Metrocles, and others.
15 The consuls send forces to mount a diversionary attack on Clusium, while they advance against the Gauls and Samnites.
16 The Romans defeat the Gauls and Samnites at Sentinum; death of the consul Decius.
19 Pyrrhus marries Lanassa the daughter of Agathocles, and is given Corcyra as her dowry.
23 The triumph of Fabius, over the Samnites, Etruscans, and Gauls.
3 Demetrius captures Athens, after it is abandoned by Lachares.
6 Antipater kills his mother Thessalonice.
10 Demetrius defeats the Spartan king Archidamus near Mantineia, and attacks the city of Sparta.
14 The Romans under Atilius suffer heavy losses in a battle against the Samnites at Luceria.
19 Demetrius murders Alexander, expels Antipater, and becomes king of Macedonia.
3 The Samnite army gathers at Aquilonia and takes a ritual vow.
7 Antiochus marries Stratonice, and becomes joint king with Seleucus, in charge of the eastern provinces.
9 Papirius defeats the Samnites at Aquilonia, while Carvilius captures Cominium.
14 Agathocles attacks the Bruttii and captures Hipponium.
18 The censors P.Cornelius and C.Marcius complete the census.
19 The Romans summon the god Aesculapius from Epidaurus, to stop a plague.
1 Carvilius celebrates a triumph over the Samnites, and dedicates a colossal statue of Jupiter.
2 The triumph of Papirius, over the Samnites.
3 Papirius dedicates a temple to Quirinus, where he erects the first sundial in Rome.
8 Sayings of Menander, addressed to Glycera, Philemon, and others.
10 The death of Menander the comic poet.
14 Fabius Gurges is defeated by the Samnites, but his father defends him against his critics.
15 Lysimachus and his son Agathocles are defeated and captured by the Thracian king Dromichaetes, but they are later released.
16 Fabius defeats the Samnites in a second battle, with the help of his father.
18 The triumph of Fabius over the Samnites, after which C.Pontius is executed.
19 Deinarchus and other exiles are allowed to return to Athens.
1 The god Aesculapius is brought to Rome in the form of a snake, and a temple is dedicated to him.
4 L.Postumius is recalled from his province, and subsequently brought to trial on a charge of misuse of his troops.
6 Demetrius and his son Antigonus recapture Thebes after a second revolt.
8 Fabricius supports Rufinus, his personal enemy, as a candidate for the consulship of 290 B.C.
4 Deinarchus, as an old man, brings a prosecution against Proxenus, which is the first time that he has spoken in court.
6 C.Laetorius, a military tribune, is condemned to death for assaulting a tent-mate.
7 Curius defeats the Samnites.
8 Peace between Rome and the Samnites; the end of the Third Samnite War.
10 The triumph of Curius, over the Samnites.
11 Curius defeats the Sabines.
12 The second triumph of Curius, over the Sabines.
13 Curius distributes allotments of land to Roman citizens.
2 Seleucus moves Jewish settlers into his new cities.
4 Pyrrhus defeats Pantauchus, the general of Demetrius.
6 Demetrius makes himself unpopular with his subjects by his haughty and luxurious lifestyle; he claims to be the only true king.
1 Ptolemaeus, Lysimachus, and Pyrrhus form a coalition against Demetrius.
2 Death of Agathocles son of Agathocles, allegedly murdered by Archagathus the grandson of Agathocles.
7 Sayings of Agathocles, alluding to his origins as a potter, and in response to insults from a city which he was besieging.
9 The death of Agathocles, king of Syracuse.
12 The foundation of the city of Amastris, by Amastris the mother of the tyrants of Heracleia.
14 Demetrius advances against Lysimachus, but returns when he receives news of Pyrrhus' capture of Beroea.
17 Demetrius' army deserts to Pyrrhus, and Demetrius loses control of Macedonia.
19 The partition of Macedonia between Pyrrhus and Lysimachus.
20 The Mamertines agree to leave Syracuse, but afterwards seize the city of Messana.
1 Olympiodorus captures the Museium, and frees Athens from its Macedonian garrison.
3 Lysimachus captures Heracleia and kills the tyrants Oxathras and Clearchus.
7 Eleazar becomes Jewish high priest.
8 Demetrius makes peace with Pyrrhus and the Athenians.
11 Demetrius lands in Asia.
12 The populace secedes to the Janiculum, in a dispute over debts; Q.Hortensius passes laws to settle their grievances.
14 The Lex Aquilia, an early Roman law about unlawful damage, is introduced by the tribune Aquilius.
13 The death of Theophrastus, who is succeeded as leader of the Peripatetics by Straton.
15 Lysimachus kills Antipater, son of Cassander.
20 Inconclusive fighting between the armies of Demetrius and Seleucus.
6 Seleucus captures Demetrius.
9 The married life of Crates and Hipparchia.
13 The official entry of the god Sarapis into Alexandria.
16 Lysimachus expels Pyrrhus from Macedonia.
20 Philetas of Cos and Straton of Lampsacus act as tutors of Ptolemaeus II.
21 Ptolemaeus II becomes co-regent with his father.
3 The praetor L.Caecilius is defeated by the Senones at Arretium.
5 The Senones murder Roman ambassadors.
6 M'.Curius defeats the Senones.
2 The floruit of the tragedian Homerus of Byzantium.
3 Dolabella defeats the Boii and the Etruscans at Lake Vadimon.
6 Lysimachus kills his son Agathocles.
3 Theodorus, who is sent on an embassy by Ptolemaeus, ignores the threats made against him by Lysimachus.
10 Demetrius persuades Ptolemaeus I to start collecting books for a library.
20 The death of Ptolemaeus I, and accession of Ptolemaeus II.
22 Demetrius Poliorcetes builds huge warships, with up to 15 banks of oars.
24 Death of Demetrius Poliorcetes.
28 War breaks out between Lysimachus and Seleucus.
29 The Romans defeat the Boii and Etruscans in a second battle.
31 Fabricius defeats the Lucanians near Thurii.
32 Ariarathes II expels the Macedonians and regains control of Cappadocia.
34 Philetaerus stops supporting Lysimachus.
35 Ptolemaeus Ceraunus leaves Lysimachus and seeks refuge with Seleucus.
37 The Tarentines attack a Roman fleet.
39 Construction of the Pharos at Alexandria, designed by Sostratus of Cnidus.
5 Lysimachus builds or refounds cities at Nicaea, Alexandria, Ephesus, and Smyrna.
9 Lysimachus punishes Telesphorus for an insult against Arsinoe.
12 Sayings of Bithys, Pasiades, and Philippides, addressed to Lysimachus.
14 Lysimachus is defeated and killed by Seleucus at the battle of Corupedium, after which Arsinoe escapes from Ephesus.
23 The Tarentines reject and insult a Roman embassy.
27 Seleucus returns to the Greeks the statues etc. which were removed by the Persians.
28 Seleucus founds numerous cities throughout his kingdom, including Beroea, Cyrrhus, Dura, Ecbatana, Edessa, Hierapolis, Nicephorium, Nicopolis, Nisibis, Pella, Rhagae, and Seleuceia-on-Calycadnus.
35 Ptolemaeus Ceraunus assassinates Seleucus and makes himself king of Macedonia.
38 Aemilius leaves Samnium and moves against Tarentum.
39 The Tarentines call on Pyrrhus to protect them against the Romans; Pyrrhus is encouraged to go by an oracle from Delphi.
42 Ptolemaeus II frees Jewish slaves.
43 Sayings of Gnathaena, an Athenian hetaera, addressed to Andronicus, Callistion, Chaerephon, Dexithea, Diphilus, Hippomachus, Mania, Pausanias, Stratocles, and others.
4 Ptolemaeus II authorises the translation of the Jewish Bible into Greek, and sends gifts to the high priest Eleazar.
5 Eleazar sends seventy Jewish scholars to assist Ptolemaeus, who holds a banquet in their honour.
6 Pyrrhus sends Cineas ahead to Tarentum.
7 Pyrrhus sets sail for Italy.
8 Pyrrhus arrives in Italy, bringing elephants to back up his army.
9 The Samnites join Pyrrhus.
10 Pyrrhus offers to negotiate with the Romans.
12 A Roman garrison is sent to Rhegium.
13 Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the battle of Heracleia.
14 Locri and other places desert from the Romans.
15 Ti.Coruncanius arrives with Roman reinforcements.
17 Ptolemaeus Ceraunus defeats Antigonus the son of Demetrius.
19 The Jewish Bible is translated into Greek (the "Septuagint").
22 The founding of the Achaean League.
28 Pyrrhus advances on Rome, as far as Anagnia in Latium.
29 Pyrrhus retires to Campania.
31 Cineas arrives at Rome as the ambassador of Pyrrhus, and unsuccessfully attempts to win support with bribes.
32 The senate rejects Pyrrhus' peace terms, after a speech by Ap.Claudius Caecus.
33 Cineas returns to Pyrrhus, and calls the Roman senate "a parliament of kings".
34 Fabricius is sent on a mission to Pyrrhus.
35 Pyrrhus releases the Roman prisoners.
39 The birth of the philosopher Chrysippus.
2 The Gauls invade Macedonia; Ptolemaeus Ceraunus rejects an offer of help from the Dardani.
3 Ptolemaeus Ceraunus promises to marry Arsinoe, but murders her children after entering Cassandreia.
6 Ptolemaeus Ceraunus is defeated and killed by the Gauls; Meleager is made king of Macedonia.
7 At the proposal of Demochares, the Athenians pass a decree in honour of Demosthenes.
8 Cleanthes arrives at Athens and becomes a pupil of Zenon the Stoic.
17 Sayings of Theodorus the Atheist, addressed to Metrocles and others.
18 The followers of the philosopher Theodorus form their own sect.
23 Antipater "Etesias" replaces Meleager as king of Macedonia.
25 Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Asculum, but suffers heavy losses.
26 The Gauls occupy Thrace.
31 Sosthenes expels Antipater, and proclaims himself general of the Macedonians, but avoids the title of king.
34 Mago the Carthaginian admiral offers support to the Romans, and a further treaty is signed between Rome and Carthage.
37 The Greeks attempt to hold back the Gauls at Thermopylae, but are forced to withdraw.
39 The Gauls advance into Greece and reach Delphi.
40 A combined Greek army defeats the Gauls near Delphi in a snowstorm, allegedly with divine assistance.
41 The Aetolians complete the rout of the Gauls, and Brennus the king of the Gauls is killed.
1 The Gauls return home from Greece via Pannonia.
2 Fabricius warns Pyrrhus that Nicias, his doctor, is plotting to kill him.
3 The Roman garrison at Rhegium mutinies and seizes the town.
7 The death of Sosthenes, which is followed by two years of anarchy in Macedonia.
11 The Sicilians send an embassy to Pyrrhus, asking him to help them against the Carthaginians.
18 A band of Gauls led by Comontorius forces the Byzantines to pay tribute.
20 Cineas goes to Rome again, but he is unable to negotiate peace terms.
21 Nicomedes helps the Gauls to cross over from Thrace to Asia.
24 Nicomedes uses the Gauls as allies in a civil war against Zipoetes.
28 Pyrrhus leaves Italy and crosses over to Sicily.
33 Fabricius celebrates a triumph over the Lucanians, Bruttii, Tarentines and Samnites.
6 The death of Metrodorus, a follower of Epicurus.
8 The Gauls gain control of a large area in Asia Minor.
10 Antigonus Gonatas defeats the Gauls near Lysimacheia.
11 The Romans capture Croton.
13 The rest of the Carthaginian possessions in Sicily go over to Pyrrhus.
15 Antigonus Gonatas defeats Antipater and becomes king of Macedonia.
3 Pyrrhus prepares to attack Lilybaeum.
4 Pyrrhus has Thoenon of Syracuse killed on suspicion of treason, and his despotic behaviour makes him unpopular with the Sicilians.
7 Persaeus shares a home with Zenon, and on one occasion brings a flute-girl back there.
8 Zenon sends Persaeus as his representative to the court of Antigonus.
9 Antigonus invites the poets Aratus of Soli and Alexander of Aetolia to Macedonia, at the time of his marriage to Phila.
20 Pyrrhus leaves Sicily and returns to Italy; he is attacked and defeated by the Carthaginian fleet en route.
5 The wedding of Ptolemaeus II and his sister Arsinoe.
9 The birth of Eratosthenes of Cyrene.
11 Pyrrhus sacks the town of Locri, together with the temple of Persephone.
12 Pyrrhus' fleet is caught in a storm after leaving Locri.
13 Hieron is appointed to be general at Syracuse.
14 Pyrrhus asks Antigonus for aid to continue the war in Italy.
17 The Romans defeat Pyrrhus at the battle of Beneventum.
18 Pyrrhus punishes some of the Tarentines for treachery.
23 Pyrrhus leaves Italy; the end of the war between Rome and Pyrrhus.
29 Fabricius, as censor, lowers the rank of Rufinus because he owns some silver plate.
1 The triumph of Curius, over Pyrrhus and the Samnites.
12 Incidents from the raids by bands of Gauls in Asia Minor.
14 Antiochus defeats the Gauls in the "elephant battle".
18 Pyrrhus defeats Antigonus and wins over the Macedonian army.
20 Samnite envoys unsuccessfully attempt to bribe Curius.
21 Pyrrhus captures and sacks Aegae.
8 The first Egyptian embassy to Rome.
9 The Romans establish colonies at Cosa and Paestum.
2 Cleonymus asks Pyrrhus to intervene against Sparta.
4 Negotiations between Pyrrhus and Sparta.
11 Pyrrhus attacks Sparta, but is repulsed.
13 A Carthaginian fleet sails up to Tarentum, but leaves without taking any action.
14 Papirius seizes part of Bruttium, and captures Tarentum.
15 The final subjugation of the Samnites by Carvilius.
17 The Spartans attack Pyrrhus while he is withdrawing to Argos and kill his son Ptolemaeus.
20 Pyrrhus keeps a pet eagle.
21 A dog reveals its master's murderers, by barking at them in the presence of Pyrrhus.
27 Pyrrhus attacks and enters Argos, but is killed by a tile thrown by a woman.
30 Curius Dentatus, as censor, organizes the construction of the Aqua Aniensis.
2 Aristotimus is assassinated, and his daughters are forced to commit suicide.
2 The death of the philosopher Epicurus.
4 Berosus opens a school of astrology on the island of Cos.
13 The death of Arsinoe, sister and wife of Ptolemaeus II.
16 Decius, the commander of the rebellious garrison at Rhegium, loses his sight.
17 The Romans capture Rhegium.
18 The Romans punish the garrison of Rhegium.
24 The death of M. Valerius Corvinus, over 100 years old, who spent his old age cultivating his farm.
8 The death of Polemon, the Academic philosopher.
12 Ctesibius invents a pneumatic pump, a water organ, and other devices.
17 Hieron assumes the title of king of Syracuse.
20 The Romans use silver coinage for the first time.
5 The death of the peripatetic philosopher Straton.
7 Sempronius defeats the Picentes.
12 The Romans found colonies at Ariminum and Beneventum, and the Sabines are given voting rights.
7 Antigonus invades Attica.
8 Regulus defeats the Sallentini, and captures Brundisium.
3 An embassy from Apollonia is assaulted by some Roman youths, who are promptly punished.
4 Civil strife between citizens and ex-slaves at Vulsinii.
6 Menedemus founds the Eretrian school of philosophy.
10 Sayings of Menedemus, addressed to Alexinus, Antigonus, Bion, Hierocles, and others.
15 The death of Crates of Athens, the Academic philosopher; Arcesilaus succeeds him as head of the Academic school.
18 Antigonus Gonatas captures Megara.
21 The Spartan king Areus is defeated and killed by Antigonus at the Isthmus; (?) the death of Halcyoneus, son of Antigonus.
25 Censorinus is elected censor for the second time.
26 Q.Fabius becomes an augur.
28 The death of C.Fabricius.
2 A meeting of the senate decides to send aid to Messana.
3 The foundation of Nicomedeia in Bithynia.
4 Belistiche, the concubine of Ptolemaeus, wins the Olympic prize in the race for pairs of foals.
5 The Romans capture Vulsinii, and take ruthless action to restore order.
6 The Carthaginian garrison is forced to withdraw from Messana.
8 The Carthaginians and Syracusans combine to besiege Messana.
9 C.Claudius is defeated while attempting to cross over to Sicily.
11 Ap.Claudius crosses over to Sicily.
13 Claudius declares war against the Carthaginians and Syracusans: the start of the First Punic War.
14 Claudius defeats the Syracusans.
15 Claudius defeats the Carthaginians.
17 Claudius lays siege to Syracuse.
6 The death of the comic poet Philemon.
8 The new consuls arrive in Sicily: 67 cities revolt from the Carthaginians.
9 Hieron of Syracuse changes sides and becomes an ally of the Romans.
14 Valerius adopts the cognomen of Messalla, in recognition of the help he gave to the inhabitants of Messana.
1 Valerius celebrates a triumph for his victory over the Carthaginians, during which a painting and a sundial are displayed in public, for the first time in Rome.
4 The Romans set up camp in front of Agrigentum.
13 Hanno arrives in Sicily and captures Harbesus.
14 Hanno defeats the Romans.
1 Syracusan and Gallic mercenaries plot to betray Agrigentum.
2 The Romans defeat the Carthaginians, and capture Agrigentum.
5 Antigonus defeats the Egyptian navy at the battle of Cos.
9 Athens surrenders to Antigonus.
10 Alexander of Epirus invades Macedonia, but is defeated by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus.
16 Other cities founded by Antiochus I, including Achais-Heracleia, Apameia in Sittacene, Artacabene, Laodiceia-in-Media and Stratoniceia.
21 The death of Antiochus I, and accession of Antiochus II.
25 Dionysius "Metathemenos" leaves Zenon and joins the Cyrenaean sect of philosophers.
26 Sayings of Zenon, addressed to Amoebeus, Antigonus, Ariston, Cleanthes, Dionysius and others.
28 The death of Zenon, the founder of the stoic school of philosophy.
30 The Romans build a navy.
31 Hamilcar causes the destruction of a band of disaffected Gallic mercenaries.
2 Scipio Asina is trapped and captured by the Carthaginian commander Hannibal.
8 Duilius defeats the Carthaginians in a naval battle off the Liparae Islands.
9 The Romans raise the siege of Segesta.
2 The triumph of Duilius.
3 Hannibal is removed from the command of the Carthaginian navy, but escapes further punishment.
15 Ptolemaeus "the Son" and Timarchus the tyrant of Miletus lead a rebellion against Ptolemaeus II.
18 L.Cornelius leads an expedition against Corsica and Sardinia, and captures Aleria.
6 The Romans capture Myttistratum and Himera.
7 The Carthaginian commander Hannibal is defeated by Sulpicius in Sardinia, and then killed by his own troops.
8 The bravery of M.Calpurnius rescues Atilius from an ambush while marching to Camarina.
9 The Romans capture Camarina.
10 The Romans capture Enna, along with Camicus, Herbessus and Sittana.
17 C.Atilius receives news of his election as consul while sowing his fields.
14 Indecisive sea battle at Tyndaris.
7 The Romans vote to maintain the family of M.Regulus, while he commands the invasion of Africa.
10 The floruit of Erasistratus of Iulis, a celebrated doctor.
13 The Romans defeat the Carthaginian fleet off Ecnomus.
14 The Carthaginians send Hanno as envoy to the Roman commanders.
15 The Romans land at Aspis.
16 Dedication of the temple of Spes.
18 The Romans devastate the African countryside.
19 L.Manlius returns to Rome with most of the Roman fleet.
21 Regulus kills a giant serpent and sends its skin to Rome.
22 The Romans defeat the Carthaginian army at Adys.
1 Inconclusive negotiations between Regulus and the Carthaginians.
2 The Carthaginians appoint Xanthippus as their general.
3 Regulus writes to the Roman senate asking for another commander to be sent to replace him.
5 Diodotus becomes king of Bactria.
12 Acrotatus king of Sparta is killed while attacking Megalopolis; Leonidas II becomes regent.
14 Xanthippus defeats and captures Regulus.
18 The Romans defeat the Carthaginian fleet near the Hermaean promontory.
20 The Roman fleet is wrecked in a storm near Camarina.
21 Xanthippus leaves Carthage and returns home to Sparta.
1 The Romans start to build a new fleet.
13 The Romans capture Panormus.
7 Manasses becomes high priest of the Jews.
11 The Roman fleet raids the African coast.
14 The Roman fleet is wrecked in a storm near Panormus.
15 The Romans decide not to try to rebuild their fleet.
6 Cotta captures Himera.
7 Cotta captures Lipara, despite a defeat suffered by P.Aurelius (? or Q.Cassius) in his absence.
10 Antiochus marries Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus.
12 The censors M'.Valerius and P.Sempronius complete the census; 16 senators are stripped of their rank.
7 Aratus overpowers Nicocles' bodyguard and forces him to leave Sicyon.
8 A temple and other dedications made by Aristodemus at Megalopolis.
12 Aratus persuades the Sicyonians to join the Achaean League.
15 A combined army of Arcadians and Achaeans defeats the Spartans at Mantineia.
6 L.Caecilius defeats the Carthaginian army under Hasdrubal at Panormus.
11 Demetrius the Fair makes himself king of Cyrene.
13 The Romans besiege Lilybaeum by land and sea.
15 Hannibal the son of Hamilcar arrives at Lilybaeum with reinforcements.
16 The Romans drive back a Carthaginian sally at Lilybaeum.
17 Hannibal sails from Lilybaeum to Drepana.
19 The Carthaginians burn down the Roman siege works at Lilybaeum.
20 L.Caecilius celebrates a triumph, in which he displays elephants captured in Sicily.
21 The Carthaginians send M.Regulus to Rome to negotiate peace terms and an exchange of prisoners.
22 Regulus addresses the Roman senate and urges them to reject the Carthaginians' proposals.
23 Regulus returns to Carthage after the failure of his mission to Rome.
1 Regulus is tortured to death after his return to Carthage.
10 The Carthaginian admiral Adherbal defeats the Roman fleet under P.Claudius at Drepana, after Claudius had thrown the sacred chickens into the sea.
13 L.Junius anchors his fleet on a rocky shore to avoid meeting the Carthaginian fleet.
14 The fleet of L.Junius is destroyed in a storm.
15 P.Claudius nominates his messenger Glycias to be dictator.
17 L.Junius captures Eryx.
19 The Romans appoint a dictator, A.Atilius, to take charge of the war in Sicily.
20 The secular games are celebrated.
3 The Romans agree a permanent treaty of alliance with Hieron.
5 P.Claudius is brought to trial and fined for his conduct as consul.
6 L.Junius commits suicide.
1 Hamilcar Barca is appointed Carthaginian commander.
2 Hamilcar raids the coast of Southern Italy.
3 A privately raised force of Roman ships makes a raid on Hippo.
4 The Carthaginian general Hanno captures Hecatompylus.
8 Demetrius the Fair is assassinated.
10 The Parthians gain independence from Seleucid rule.
15 The birth of Hannibal, the famous Carthaginian general.
2 The animals of Chios fall in love with Glauce the citharode.
14 Ptolemaeus dedicates a temple to his concubine Belistiche.
23 Ptolemaeus sends out elephant-hunters, who found the cities of Philotera and Ptolemais in the country of the Troglodytes.
29 The death of Ptolemaeus II, and accession of Ptolemaeus III.
38 The death of Antiochus II, and accession of Seleucus II.
39 Berenice and her son are murdered at Antioch.
41 Ptolemaeus invades Syria.
44 Ptolemaeus reaches Mesopotamia, and his army besieges the palace in Babylon.
47 Claudia is convicted of treason for remarks about her brother.
3 Ptolemaeus returns to Egypt.
4 The astronomer Conon discovers the "Lock of Berenice".
5 Sayings of Bion.
10 Aratus is elected general of the Achaean League for the first time.
14 Eratosthenes is summoned to Alexandria by Ptolemaeus, who makes him director of the library.
18 The Aetolians inflict a severe defeat on the Boeotians at Chaeronea.
4 Ptolemaeus gains possession of Thrace.
6 Antigonus forms an alliance with the Aetolian League (? and Epirus).
11 Aratus overpowers Antigonus' garrison, which is commanded by Persaeus, and captures Corinth.
12 Gallic mercenaries at Eryx desert from the Carthaginians to the Romans, and then plunder the temple of Aphrodite.
14 Aratus persuades Megara, Troezen, and Epidaurus to join the Achaean League.
2 Metellus, the pontifex maximus, prevents Postumius from going to Sicily.
5 Lutatius besieges Drepana.
10 King Leonidas II of Sparta is deposed by Agis.
12 The birth of Antiochus III.
4 Hanno sets sail with a Carthaginian fleet, carrying supplies to the army in Sicily.
5 Lutatius destroys the Carthaginian fleet at the battle of Aegates Insulae.
6 Carthage gives Hamilcar powers to negotiate peace with Rome.
7 A sharp-sighted man called Strabo is able to see ships leaving Carthage from a view-point near Lilybaeum.
11 Undated events from the First Punic War.
12 The widow and sons of Regulus torture two Carthaginian prisoners, Bodostor and Hamilcar.
14 Peace terms are agreed between Rome and Carthage: end of the First Punic War.
18 The Aetolians capture Pellene, but are expelled by Aratus.
19 The Romans send ten commissioners, headed by the consul Q.Lutatius, to revise the peace terms.
21 Hamilcar resigns his command.
23 Falerii revolts from Rome, but is soon forced into submission.
26 The mercenaries demand arrears of pay from Hanno.
27 The triumph of Lutatius, for his naval victory over the Carthaginians.
36 Agis is seized by his opponents, and executed.
41 A fire devastates part of Rome, including the temple of Vesta, but L.Metellus rescues the Palladium.
5 The mercenaries hold Gesco captive: start of the Mercenary War.
13 The death of Eumenes I.
14 Sayings of Ariston of Chios, addressed to Arcesilaus, Cleanthes, and others.
20 Apelles of Chios falls ill, and is visited by Arcesilaus, who secretly leaves a gift for him.
22 Sayings of Arcesilaus, addressed to a pupil of Alexinus, Antagoras, Apelles, Aridelus, Charmides, Cleanthes, Ctesibius, Hemon, Telephus, and others.
25 The death of the philosopher Arcesilaus.
27 The "Phaenomena" of Aratus, a poem written at the request of Antigonus.
45 Livius Andronicus produces the first play at Rome.
5 Cleanthes gives frank replies to Antigonus' questions.
6 Other sayings of Antigonus.
7 A retort of the poet Antagoras to Antigonus, about his cooking in camp.
13 The death of Antigonus Gonatas.
20 Seleucus II is defeated by Antiochus and the Galatians at Ancyra; he escapes but his concubine Mysta is captured.
23 The Carthaginians appeal to the Romans for help against the mercenaries.
24 The mercenaries reject Roman mediators.
25 The birth of Masinissa, son of Gala.
27 The birth of the poet Ennius.
3 A temple is dedicated to Flora; the first celebration of the festival of Floralia.
7 The Aetolian and Achaean leagues form an alliance against Macedonia.
9 Hamilcar defeats the mercenaries under Spendius, and puts the survivors to death.
11 The consuls attack the Gauls and Ligurians.
12 Arsaces takes advantage of the war between Seleucus and Antiochus, to expand his control over Parthia.
13 The Romans declare war on the Carthaginians, after a dispute about Sardinia.
14 The Carthaginians cede Sardinia to the Romans.
3 Utica surrenders to the Carthaginians: the end of the Mercenary War.
5 Hamilcar campaigns against the Numidians.
8 Hannibal the son of Hamilcar swears an oath of enmity to Rome.
9 Hamilcar sails from Carthage to Spain.
10 Attalus defeats the Galatians by the river Caicus.
7 The Romans disown Claudius' treaty and try to hand him over to the Corsicans.
8 The birth of Scipio Africanus, whose mother dies in childbirth.
10 Tuccia, a Vestal Virgin, is put to death for breaking her vows.
4 T.Manlius subdues Sardinia.
7 Hanno dissuades the Romans from making war on Carthage because of the dispute over Sardinia.
8 The gate of Janus is closed, as a symbol that Rome is at peace.
3 Lydiades brings Megalopolis into the Achaean League.
11 The birth of M.Cato.
3 Q.Fabius defeats the Ligurians.
1 The triumph of Q.Fabius, over the Ligurians.
5 Revolution in Epirus, after the deaths of Ptolemaeus and Olympias.
8 The tribune Flaminius passes an agrarian law.
1 The Stoic philosopher Sphaerus goes to Egypt at the request of king Ptolemaeus.
2 Chrysippus attends the lectures of Cleanthes.
6 The death of the Stoic philosopher Cleanthes.
10 The death of Agron, who is succeeded by Teuta.
16 Sp.Carvilius divorces his wife, which is the first divorce since the foundation of Rome.
17 T.Manlius Torquatus is forced to resign as censor, because of a fault in the election procedure.
1 Papirius celebrates a private "triumph" over the Corsicans on the Alban Mount, after being refused an official triumph.
2 The Illyrians seize Phoenice.
8 The Illyrian town of Issa appeals to Rome for help against Teuta.
9 Coruncanius, a Roman ambassador to Illyria, is murdered by order of Teuta.
10 The Romans declare war on the Illyrians.
3 The death of Demetrius II, who leaves Antigonus as the guardian of his son Philippus.
7 Cleomenes of Sparta seizes Belbina, on the border with Megalopolis.
10 Demetrius of Pharus betrays Corcyra to the Romans.
11 The Romans relieve Epidamnus.
12 The Romans relieve Issa.
13 The Romans capture several Illyrian towns and force Teuta to escape to Rhizon.
16 Hamilcar passes on to his sons his hatred of Rome.
19 The death of Hamilcar, who is succeeded as Carthaginian commander in Spain by Hasdrubal.
21 Aristomachus of Argos joins the Achaean League.
1 Teuta makes peace with the Romans, and agrees to stop making raids against the Greek states.
2 The Romans rename Epidamnus to Dyrrachium.
3 The Macedonian garrison is persuaded to abandon the Peiraeus.
7 Attalus defeats Antiochus Hierax and the Galatians in two battles, by Lake Colo'e in Lydia and near the temple of Aphrodite at Pergamum.
11 Antigonus drives the Aetolians out of Thessaly.
16 Hasdrubal founds the city of Carthago Nova.
2 Onias II becomes Jewish high priest.
3 Cleomenes defeats Aratus in a battle by Mt. Lycaeum.
6 Aratus seizes Mantineia.
7 Cleomenes kills his opponent Archidamus.
8 Antigonus Doson officially assumes the title of king of Macedonia.
10 Antiochus takes refuge with Ariamenes, but moves on after learning that he is being plotted against.
12 Cleomenes defeats the Achaeans at Ladoceia, where Lydiades is killed.
13 Cleomenes has the ephors killed.
14 Cleomenes reforms the Spartan constitution, and attempts to reimpose more frugal habits.
17 The inhabitants of Saguntum send an embassy to Rome, and agree an alliance.
3 The Colossus of Rhodes is broken by an earthquake which devastates various parts of the Aegean.
6 Antiochus Hierax is killed by a band of Gauls.
7 Cleomenes captures Mantineia.
8 Cleomenes heavily defeats the Achaeans at the battle of Hecatombaeum.
10 The death of Seleucus II, who is succeeded by his son Seleucus III.
11 Hasdrubal agrees to a treaty with the Romans, setting the river Ebro as the boundary between their spheres of influence.
13 A Greek and a Gaul are buried alive at Rome, to allay fears of a Gallic invasion.
4 The Gauls invade Italy, and the Romans compile a list of almost 800,000 citizens and allies capable of bearing arms against the Gauls.
8 The Gauls advance as far as Clusium, and then turn to face the Roman armies.
9 The Gauls defeat a Roman army at Arretium.
11 Argos deserts the Achaeans and join Cleomenes, along with Caphyae, Pellene, Pheneus, Phlius, Cleonae, Epidaurus, Hermione, and Troezen.
13 The consuls defeat and destroy the army of Gauls at Telamon, although Atilius is killed in the battle.
14 Aemilius invades the territory of the Boii.
15 The inhabitants of Corinth transfer their allegiance to Cleomenes.
16 Nicostratus, an Aetolian, breaks the solemn truce at the Pamboeotian congress.
17 The Achaeans, led by Aratus, appeal to Antigonus for help against Cleomenes.
2 Cleomenes invades the territory of Sicyon.
3 The triumph of Aemilius, over the Gauls.
4 The Achaeans come to an agreement with Antigonus, after promising to hand over Corinth to him.
7 Antigonus advances to the Isthmus of Corinth.
8 The Achaeans encourage Argos to revolt against Cleomenes, which forces him to retreat from the Isthmus.
11 The Roman consuls invade the territory of the Boii and force them to submit.
15 Alleged irregularities during the election of new consuls, which is supervised by the dictator L.Metellus.
17 Hanno attempts to prevent Hannibal from joining the Carthaginian army in Spain.
3 Antigonus captures Tegea.
5 Seleucus III is assassinated, and is succeeded by his brother Antiochus III.
8 The senate sends a letter to Flaminius, abrogating his consulship.
9 Flaminius defeats the Insubres.
10 Antigonus captures Orchomenus.
11 Antigonus captures Mantineia, Heraea and Telphusa.
13 Cleomenes raises extra troops by freeing helots, and captures Megalopolis.
2 Flaminius celebrates a triumph for his victory over the Insubres.
3 Flaminius and Furius are forced to resign, and new consuls are elected after a short interregnum.
6 The Gauls buy the support of the Gaesatae, after their attempts to sue for peace are rejected by the consuls.
9 The Romans besiege Acerrae.
10 Marcellus defeats the Gauls at Clastidium, and kills their chief Viridomarus in single combat.
15 Antigonus defeats Cleomenes at Sellasia, and forces him to escape from Sparta.
16 Antigonus enters Sparta.
22 Marcellus captures Mediolanum, the capital of the Insubres, and other cities.
25 The Insubres surrender to the Romans; the end of the Gallic War.
26 Demetrius of Pharus extends his power over the towns of Illyria.
2 The triumph of Marcellus over the Insubres and Germans, in which he carries back the "spolia opima" to Rome.
8 Hasdrubal is assassinated, and Hannibal is appointed to be the new Carthaginian commander in Spain.
14 The death of Antigonus Doson, who is succeeded by Philippus V.
20 Ptolemaeus III is a keen collector of rare wild animals, and sends Simmias to explore Ethiopia.
22 The death of Ptolemaeus III, and accession of Ptolemaeus IV.
23 The consuls subdue the Istrians.
25 Hannibal subdues the Olcades.
37 Fabius Maximus (? or Minucius) is forced to resign as dictator.
7 The Aetolians invade Messenia.
13 Ptolemaeus is dominated by his concubine Agathocleia, and gives himself up to a life of idleness and luxury.
16 The murder of Magas, the brother of Ptolemaeus, and his mother Berenice.
20 Hannibal attacks the Vaccaei and captures the city of Salmantica.
27 Scerdilaidas and Demetrius lead an Illyrian fleet in a raid against the islands of the Cyclades.
28 The Aetolians capture Cynaetha.
29 The Aetolian army leaves the Peloponnese.
30 Achaeus assumes the title of king, while marching through Phrygia.
36 Philippus and his allies meet near Corinth and declare war on the Aetolians; the start of the Social War, which is the formal start of Polybius' history.
44 Philippus sends aid to the Polyrrhenians, who are fighting against Cnossus.
51 The construction of the Via Flaminia.
52 The censorship of C.Flaminius and L.Aemilius Papus.
3 An embassy from Saguntum at Rome.
4 Ptolemaeus puts Cleomenes under house arrest, at the instigation of Sosibius.
6 Cleomenes is killed while attempting to escape.
7 Hannibal starts to besiege Saguntum.
8 The consuls set out for Illyria.
10 Lycurgus is appointed king of Sparta.
17 The senate votes to send an embassy to Saguntum.
18 Hannibal breaches a wall at Saguntum.
20 The Romans capture Pharus.
25 The Aetolians sack Dium.
26 Theodotus, the governor of Coele Syria, deserts to Antiochus.
27 Hannibal refuses to receive a Roman embassy.
33 A Roman embassy at Carthage.
34 Dorimachus, the new general of the Aetolian League, leads a raid on Dodona.
38 Hannibal captures Saguntum.
9 Hannibal makes preparations for his expedition at Gades.
10 A debate in the Roman senate about the capture of Saguntum.
11 The senate assigns Spain and Africa to the consuls.
12 The Carthaginians reject the ultimatum of a Roman embassy: the start of the Second Punic War.
14 Hannibal leaves Carthago Nova.
15 The consuls for the previous year are brought to trial for unfairly dividing the booty from Illyria, and Livius is found guilty.
16 Apelles secures the election of Eperatus of Pharae as general of the Achaean League.
20 The Romans found colonies at Placentia and Cremona.
21 Hannibal crosses the river Ebro.
22 The Boii defeat the Roman praetor L.Manlius.
28 Hannibal crosses the Pyrenees.
29 Hannibal wins over the Gauls at Iliberris.
31 Hannibal crosses the river Rhone.
32 Scipio returns to Italy, after discovering that he has missed Hannibal.
35 Cn.Scipio reaches Spain with a Roman fleet.
40 Philippus sacks Thermus, an Aetolian city.
42 Hannibal leads his army up into the Alps.
43 Hannibal descends from the Alps.
44 Hannibal arrives in Italy, and defeats the Taurini.
45 Cn.Scipio defeats the Carthaginian general Hanno at Cissa.
51 Hannibal comes into contact with the Roman forces under P.Scipio.
52 Hannibal defeats Scipio in a skirmish near the river Ticinus.
53 Scipio retreats to Placentia.
56 Sempronius joins Scipio, and defeats Hannibal's Gallic allies in a skirmish.
57 Hannibal defeats the Roman consuls by the river Trebia.
59 L.Valerius persuades M.Cato to move to Rome.
4 Hannibal makes an unsuccessful attack on Placentia.
6 Hannibal crosses the Apennines.
7 Bad omens at Rome.
9 Flaminius enters his consulship at Ariminum.
10 Hannibal follows a difficult route through marshes into Etruria.
11 Cn.Scipio defeats a Carthaginian fleet near the Ebro.
16 Hannibal devastates the countryside in Etruria.
18 P.Scipio arrives in Spain.
20 Hannibal defeats and kills Flaminius at Lake Trasimene.
21 The Egyptian army defeats Antiochus at Raphia.
22 Maharbal defeats a Roman cavalry force led by C.Centenius.
26 Q.Fabius Maximus is appointed dictator, and collects new recruits for the army, including some freedman.
28 Hannibal advances to the Adriatic coast and rests his army in Picenum.
30 Fabius declines to enter a set battle with Hannibal.
31 Hannibal crosses to Campania, which he lays waste.
32 Hannibal is trapped by Fabius near Falernum, but escapes.
36 Peace terms are agreed between Antiochus and the Egyptians; the end of the Fourth Syrian War.
39 Peace terms are agreed at Naupactus between the Aetolians and Philippus and his allies; the end of the Social War.
42 Roman successes at Geronium.
43 The magister equitum, M.Minucius, is granted the same powers as Fabius.
44 Fabius saves Minucius from defeat by Hannibal.
51 The delaying tactics of Fabius earn him the title of Cunctator.
1 Fabius resigns as dictator.
2 Hannibal asks for reinforcements from Carthage, but receives none.
3 Roman preparations for continuing the war against Hannibal.
4 More ominous portents at Rome.
8 L.Veturius is appointed dictator, to hold the elections for new consuls.
11 The consuls leave Rome to join their army.
19 The consuls arrive at the Roman camp in Apulia.
20 The Roman army marches to confront Hannibal.
21 Ptolemaeus uses elephants to attack the Egyptian Jews, but the Jews are miraculously saved.
23 Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae; Paullus is killed in the battle.
24 The Roman survivors collect at Canusium.
25 News of the defeat at Cannae reaches Rome; the senate debates how to react.
27 M.Junius Pera is elected dictator, and enlists all available men into the army, including some slaves.
31 The Romans refuse to ransom back the prisoners captured at Cannae.
32 Roman allies in southern Italy start to desert to Hannibal.
33 Varro returns to Rome.
35 Capua goes over to Hannibal.
37 The Romans consult the oracle at Delphi.
38 Mago brings news of the battle of Cannae to Carthage, and shows as proof a large pile of gold rings removed from Roman casualties.
39 Hannibal captures Nuceria.
40 Hannibal unsuccessfully attacks Nola.
42 Hannibal begins the siege of Petelia.
44 Hannibal takes his army back to Capua for the winter.
45 The Gauls destroy a Roman army led by L.Postumius.
1 Casilinum surrenders to the Carthaginians.
2 M.Fabius Buteo is appointed dictator, to draw up a new list of senators.
5 Hannibal captures Petelia.
8 Following the death of L.Postumius, Marcellus is elected to be consul, but is forced to resign after a bad omen; Q.Fabius is elected in his place.
9 The Romans and Carthaginians prepare for the next year's fighting.
17 Hieron passes laws for the financial administration of Sicily, known to the Romans as the leges Hieronicae.
18 Hieron remains steadfast in his alliance with the Romans and regularly sends aid to them.
20 The death of Hieron II, king of Syracuse.
22 An alliance is agreed between Hannibal and Philippus of Macedonia.
28 The Romans defeat Hasdrubal at Ibera.
29 An alliance is agreed between Hannibal and Hieronymus, the grandson of Hieron.
33 T.Manlius defeats the rebels in Sardinia.
36 Marcellus repels an attack by Hannibal on Nola.
41 The Lex Oppia limits the amount of jewellery and other valuables which can be owned by individuals.
1 Q.Fabius supervises elections, in which he is re-elected as consul.
9 Hannibal devastates Campania and attacks Nola, but fails to capture any cities.
10 Gracchus defeats Hanno near Beneventum.
17 Hieronymus is assassinated at Leontini.
18 Harsh measures taken by the censors against unpatriotic citizens.
19 The Romans relieve Apollonia; start of the First Macedonian War.
25 Demetrius of Pharus dies in an attack on Messene.
27 The Romans capture Leontini.
28 Hippocrates and Epicydes come to power in a revolution at Syracuse.
4 The consul Fabius orders his father to dismount in his presence.
6 The Romans begin the siege of Syracuse by land and sea, but are forced back by war machines designed by Archimedes.
8 Simon II becomes high priest of the Jews.
9 The birth of Carneades.
11 The Romans capture Arpi.
13 Syphax enters into an alliance with the Romans, and Hasdrubal is recalled from Spain to oppose him.
14 Marcellus surprises and defeats a Syracusan force near Acrillae.
18 The death of Aratus.
19 L.Pinarius, the commander of the Roman garrison at Henna, orders a massacre of the inhabitants of the town.
22 Hannibal captures Tarentum, though the citadel is still held by a Roman garrison.
3 The senate debates the treatment of the survivors of Cannae, after receiving a letter from Marcellus.
5 Marcellus captures the Epipolae, following the failure of a plot against Epicydes.
7 Caper of Elis is the first man to win Olympic victories in both the wrestling and the pancration contests.
8 Fulvius defeats Hanno near Beneventum.
11 Ti.Gracchus is killed after being led into a trap by a Lucanian called Flavus.
12 The Romans capture Saguntum.
14 The prophecies of Marcius are discovered, leading to the introduction of the Ludi Apollinares.
15 Hannibal defeats M.Centenius in Lucania.
16 Hannibal defeats the praetor Cn.Fulvius near Herdonea.
17 The Romans renew the siege of Capua.
5 The defeat and death of P.Scipio.
6 The daughter of Cn.Scipio receives a dowry at public expense.
7 The defeat and death of Cn.Scipio.
8 Hannibal attacks the Roman army at Capua, but fails to dislodge it.
10 The Aetolians enter into an alliance with the Romans, along with Attalus of Pergamum.
12 Archimedes constructs a globe which represents the movements of the heavenly bodies.
15 Marcellus captures Syracuse; the death of Archimedes.
16 The Roman survivors in Spain, led by L.Marcius, defeat Hasdrubal son of Gisgo.
18 The senate instructs the consuls to proceed with the siege of Capua, but to send troops for the protection of Rome.
19 Hannibal marches on Rome.
20 A storm ends a battle between Hannibal and the Romans near Rome.
22 Marcellus defeats the Carthaginians by the river Himera; the completion of the Roman reconquest of Sicily.
23 The Romans capture Capua, and punish their opponents in the city.
25 Marcellus celebrates an ovation for his victories in Sicily.
27 T.Manlius Torquatus, although enjoying great popular support, stands down from the consular elections because of his failing eyesight.
4 The Sicilians and Capuans complain to the senate about their treatment by the Roman generals.
6 The senators contribute towards the cost of manning the fleet.
7 Hasdrubal secretly escapes with his army after being trapped by C.Nero.
9 Marcellus captures Salapia, after Blattius persuades Dasius to betray the town.
11 P.Scipio is elected to be commander of the Roman army in Spain, although he is only 24 years old.
12 Laevinus captures Agrigentum.
14 The Spartans become allies of the Aetolians, after listening to speeches by Claenias of Aetolia and Lyciscus of Acarnania.
17 Hannibal defeats and kills the proconsul Cn.Fulvius near Herdonea.
20 Scipio arrives in Spain, at Emporiae.
23 Marcellus appoints Q.Fulvius dictator, to hold the consular elections.
1 Twelve Latin colonies refuse to provide contingents for the Roman army.
3 Scipio captures Carthago Nova.
4 Philippus visits Argos and attends the Nemean Games.
5 News of the capture of Carthago Nova reaches Rome.
7 Philopoemen reorganizes the Achaean cavalry.
10 Fabius captures Tarentum.
11 Philippus is forced to return to Macedonia after receiving news of an invasion by the Dardani.
14 Indibilis, Mandonius, and other Spanish leaders leave the Carthaginian army and go over to Scipio.
3 Philopoemen is elected general of the Achaean League for the first time, and prepares their army for war.
6 Hasdrubal retreats towards the Pyrenees after being defeated by Scipio at Baecula; Scipio rebukes his Spanish allies for calling him king.
9 The college of priests prevents Marcellus from dedicating a joint temple to Honour and Virtue.
13 The consuls are caught in an ambush by Hannibal near Venusia; Marcellus is killed and Crispinus is injured.
14 Hannibal relieves Locri, after failing to trick his way into Salapia.
15 The Roman proconsul Sulpicius captures Oreius.
16 Attalus returns to Asia to face an attack from Bithynia.
19 T.Manlius Torquatus is appointed dictator to hold elections; M.Livius is persuaded to come out of retirement, and is elected consul.
20 The new consuls prepare to meet Hannibal and his brother Hasdrubal at opposite ends of Italy.
4 Hasdrubal arrives in Italy, but fails to capture Placentia.
5 Philippus destroys the sanctuary at Thermus in Aetolia, and then attends the council of the Achaean League.
7 Nero hurries north to join forces with Livius.
10 The consuls defeat and kill Hasdrubal at Sena on the river Metaurus.
11 News of the battle of Metaurus reaches Hannibal.
15 The Achaeans defeat and kill Machanidas of Sparta at Mantineia.
19 The triumph of Livius and Nero for their victory over Hasdrubal.
21 The death of Gala, who is officially succeeded by his son Masinissa.
6 The death of the philosopher Chrysippus; his successor as head of the Stoic school is Zenon of Tarsus.
7 Scipio defeats Hannibal son of Gisgo at Ilipa.
8 Scipio visits Syphax in an attempt to win his support.
9 Scipio captures Iliturgi and Castulo, while Marcius captures Astapa.
11 The consuls ravage the countryside of Bruttium, but takes no direct action against Hannibal.
12 The Aetolians make peace with Philippus.
13 Mutiny breaks out in the Roman army in Spain, after Scipio falls ill.
14 Scipio defeats the Spanish rebels Indibilis and Mandonius.
15 Masinissa deserts to the Romans.
20 Mago leaves Spain for the Balearic Islands; the end of Carthaginian resistance in Spain.
22 Scipio returns to Italy.
23 Scipio is denied a triumph, because he has not held a regular magistracy, but he is elected consul for the following year.
1 The Roman senate debates whether to invade Africa.
3 Mago arrives in Liguria.
6 Scipio prepares an army of invasion in Sicily.
14 Mago receives reinforcements from Carthage, and sets about raising an army from Liguria.
15 The Romans recapture Locri, despite a counter-attack by Hannibal.
16 Syphax defeats Masinissa and drives him out of his kingdom.
17 The vicious conduct of Pleminius as Roman governor of Locri.
19 The peace of Phoenice between the Romans and Philippus; end of the First Macedonian War.
20 Q.Caecilius Metellus is appointed dictator to hold the consular elections.
21 After consulting the Sibylline Books, the Romans send envoys to Attalus in an attempt to obtain the sacred stone of the Idaean Mother.
2 Cato as quaestor is assigned to Scipio in Sicily.
3 The image of the Magna Mater arrives at Rome; P.Scipio Nasica and Claudia are chosen to lead it into the city.
5 The senate debates the conduct of Scipio in Sicily, and the crimes of Pleminius at Locri.
6 Roman commissioners, led by the praetor M.Pomponius, punish Pleminius, but approve of the preparations of Scipio's army.
15 The death of Ptolemaeus IV Philopator.
16 Hasdrubal persuades Syphax to repudiate his friendship with Scipio.
18 Scipio crosses from Lilybaeum to Africa, and lands at Pulchri Promunturium, north of Utica.
19 Indecisive fighting in Bruttium between Hannibal and Sempronius.
21 The tyrannical behaviour of Nabis at Sparta.
24 The outbreak of war between Crete and Rhodes, allegedly caused by Heracleides, an agent of Philippus.
26 Scipio moves a short distance inland, and is joined by Masinissa.
27 Hanno the son of Hamilcar is defeated and killed by Scipio near Salaeca.
28 Scipio besieges Utica.
31 Dissension between the censors C.Claudius Nero and M.Livius Salinator.
32 The Lex Cincia prevents lawyers from receiving fees from clients.
33 The death of Q.Fabius Maximus, the son of Fabius Cunctator.
2 Scipio makes a successful night attack on the camp of Syphax.
4 Scipio defeats the Carthaginians at the battle of the Great Plains.
5 The Carthaginians attack the Roman fleet at Utica, while Scipio is occupying Tunis.
7 Laelius and Masinissa defeat and capture Syphax.
8 Masinissa persuades Sophonisba to commit suicide.
10 The murder of Arsinoe, the widow of Ptolemaeus IV.
14 Scipio agrees to a short truce with the Carthaginians.
17 The praetor Quinctilius Varus defeats Mago, who later dies of his wounds at sea near Sardinia.
22 Hannibal is ordered by the Carthaginians to leave Italy, and sails back to Africa; Pelorus, Hannibal's helmsman, dies during the journey.
23 Carthaginian envoys appear before the Roman senate to discuss peace terms.
28 The death of Fabius Maximus Cunctator, who had been augur for 62 years.
4 The Carthaginians seize some Roman transport ships bringing supplies to Scipio.
6 The "partition pact" between Antiochus and Philippus: an informal agreement to seize the overseas territories of Ptolemaeus V.
9 Philippus captures Cios and Thasos.
10 Scipio captures three Carthaginian spies, but releases them unharmed.
11 Scipio and Hannibal hold a conference on the night before joining in battle.
12 Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama.
23 Peace terms are agreed between the Romans and the Carthaginians; the end of the Second Punic War.
1 C.Servilius Geminus is appointed dictator to hold consular elections.
4 Embassies from Philippus and the Carthaginians appear before the senate.
5 The Roman senate and people ratify the peace with Carthage.
6 Philippus invades Attica.
8 Nabis attacks Messene.
12 Scipio returns to Italy.
13 The triumph of Scipio, for his victories in Africa.
14 Scipio is given the surname Africanus.
15 Philippus attacks Pergamum.
16 The fleets of Pergamum and Rhodes are defeated by the Macedonians at Lade, but win another battle at Chios.
20 Embassies from Attalus and Rhodes bring charges against Philippus before the senate.
21 Philippus attacks the Rhodian Peraea and captures Prinassus.
2nd century B.C. →
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