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Summary of Events, First Century B.C.   - 100 to 30 B.C.


The summary contains events, which ancient writers thought to be significant - that may not be the same as what modern writers consider significant.
The numbers in red are the "event numbers", which can be used to find more information in the lists of events for each individual year - click on the link at the top of each year, to go to these lists.

  ← 2nd century B.C.

100 B.C.
2   Saturninus establishes Roman colonies at Eporedia and in Corsica, and plans other colonies.
3   The birth of C.Julius Caesar.
4   Saturninus proposes an agrarian law, which provides allotments for Marius' veterans.
5   T.Didius defeats the Scordisci and forces them to retreat.
7   Metellus Numidicus refuses to take an oath to abide by Saturninus' agrarian law, and goes into exile.
11   The followers of Saturninus murder C.Memmius, an opponent of Glaucia in the consular elections.
13   The senate declares Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and they are killed by a mob after being captured by Marius.
18   Eudoxus' third voyage, in which he attempts to circumnavigate Africa.

99 B.C.
1   The tribune P.Furius blocks the return from exile of Metellus Numidicus, despite the pleas of Metellus' son Pius.
5   The agrarian law of Sex.Titius is withdrawn because of adverse omens.
6   The aedile C.Claudius Pulcher holds magnificent games, including an elephant fight.

98 B.C.
4   Metellus Numidicus is recalled from exile, with the help of the tribune Q.Calidius.
8   Sex.Titius is brought to trial and condemned, because of his support for Saturninus.

97 B.C.

96 B.C.
3   Heracleon murders Antiochus Grypus.
5   The campaigns of T.Didius in Spain, with Q.Sertorius as military tribune; the Romans capture Termessus and Colenda.
9   Ptolemaeus Apion dies; his will bequeaths Cyrene to Rome.
12   Crassus and Scaevola take opposite sides in a famous court case, over an inheritance disputed between M'.Curius and M.Coponius.
14   C.Sergius Orata, a keen proponent of new luxuries, is brought to trial for building on the Lucrine lake, and is defended by Crassus.

95 B.C.
5   Seleucus defeats and kills Antiochus Cyzicenus; in the king-lists Philippus is called the successor of Cyzicenus.
7   Sulla, the propraetor of Cilicia, installs Ariobarzanes as king of Cappadocia.
9   Seleucus is burnt to death in his palace at Mopsu Hestia; he is succeeded by his brothers Antiochus Epiphanes and Philippus.
11   Tigranes establishes himself as king of Armenia after being released by the Parthians, and enters into negotiations with Mithridates of Pontus.
14   M'.Aquillius is accused of extortion, but acquitted.
15   The Lex Licinia Mucia prevents other Italians from assuming Roman citizenship.
16   Norbanus is brought to trial for his conduct as tribune in 103 B.C.; Sulpicius speaks against him, but he is successfully defended by M.Antonius.
21   The first public speech of Q.Hortensius, on behalf of the inhabitants of Africa.

94 B.C.
6   The proconsul Q.Scaevola corrects abuses in the Roman administration of Asia, with the help of P.Rutilius.
7   Sulla meets Orobazus, a Parthian envoy, by the river Euphrates, and a magus foretells his future greatness.

93 B.C.
3   L.Crassus is refused a triumph over the Gauls.

92 B.C.
3   P.Rutilius is found guilty of extortion, though widely believed to be completely innocent, and goes into exile.
4   The censors ban schools of rhetoric at Rome.
5   Quarrelling between the censors, L.Crassus and Cn.Domitius.

91 B.C.
1   Political rivalry between the tribune M.Drusus and Q.Caepio.
2   Caepio unsuccessfully prosecutes Scaurus and (?) Philippus.
4   Drusus supports the idea of giving Roman citizenship to the rest of Italy.
8   Drusus proposes to change the composition of juries to a mixture of senators and equites.
15   Mithridates invades Bithynia, expels Nicomedes IV, and sets up Socrates as king.
22   The senate, on the advice of the consul Philippus, declares the laws of Drusus invalid.
23   The Italian allies, disappointed by the failure of Drusus, begin to plot against the Romans.
29   Drusus is murdered near his home.
31   The Italians openly revolt against the Romans, and begin to raise armies and appoint generals.
32   Dire omens portend the atrocities of the Social War.
33   The praetor Q.Servilius, his legate Fonteius, and other Romans are murdered at Asculum.

90 B.C.
3   Other trials under the lex Varia, including the acquittal of M.Antonius and M.Scaurus.
14   Vettius Scato defeats and kills P.Rutilius by the river Tolenus, but a counter-attack by C.Marius stops him advancing further.
17   Caepio is defeated and killed by Poppaedius.
33   The lex Julia grants Roman citizenship to those Italians who have not joined in the revolt.

89 B.C.
15   Nicomedes invades Pontus, with the support of the Roman envoys.
18   Sulla defeats the Samnites under Cluentius near Nola.
35   Mithridates expels Ariobarzanes from Cappadocia.
39   Pompeius captures and sacks Asculum.
49   The triumph of Pompeius Strabo, over the Picentes of Asculum.

88 B.C.
7   << The generals of Mithridates defeat Nicomedes by the river Amneius.
11   Q.Metellus defeats and kills Poppaedius in Apulia; the end of the Social War.
13   Sulla is appointed commander for the war against Mithridates.
19   Ptolemaeus X Alexander is expelled in a popular uprising, and Ptolemaeus IX returns to Egypt.
23   Mithridates invades Phrygia and the Roman province of Asia, while the Romans are distracted by civil war.
26   The inhabitants of Mytilene hand over M'.Aquillius to Mithridates, who keeps him as a prisoner.
27   Sulpicius passes a law giving Marius the command against Mithridates.
30   Sulla leads his army against his opponents at Rome.
31   Sulla defeats Marius and his supporters inside Rome, near the Esquiline Forum.
38   Marius and Sulpicius are outlawed: Marius escapes, but Sulpicius is captured and killed.
39   Marius is discovered hiding in a swamp near Minturnae.
40   The inhabitants of Minturnae send a Gaul to kill Marius, but he fails to do so.
41   Marius is allowed to escape by boat.
42   Mithridates orders the massacre of Roman citizens in Asia: 80,000 are killed in one day.
45   The Rhodians force Mithridates to abandon his attack on their island.
52   Marius attempts to land near Carthage in the province of Africa, but is expelled by Sextilius.
54   Archelaus and Menophanes capture Delos and other islands in the Aegean Sea.

87 B.C.
1   Sulla leaves Italy to take charge of the war against Mithridates.
4   Cinna attempts to pass a law to redistribute the new Italian citizens amongst all the Roman tribes, but is expelled from Rome by Octavius.
15   Marius returns from exile, and advances through Etruria, where he is joined by Brutus and other exiles.
17   Sulla besieges Archelaus at Athens.
19   Cinna, Carbo, Sertorius, and Marius surround Rome with their forces.
21   Marius captures and sacks Ostia.
29   Marius and Cinna launch an attack on Rome, but are repelled; a soldier in Pompeius' army discovers that he has killed his own brother.
32   Pompeius is killed, either by a bolt of lightning or by the plague which is afflicting his army.
35   The senate sends envoys to Cinna and Marius, and agrees to allow them to enter Rome.
37   Octavius is murdered by Censorinus, an associate of Cinna.
39   The brothers C. and L.Caesar are killed.
41   P.Crassus and his elder son commit suicide, to avoid capture by the followers of Cinna.
44   Antonius is hunted down and killed by Marius' soldiers.
46   Merula is forced to commit suicide, despite abdicating from the consulship.
49   Catulus commits suicide by suffocating himself.
51   Atilius Serranus, P.Lentulus, C.Numitorius, M.Baebius and other prominent Romans are killed by Marius and Cinna; and Sulla is declared a public enemy.

86 B.C.
8   The death of C.Marius.
13   Sulla despoils the temples at Olympia, Epidaurus, and Delphi, and steals other treasures to provide funds for his army.
20   Sulla captures Athens.
21   Sulla punishes the Athenians, but allows them to keep their freedom.
23   The acropolis is captured, and Aristion is killed.
26   Sulla captures Peiraeus, but Archelaus escapes by sea.
28   Archelaus joins up with Taxiles' army and faces Sulla near Elateia.
29   Sulla defeats Archelaus and destroys his army at Chaeroneia.
39   Mithridates savagely punishes his opponents at Smyrna, Lesbos, Pergamum, Adramyttium, and elsewhere, and plunders the cities of Asia.
40   Mithridates sends another army to Greece under the command of Dorylaus, but it is defeated by Sulla at Orchomenus.
41   Sulla storms the camp of his opponents and slaughters most of them; Archelaus escapes by hiding in a swamp.
43   Lucullus is greeted warmly by Ptolemaeus, but given little material help.

85 B.C.
1   Fimbria murders Flaccus and takes over command of his army.
3   Fimbria defeats Mithridates' son and forces Mithridates out of Pergamum.
8   Fimbria captures and sacks Ilium.
16   Sulla and Mithridates agree peace terms at Dardanus.
22   Fimbria commits suicide.

84 B.C.
10   Cinna is killed in a mutiny at Ancona.
30   Verres, as quaestor, deserts Carbo and goes over to Sulla with a large sum of money.

83 B.C.
3   Sulla crosses over from Greece and arrives at Brundisium.
4   Omens at the outset of the civil war.
8   Cn.Pompeius raises an army in Picenum.
10   Pompeius joins Sulla, who honours him with the title of "imperator".
12   Sulla defeats Norbanus at Canusium.
15   A fire destroys many of the buildings on the Capitol at Rome.
16   Cicero is a pupil of Philon, an Academic philosopher, who encourages him to study philosophy and rhetoric.
18   Tigranes invades and conquers Syria.
22   Scipio is deserted by his army, after entering into negotiations with Sulla.
29   Sertorius abandons the war in Italy; he recruits more supporters in Etruria and then leaves for his province in Spain.

82 B.C.
7   Sertorius arrives in Spain; counted by some as the start of the war against Sertorius.
10   Sulla defeats Marius at Sacriportus, and forces him to take refuge in Praeneste.
15   Marius orders a massacre of his opponents at Rome, including C.Carbo and Scaevola.
26   M.Lucullus defeats Quinctius at Fidentia.
30   Carbo flees to Africa, and the remains of his army are crushed by Pompeius.
32   Pontius Telesinus marches on Rome with the Samnite army, but is defeated and killed by Sulla at the Colline Gate.
33   Sulla orders the massacre of at least 3,000 Samnite prisoners.
36   Praeneste is captured and Marius commits suicide: the end of the civil war.
37   Sulla assumes the title Felix.
40   L.Flaccus passes a law to appoint Sulla dictator and give him autocratic power.
41   Q.Ofella illegally stands as candidate for the consulship, but he is killed by order of Sulla.
46   Pompeius captures and kills Carbo.

81 B.C.
1   Sulla punishes the inhabitants of Praeneste.
2   The triumph of Sulla, over Mithridates, including a parade of the booty recovered from Praeneste.
3   Sulla publishes proscriptions listing his enemies, who are hunted down and killed, including Q.Aurelius (? Lollius), Baebius, Q.Caecilius, Carrinas, Damasippus, Cn.Decidius, Fidustius, Lucretius, M.Plaetorius, and Venuleius.
4   Catilina is involved in the cruel murder of M.Marius Gratidianus.
5   Pompeius establishes law and order in Sicily; he is persuaded by Sthenius not to punish (?) Himera.
7   Sulla punishes the Italian towns which supported his opponents, including Arretium, Florentia, Interamnium, Larinum, Praeneste, Spoletium, Sulmo, and Volaterrae.
8   Sulla founds colonies of his veterans at Aleria, Arretium, Capua, Faesulae, Suessula, and Urbana.
10   Pompeius defeats and kills Domitius.
11   Pompeius invades Numidia and established Hiempsal as king.
14   Crassus and other friends of Sulla enrich themselves by buying up the property of the victims of the proscriptions.
16   Sulla passes a law imposing sanctions on the children of proscribed men.
19   Cn.Pompeius takes on the name Magnus ("the Great").
20   The triumph of Pompeius, for his victories in Africa.
44   Caesar visits the court of Nicomedes, and is accused of having an indecent association with the king.
52   Sulla curtails the power of the tribunes of the plebs.
59   Sulla passes a law about the falsification of wills.
60   Sulla passes a series of laws, setting up courts to try cases of murder, extortion, treason, bribery and insults.
62   Sulla passes an agrarian law, confirming the distribution of land to his veterans.

80 B.C.
4   Sertorius is called back by the Lusitani to lead their resistance to the Romans: the start of the war against Sertorius.
8   Ptolemaeus Alexander is killed in a riot at Alexandria after a reign of nineteen days, and is succeeded by Ptolemaeus XII Auletes.
24   Cicero successfully defends Sex.Roscius on a charge of parricide.

79 B.C.
4   << Sulla abdicates from his position as dictator, and retires to private life.
6   Hirtuleius, a subordinate of Sertorius, defeats and kills Domitius Calvinus by the river Anas.
10   Metellus takes over as Roman commander in Spain, but his general L.Thorius Balbus is defeated and killed by Sertorius.

78 B.C.
6   Sulla shows great trust in L.Lucullus, to whom he dedicates his memoirs.
8   The death of Sulla, from the disease called phtheiriasis.
9   The funeral of Sulla, whose body is burnt on a pyre.
12   Cicero and Atticus are taught philosophy at Athens by Antiochus of Ascalon.
19   P.Servilius is sent out to suppress pirates in the eastern Mediterranean.
20   Lepidus heads for the mountainous areas of Etruria, where he makes military preparations.

77 B.C.
2   The senate summons Lepidus back to Rome, and he marches towards the city.
8   Cicero studies rhetoric under Apollonius Molon in Rhodes.
9   Catulus defeats Lepidus in a battle near the Campus Martius, and forces him to retreat back to Etruria.
10   Catulus provides a peaceful return to normal life at Rome after Lepidus' defeat, and new consuls are finally elected.
12   M.Brutus surrenders to Pompeius, and is killed near Mutina.
14   Lepidus is defeated again, at Cosa.
21   Appius Claudius and his legate Fonteius defend Macedonia against raids from the Thracian tribes living near Mt.Rhodope.
26   Lepidus commits suicide, according to some because of the distress caused by his separation from his wife Appuleia.
28   Perperna takes the remainder of Lepidus' army to Spain, to fight alongside Sertorius.
31   Pompeius is appointed to share the command with Metellus in the war against Sertorius; L.Philippus says he is being sent "instead of the consuls".
35   Cn.Dolabella is prosecuted by C.Caesar on a charge of extortion in Macedonia; he is defended by Hortensius, and is acquitted.

76 B.C.
9   Servilius subdues Cilicia, and captures the cities of Attalis, Corycus, Olympus, and Phaselis.
19   The death of Alexander Jannaeus; his widow Alexandra takes over as queen of Judaea.

75 B.C.
7   Metellus defeats and kills Hirtuleius at Segovia.
11   An indecisive battle at Sucro between Sertorius and Pompeius.
12   Servilius crosses the Taurus mountains and attacks the Isauri.
16   Sertorius defeats Pompeius, but is then defeated by Metellus at Segontia.
19   Elections for praetors, aediles and quaestors: Verres is elected to be praetor urbanus, but M.Piso fails to be elected aedile.
26   Negotiations between Sertorius and Mithridates, leading to agreement on a joint attack on the Roman government.
27   Caesar is captured by pirates near the island of Pharmacusa.
31   Cicero serves as quaestor in Sicily.

74 B.C.
2   The pirates set Caesar free after receiving a ransom, but he returns to capture and crucify them.
7   << Nicomedes of Bithynia dies, leaving his kingdom to the Romans.
13   Curio advances into Thrace, as far as the river Danube.
17   Oppianicus is accused and convicted of the attempted murder of Cluentius, but it is alleged that the jury received bribes.
22   Mithridates invades Bithynia: the start of the third Mithridatic war.
26   The Romans send Lucullus to be commander against Mithridates; Lucullus occupies the journey out by learning the skills required of a general.

73 B.C.
4   Mithridates' generals defeat the Romans under Cotta near Chalcedon.
7   Sertorius takes harsh measures to stop his allies from deserting.
8   Spartacus leads a band of 74 gladiators who escape from a training school at Capua; the start of Spartacus' revolt.
9   Verres arrives as governor of Sicily, and immediately makes clear his intention to exploit the province.
12   Spartacus brings his followers down from Vesuvius and defeats the praetor Glaber.
15   Pirates attack the coast of Sicily, and defeat Cleomenes of Syracuse, who has been put in command of some ships by Verres.
19   Lucullus arrives at Cyzicus, and occupies a strong position blocking Mithridates' only route out.
37   Lucullus defeats Mithridates' cavalry as they withdraw by the river Rhyndacus, where the Romans see the king's camels for the first time.

72 B.C.
6   Mithridates' army suffers terribly from starvation and plague while encamped by Cyzicus.
9   Lucullus destroys the remnants of Mithridates' retreating army by the rivers Aesepus and Granicus.
13   Sertorius is murdered by a group of his own officers.
16   Marius is put in charge of part of Mithridates' fleet, but he is defeated and killed in sea battles off Tenedos and Lemnos.
18   Spartacus defeats the other consul, Lentulus.
19   Perperna establishes himself as leader of the remaining rebels in Spain.
23   M.Lucullus defeats the Bessi.
26   Mithridates is forced to retreat by sea from Nicomedeia to Pontus, but many of his ships are destroyed in a storm.
32   Pompeius defeats and kills Perperna; he destroys the privates papers of Sertorius to stop them being used as blackmail.
33   M.Lucullus advances as far as the river Danube.
36   The command of the war against Spartacus is transferred to M.Crassus, who recruits a new army.
38   Pompeius gives Roman citizenship to L.Balbus of Gades.
53   Lucullus invades Pontus.

71 B.C.
1   Pompeius captures the rebel cities of Uxama and Calagurris.
2   The Cretans defeat Antonius and force him to retreat.
7   Pompeius leaves Spain, and sets up a trophy on the Pyrenees.
15   Crassus defeats and kills Spartacus by the river Silarus.
18   Pompeius arrives back in Italy, and defeats a force of slaves attempting to escape to the north.
19   A force sent by Mithridates to attack Lucullus' supply convoy is defeated by Hadrianus and suffers heavy losses.
24   Pompeius and Crassus are elected consuls for the following year.
26   Mithridates escapes to his father-in-law Tigranes, in Armenia.
45   Verres seizes the possessions of many innocent Sicilians, including Epicrates, Heius, Heraclius, Philocrates, Sopater and Sosippus.
46   Crimes of Verres relating to statues and other works of art.
47   Other activities and misdeeds of Verres, as governor of Sicily.
50   The triumph of Pompeius, for his victories in Spain.

70 B.C.
5   Cicero goes to Sicily to collect evidence against Verres.
9   Lucullus captures Amisus after prolonged resistance led by Callimachus, but fails to stop his soldiers from looting the town.
11   The consuls sponsor a law to restore the full rights and powers of the tribunes of the plebs.
15   Cicero presents his evidence at the trial of Verres, who immediately gives up hope of acquittal and goes into exile.
25   The praetor L.Aurelius Cotta passes a law which reforms the composition of juries.
28   Lucullus captures Sinope.
36   The censors carry out a severe review of the senate, removing C.Antonius, Q.Curius, P.Lentulus and others.

69 B.C.
2   Lucullus crosses the Euphrates at Tomisa, and invades Armenia.
6   The pirates increase their attacks throughout the Mediterranean, and make raids against Caieta, Ostia, and Misenum on the Italian coast.
10   Sextilius starts to besiege Mancaeus at Tigranocerta.
12   Lucullus wins an overwhelming victory over Tigranes.
14   Lucullus captures and sacks Tigranocerta.
25   Catulus completes the restoration of the buildings, especially the temple of Jupiter, on the Capitol at Rome.

68 B.C.
2   Tigranes loses control of Syria.
5   Mithridates writes to Arsaces of Parthia, asking for his assistance against the Romans, but Arsaces decides to remain neutral.
14   Caesar serves as quaestor in further Spain; his ambition is stirred by seeing a statue of Alexander.
16   Mithridates re-enters Pontus and wins support against the Romans.
22   Lucullus captures Nisibis.

67 B.C.
4   A.Gabinius passes the Lex Gabinia, which gives Pompeius wide-ranging powers to suppress the pirates.
8   Pompeius' forces clear the sea of pirates, within the space of 40 days.
12   Mithridates inflicts a severe defeat on the Roman army in Pontus, commanded by Triarius, at Zela.
14   Pompeius defeats and subdues the remaining pirates, who had escaped to their bases in Cilicia, and captures over 800 of their ships.
16   Metellus captures Lappa and Eleuthera, and ruthlessly subjugates the rest of Crete.
25   The Cretans attempt to surrender to Pompeius, but Metellus asserts his authority over the island.
30   The death of Alexandra, queen of the Jews; she appoints her elder son Hyrcanus to succeed her.
33   Pompeius settles the remaining pirates at Pompeiopolis (Soli), Mallus, Adana, and Dyme in Achaea.
41   L.Roscius passes a law to reserve the front rows of seats at the theatre for the equites.
45   The creation of the Actio Publiciana, a procedure in Roman law.

66 B.C.
3   Manilius passes a law to transfer the command of the war against Mithridates to Pompeius; Cicero speaks in support of the law.
5   Aristobulus deposes Hyrcanus, and sets himself up as king of Judaea.
14   Lucullus returns to Rome; he brings back a new fruit - cherries from the town of Cerisus.
17   Pompeius inflicts a severe defeat on Mithridates, in a battle fought at night time.
20   Mithridates escapes from Pompeius and sets off towards the kingdom of Bosporus.
25   Sulla and Paetus, the consuls elected for the following year, are convicted of bribery, and disqualified.
29   Pompeius meets Tigranes near Artaxata, and reinstates him as king of Armenia, without any other territories; Tigranes' son is kept as a prisoner.
32   Catilina and others allegedly form an abortive plot against Cotta and Torquatus, the newly elected consuls for the following year.

65 B.C.
5   Pompeius attacks Artoces, king of the Iberians, and forces him to surrender.
6   C.Cornelius is again accused of treason, but he is defended by Cicero and acquitted.
12   Pompeius agrees a treaty with the Albanians, and other nations bordering on the Caspian Sea.
15   Catilina is eventually brought to trial by Clodius, but he is acquitted.
28   The creation of the Actio Serviana, a procedure in Roman law.

64 B.C.
8   Pompeius organises Pontus as a Roman province.
12   Catilina begins to collect associates for a new conspiracy; he allegedly makes them swear a secret oath.
25   Pompeius refuses to re-instate Antiochus Asiaticus as king of Syria: the end of Seleucid rule in Syria.
28   Cicero and Antonius are elected to be consuls for the following year.
31   Pompeius organises Coele Syria and Phoenicia as Roman provinces; Aradus becomes subject to the Romans, but Tyre and Byblus are allowed to remain free.

63 B.C.
1   Cicero successfully opposes an agrarian law proposed by the tribune Rullus.
4   Cicero procures the cooperation of his colleague Antonius, and of Fulvia, the mistress of Q.Curius.
7   Various omens, including an inauspicious "augurium salutis" and an eclipse of the moon.
10   Labienus and Caesar accuse C.Rabirius of treason, but he is defended by Cicero.
15   Caesar is elected to be pontifex maximus.
18   Mithridates discovers an antidote which protects him against poisoning.
22   Mithridates commits suicide after his son Pharnaces starts a rebellion.
24   Pompeius prepares to fight against Aretas and the Nabataean Arabs.
25   Cicero persuades the senate to pass a decree to prohibit bribery in elections.
31   Pompeius stays near Jericho, and puts Aristobulus under arrest.
33   Catilina is unsuccessful in the elections for new consuls.
35   The triumphs of L.Lucullus, over Mithridates, and M.Lucullus, over the Bessi.
39   The birth of C.Octavius, the future emperor Augustus.
41   Pompeius captures Jerusalem.
42   Pompeius enters the inner sanctuary of the temple at Jerusalem.
49   Pompeius appoints Hyrcanus to be high priest and ruler of the Jews.
50   Pompeius imposes Roman control over Judaea, and takes away Aristobulus as a prisoner.
56   Cicero speaks in the senate against Catilina; Catilina leaves Rome.
62   Cato prosecutes the consul-elect Murena, who is defended by Cicero.
63   The conspirators contact the envoys of the Allobroges through P.Umbrenus.
69   Cethegus forms another plot to murder Cicero, as part of a general insurrection in Rome.
70   The envoys of the Allobroges are arrested on the Milvian bridge, along with T.Volturcius, one of the conspirators.
71   The Allobroges appear before the senate; Lentulus resigns from his position as praetor, and a thanksgiving is decreed for the suppression of the conspiracy.
73   Following a debate in the senate, the leading conspirators are executed.
89   General comments on the consulship of Cicero, and the failure of Catilina's conspiracy.

62 B.C.
5   Catilina is defeated and killed by an army under the command of C.Antonius.
6   Pompeius' settlement of Rome's eastern provinces and the neighbouring kingdoms.
16   Q.Metellus celebrates a triumph over the Cretans, and is given the title "Creticus".
22   Pompeius visits Mytilene, where he honours Theophanes, and Rhodes, where he meets Poseidonius.
30   P.Clodius is discovered, disguised as a woman, in the house of Caesar during the rites of the goddess Bona Dea; Caesar divorces his wife.
31   Pompeius arrives at Brundisium, and dismisses his army.

61 B.C.
9   Clodius is brought to trial for sacrilege, but is acquitted, allegedly after bribing the jury.
24   Pompeius celebrates a triumph over the pirates and Mithridates.

60 B.C.
3   The optimates, led by L.Lucullus, oppose Pompeius' attempts to ratify his settlement of the East and to allot land to his veterans.
4   C.Caesar governs Further Spain, and fights against the Lusitani.
15   After widespread bribery, Bibulus overcomes L.Lucceius and is elected consul along with Caesar.
16   Caesar reconciles Pompeius and Crassus, and together they form the "First Triumvirate".

59 B.C.
8   Caesar's agrarian law is passed by the assembly of the people, after his opponents are removed by force.
12   Cicero speaks in defence of C.Antonius, but Antonius is convicted of extortion and goes into exile.
13   Clodius is transferred to the plebeians, after being "adopted" by P.Fonteius.
16   The consul Bibulus retires to his home, and refrains from public business.
17   Pompeius marries Julia, the daughter of Caesar.
23   Caesar is given the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, through a law proposed by Vatinius.
25   Caesar passes a law to distribute the Campanian land, in addition to his previous agrarian law.
36   Caesar passes the Lex Julia de repetundis, a law to prevent extortion by provincial governors.

58 B.C.
5   Clodius prohibits the use of "watching the sky" to obstruct legislation, as allowed by the Lex Aelia Fufia.
13   Clodius passes a law to give the consuls the provinces of Macedonia and Cilicia (later changed to Syria).
16   The equites and some of the senators demonstrate in support of Cicero, but Gabinius orders L.Lamia, one of the equites, to leave Rome.
17   The consuls support Clodius against Cicero.
18   The triumvirs offer no practical help to Cicero.
20   Clodius passes a law to turn Cyprus into a Roman province; M.Cato is sent to expel king Ptolemaeus from the island, and to restore some exiles to Byzantium.
21   Cicero leaves Rome and goes into exile, without waiting for a trial.
22   Clodius passes another law, explicitly banishing Cicero.
23   Clodius seizes Cicero's possessions, and destroys his house in Rome.
25   The start of Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
33   C.Octavius dies while travelling home to Rome from Macedonia.
40   Caesar defeats the Helvetii again, near Bibracte.
41   Caesar allows the survivors of the Helvetii to return home.
46   Clodius turns against Pompeius, and prevents him from leaving his house.
49   Caesar quells a mutiny in his army, caused by fear of the Germans.
54   M.Scaurus gives extravagant displays, including leopards and a hippopotamus, while holding the office of aedile.
57   After some delay, Ariovistus enters into a battle with Caesar, and is completely defeated.

57 B.C.
1   L.Cotta urges the senate to recall Cicero, but the motion is blocked by the tribune Atilius Serranus.
10   Ptolemaeus, king of Cyprus, commits suicide and Cato takes over the island without resistance.
18   Gabinius suppresses a revolt by Alexander, the son of Aristobulus; Marcus Antonius displays outstanding bravery during the fighting.
20   The senate meets in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and summons citizens from throughout Italy to vote on a motion for the recall of Cicero.
21   Pompeius supports the campaign for Cicero's recall.
24   The citizens meet in a centuriate assembly, and vote in favour of Cicero's recall.
27   The Nervii make a surprise attack on Caesar's army, but they are defeated with heavy losses.
29   Cicero receives an enthusiastic welcome on his return to Rome.
31   The senate appoints Pompeius to be commissioner for the grain supply, at the proposal of Cicero.
33   Cicero's speech De Domo Sua against Clodius, in defence of his right to rebuild his house at Rome.

56 B.C.
1   Despite pressure from Pompeius and Lentulus Spinther, the Romans do not agree to restore Ptolemaeus as king of Egypt.
14   Cato returns to Rome with the treasure he has collected from Cyprus.
23   Caesar, Pompeius and Crassus meet at Luca, and agree to renew their political alliance.
45   Pompeius and Crassus seek to be elected as consuls, although they have not formally declared themselves as candidates.

55 B.C.
2   The other elections are disrupted by violence, during which Pompeius is splattered with blood; Vatinius is elected as praetor, while Cato is rejected.
4   Pompeius sends a letter authorising Gabinius to assist Ptolemaeus' return to Egypt by force.
6   The Lex Trebonia assigns the provinces of Spain and Syria to the current consuls.
7   Caesar's command in Gaul is extended for a further five years.
10   Gabinius invades Egypt, defeats Archelaus and reinstates Ptolemaeus as king.
22   Caesar attacks the German camp by surprise, and slaughters everyone inside it, including the women and children.
26   Caesar constructs a bridge over the Rhine, and briefly crosses over to the east of the river.
31   Pompeius holds magnificent games to celebrate the opening of his theatre and the dedication of the temple of Venus Victrix.
33   Julius Caesar lands in Britain, despite resistance from British forces as his army disembarks.
35   Caesar's ships are damaged by a high tide on the coast of Britain.
45   Crassus musters an army despite the opposition of the tribunes, and leaves Rome for the east.
53   Cato gives his wife Marcia to his friend Hortensius.

54 B.C.
20   M.Cato attempts to stop corruption in the elections for new consuls.
29   Cicero is persuaded by Caesar to speak in defence of Vatinius.
32   {August -R} Julia, the daughter of Caesar and wife of Pompeius, dies in childbirth.
34   Scaurus is prosecuted for extortion, but he is acquitted, after Cicero and others speak in his defence.
36   The Britons agree terms with Caesar, and promise to hand over hostages to him.
39   General comments on Caesar's invasion of Britain.
41   Gabinius is prosecuted for illegally invading Egypt, but he is acquitted through bribery and the influence of Pompeius.
49   Cotta and Sabinus are ambushed and their army is destroyed by Ambiorix, the leader of the Eburones.
51   Caesar defeats the rebel Gauls, and forces them to abandon the siege of Q.Cicero's camp.

53 B.C.
13   Crassus ignores adverse omens as he crosses the river Euphrates.
21   Surenas, the Parthian general, attacks Crassus at Carrhae; the Romans are defeated with heavy losses, and P.Crassus is killed.
24   Crassus agrees to meet the Parthians for negotiations, but they seize and kill him.
30   C.Cassius, the quaestor of Crassus, takes control of Syria after reaching there with the remnants of Crassus' army.
36   The consuls are unable to hold elections for the following year, because of violent clashes between the candidates.

52 B.C.
3   Clodius is murdered by Milo's followers, near Bovillae.
4   Clodius' body is burnt in the senate-house, and the building is destroyed by the flames.
11   Vercingentorix, a chieftain of the Arverni, instigates a major rebellion throughout Gaul.
13   The senate appoints Pompeius to be sole consul.
16   Pompeius passes a law to set up special courts to judge cases of violence.
21   Pompeius passes a retrospective law to set up special courts to judge cases of bribery in elections.
28   Milo is convicted of the murder of Clodius, despite a speech in his defence by Cicero, and goes into exile.
35   All ten tribunes pass a law enabling Caesar to stand as a candidate for consul in absentia.
37   Caesar besieges and eventually captures Avaricum, another stronghold of the Bituriges.
45   Caesar suffers a reverse, while attempting to capture Gergovia.
61   The relief army and the Gauls besieged in Alesia make a co-ordinated attack on the Romans, but are decisively defeated.

51 B.C.
2   T.Munatius Plancus and Q.Pompeius Rufus, the tribunes of the previous year, are convicted on a charge of violence, and expelled from Rome.
3   M.Marcellus unsuccessfully attempts to persuade the senate to send a new governor to replace Caesar in Gaul.
11   The death of Ptolemaeus XII Auletes.
24   Consuls and tribunes are elected for the following year.
40   A Parthian army, led by Pacorus, invades Syria.
52   General comments on Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
53   C.Cassius defeats the Parthians as they retreat from Antioch, and kills Osaces, one of their generals.
55   Caesar wins the support of L.Paulus and C.Curio for the coming year, by giving them large bribes.

50 B.C.
11   Appius Claudius is prosecuted by Dolabella for his conduct in Cilicia, but is acquitted.
22   The death of Hortensius; after which Marcia returns to her previous husband, M.Cato.
24   Pompeius falls seriously ill, while staying at Neapolis, and sacrifices are offered throughout Italy for his recovery.
30   General comments on Cicero's conduct as governor of Cilicia.
38   The senate asks Pompeius and Caesar each to send a legion to defend Syria against the Parthians.
47   A large majority of the senate votes in favour of the proposal of Curio, that Caesar and Pompeius should both lay down their commands.

49 B.C.
1   M.Antonius forces the consuls to publish a letter from Caesar, which has been brought to Rome by Curio.
4   The senate passes the ultimate decree; M.Antonius, Q.Cassius, Curio and Caelius leave Rome, and go to join Caesar.
7   Caesar crosses the river Rubicon, and advances to Ariminum.
8   Caesar marches south through Umbria and Picenum.
10   Pompeius and most of the senators leave Rome.
12   L.Caesar carries messages between Caear and Pompeius, but they fail to reach an agreement.
17   Domitius attempts to resist Caesar at Corfinium, but is forced to surrender.
18   Pompeius withdraws towards Brundisium.
22   Caesar arrives at Brundisium, and attempts to obstruct the harbour in order to stop Pompeius leaving.
24   Pompeius leaves Brundisium, and sails over to Greece.
30   Caesar summons a meeting of the senate outside Rome.
31   Caesar seizes money from the public treasury, despite the opposition of the tribune L.Metellus.
40   Curio and Q.Valerius take control of Sicily and Sardinia, on behalf of Caesar.
44   Cicero and others leave Italy to join Pompeius.
48   Pompeius gathers reinforcements in Macedonia from many of the Roman provinces and allied kings.
51   Caesar harries the army of Afranius and Petreius, as they attempt to retreat from Ilerda.
52   Afranius and Petreius surrender to Caesar.
54   Juba, king of Numidia, defeats and kills Curio near Utica.
56   C.Antonius is forced to surrender to M.Octavius, one of Pompeius' officers, off the Dalmatian coast.
65   Julius Caesar is considered by later writers to be the first Roman emperor.
66   The starting point of the Era of Antioch.

48 B.C.
1   Caesar sets sail from Brundisium, and lands with his army in Epirus.
14   Caesar tries to return to Italy, but his boat is forced back by a storm.
21   Caesar attempts to surround Pompeius with a line of fortifications.
24   Caesar's army suffers from food shortages.
29   Caesar attacks Pompeius' forces at several points, but fails to break through.
33   Caesar withdraws from Dyrrachium and marches inland towards Thessaly.
39   Omens predicting the defeat and death of Pompeius.
40   Caesar decisively defeats the army of Pompeius near Pharsalus.
41   Caesar shows clemency in pardoning the survivors of Pompeius' army.
44   Pompeius goes to meet his wife Cornelia, on the island of Lesbos.
45   Pompeius decides to sail on to Egypt, to seek refuge with king Ptolemaeus.
48   Cato and Scipio go to Africa with the remains of Pompeius' army.
60   Pompeius is killed, by order of the Egyptian government, as he attempts to land in Egypt.
62   Caesar arrives at Alexandria, and is shown the severed head of Pompeius.

47 B.C.
1   Caesar sets fire to warships in the harbour of Alexandria, and the fire spreads to destroy part of the library.
8   During a attack on the island of Pharos, Caesar is forced to escape from his enemies by swimming to a ship.
14   Ptolemaeus is defeated and killed in a battle by the river Nile.
19   Caesar establishes Cleopatra and Ptolemaeus XIV as joint rulers of Egypt.
42   Caesar defeats Pharnaces at Zela, and says: "veni, vidi, vici".
68   Caesar sails from Lilybaeum, and reaches Africa near Hadrumetum.

46 B.C.
23   Caesar decisively defeats Scipio and Juba at Thapsus.
25   Cato commits suicide at Utica, to avoid being captured by Caesar.
27   Juba and Petreius kill each other in a suicide pact.
29   Scipio commits suicide when his ship is about to be captured near Hippo Regius.
35   Faustus, L.Caesar and other leading opponents of Caesar are captured and killed.
59   Caesar celebrates four triumphs on separate days, over Gaul, Egypt, Pontus and Africa.
60   Caesar gives a public banquet and shows of various kinds, some in memory of his daughter Julia.
71   Caesar reforms the Roman calendar; the new "Julian calendar" starts at the beginning of the following year.
82   Caesar leaves Rome for Spain, to fight against the sons of Pompeius.

45 B.C.
11   Caesar destroys the army of Pompeius in a hard-fought battle at Munda.
15   Cn.Pompeius retreats to Carteia, but is captured and killed.
20   Sex.Pompeius escapes into the interior of Spain.
68   C.Caninius Rebilus is appointed consul for one day, after the death of Fabius.

44 B.C.
3   Caesar founds a Roman colony on the site of Corinth.
14   Caesar deposes the tribunes Marullus and Flavus.
18   Caesar is appointed dictator for life (dictator perpetuus).
19   Antonius offers a diadem to Caesar at the festival of Lupercalia, but the crowd voice strong disapproval.
23   C.Cassius persuades M.Brutus to join him in a conspiracy against Caesar.
36   Julius Caesar is murdered in the senate-house by Brutus, Cassius and the other conspirators.
37   M.Brutus makes a speech in defence of the conspirators, who send envoys to negotiate with Antonius and Lepidus.
38   The senate votes for an amnesty, and Brutus and Cassius make a show of reconciliation with Antonius and Lepidus.
40   Caesar's funeral is followed by violent disturbances in the city of Rome.
46   Antonius implements, and allegedly falsifies, written proposals left by Caesar.
58   Amatius (or Herophilus), the "false Marius", is put to death by Antonius, after setting up an altar to Caesar.
76   The comitia pass a law, which transfers command of the province of Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, for a period of 5 years.
89   Octavianus holds the Ludi Victoriae Caesaris, during which a comet appears, and is interpreted as Julius Caesar going up to heaven.
125   Octavianus brings a large number of veterans to Rome, but they refuse to fight against Antonius.
128   Two legions desert from Antonius to Octavianus, while marching from Brundisium to Rome.

43 B.C.
7   Dollabella kills Trebonius at Smyrna.
25   C.Cassius wins over all the legions in Syria, together with four legions from Egypt.
42   The battle of Forum Gallorum: M.Antonius defeats Pansa, but is then defeated by Hirtius.
43   Octavianus is hailed as imperator for the first time; reckoned by some as the beginning of his reign.
48   In a battle near Mutina, Hirtius defeats Antonius again but is killed during the fighting.
49   The consul Pansa dies of wounds received in the battle of Forum Gallorum.
50   Antonius retreats from Mutina.
51   The senate awards great honours to D.Brutus, following the victory at Mutina, and lesser honours to Octavianus.
69   Antonius arrives at the camp of Lepidus, and they combine their forces.
87   Dolabella is killed at Laodiceia, after being defeated by Cassius.
92   Octavianus is appointed consul.
95   Decimus Brutus is pursued by Antonius, and killed after his troops desert him.
101   Octavianus, Antonius and Lepidus meet on an island near Bononia, to decide their next actions.
110   The triumvirs set up proscriptions, listing many of their opponents (including over 100 senators) who are condemned to immediate death.
115   Cicero is killed by the soldiers of the triumvirs, after being included in the proscriptions.

42 B.C.
4   Cassius punishes the inhabitants of Rhodes.
27   The first battle of Philippi; the death of Cassius.
33   The second battle of Philippi; the death of Brutus.
38   Antonius assumes control of the eastern provinces, and Octavianus agrees to return to Italy.
43   Porcia, the widow of Brutus, commits suicide.

41 B.C.
2   Murcus and Domitius join Sextus Pompeius, along with the remains of the republican fleet.
6   Severe disturbances throughout Italy, as Octavianus confiscates land to give to veterans.
14   Cleopatra sails in a golden barge to meet Antonius at Tarsus.

40 B.C.
4   Octavianus captures Perusia.
5   Q.Labienus and the Parthians invade Syria and defeat the army of Saxa, the Roman governor.
6   Many supporters of Antonius flee from Italy.
7   Tiberius Nero and his wife Livia escape from Campania to Sicily.
13   The Parthians, led by Pacorus, invade Judaea and set up Antigonus as king.
21   Labienus overruns Roman territory as far as Asia Minor.
22   Antigonus kills Phasael, the brother of Herodes, and mutilates Hyrcanus.
23   Antonius is reconciled with Octavianus at Brundisium, and agrees to marry his sister Octavia.
32   Herodes goes to Rome, where Antonius and Octavianus formally recognise him as king of Judaea.

39 B.C.
5   Ventidius drives Labienus out of Asia Minor, and defeats him near the Cilician Gates.
7   The treaty of Misenum, between the triumvirs and Sextus Pompeius.

38 B.C.
1   Octavianus marries Livia.
7   Ventidius defeats and kills Pacorus, the son of the Parthian king, at Gindarus.
14   The fleet of Octavianus is destroyed in a storm, after he is defeated by Sextus Pompeius near Messana.
15   Antonius besieges Antiochus of Commagene at Samosata, but eventually agrees to a truce.
17   The triumph of Ventidius: the first triumph won by a Roman general over the Parthians.

37 B.C.
9   Herodes and Sosius capture Jerusalem.
10   The start of Herodes' reign as king of Judaea.
13   Antigonus is executed, by order of Antonius.
16   Agrippa trains a new fleet in a specially constructed harbour on the Lucrine Lake.
18   Herodes appoints Ananel to be high priest of the Jews.

36 B.C.
3   Antonius re-distributes the territory of the kings in Cappadocia, Pontus and Cilicia.
4   Cleopatra counts the years of her reign from when she gained control of Chalcis in Syria, after the death of Lysanias.
5   Antonius invades Media.
10   Octavianus is defeated by Sextus Pompeius near Tauromenium, and forced to escape by land.
11   A Roman force of two legions, under the command of Oppius Statianus, is destroyed by the Parthians.
14   Octavianus decisively defeats Sextus Pompeius in a naval battle near Naulochus.
15   Lepidus is deserted by his army, and Octavianus strips him of his triumviral powers.
16   Antonius besieges Phraaspa, but fails to capture the city.
17   Octavianus offers concessions to stop a mutiny amongst his soldiers.
18   The army of Antonius suffers many casualties when he is forced to retreat through Armenia.
20   Herodes makes Aristobulus high priest.
22   Octavianus is awarded honours, perhaps including tribunician power, on his return from Sicily.
24   Octavianus rewards Agrippa with the unique honour of a "naval crown".

35 B.C.
5   Octavianus leads a military campaign against the Iapydes.
8   Sextus Pompeius is put to death by M.Titius.
10   Octavianus attacks the Pannonians and captures Siscia.
13   The high priest Aristobulus, the son of Alexandra, is killed by Herodes.

34 B.C.
9   Octavianus attacks the Dalmatians.
10   Antonius invades Armenia and captures king Artavasdes.
15   The "donations of Alexandria": Antonius grants royal titles to the children of Cleopatra.

33 B.C.
13   Agrippa as aedile supervises building work in Rome, including improvements to the aqueducts and sewers.
23   Antonius and Cleopatra allegedly indulge in degenerate behaviour, including the swallowing of a pearl.

32 B.C.
7   Antonius formally divorces Octavia.
18   The Romans declare war on Cleopatra.

31 B.C.
12   Cn.Domitius deserts Antonius, but dies soon afterwards.
21   Q.Dellius, Amyntas, Deiotarus and others desert Antonius.
23   Octavianus decisively defeats Antonius in a naval battle near Actium.
24   The years of Augustus as sole ruler can be counted from his victory at Actium.
26   Antonius and Cleopatra escape by sea.
28   Octavianus punishes some of his opponents, but forgives others.

30 B.C.
1   Octavianus quells a mutiny at Brundisium and allocates land in Italy to the veterans.
3   Octavianus constructs monuments to Apollo and Neptune at Actium.
4   Octavianus founds the city of Nicopolis, near Actium.
11   Hyrcanus is put to death by Herodes.
19   Octavianus enters Alexandria.
20   Antonius commits suicide.
24   Octavianus visits Cleopatra, but is impervious to her charms.
25   Cleopatra commits suicide, probably by the poisonous bite of an asp.
29   The death of Cleopatra marks the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
31   Octavianus re-arranges the household of Antonius; Caesarion and Antyllus are killed.
34   Egypt is established as a Roman province, with Cornelius Gallus as its praefect.
41   Octavianus reorganises the provinces and kingdoms in the east.


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