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168 B.C. Olympiad 153.1


Consuls: L. Aemilius L.f. Paullus (II), C. Licinius C.f. Crassus
Athenian archon: Xenocles
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Aristander of Antissa (Lesbos)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {15 March -R = January} The consuls enter office; an embassy from Alexandria appeals to the senate for help against Antiochus IV.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.2'1-4; +Liv_44.19'1-14.
2 {18 March -R = January} Legates from Macedonia return to Rome at evening time.
+Liv_44.20'1.
3 {19 March -R = January} The legates from Macedonia appear before the senate; Paullus makes a speech to the people.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.1'1-3; +Liv_44.20'2-22'15; +Plut:Aem_11'1-4, :Mor_197'F; { CAH_8'315.}
4 {12 April -R = February} Paullus leaves for Macedonia, after celebrating the Latin Festival.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Att_4.13'2; +Liv_44.19'4, #22'16-17, 45.39'9; { CAH_8'316.}
5 MOE Perseus fails to win the support of the Bastarnae.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.9'13; Diod_30.19'1, 21'3, 31.14'1; +Liv_44.26'1-27'7; +Plut:Aem_12'2-13'1; Appian:Mac_18'1-3.(32) 
6 PEL << An embassy from Egypt asks the Achaean assembly for support against Antiochus, but receives no practical help.
~Polyb_29.23'1-25'7; { Walbank_p396.}
7 AEG The Macedonian fleet sails into the Aegean, and surprises a convoy of Pergamene ships.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.28'1-29'5, 45.31'14; Appian:Mac_18'4.(34) 
8 EGY Antiochus IV invades Egypt for a second time.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.26'1-2; ~2Macc_5'1-4; Diod_31.1'1; +Liv_45.11'9-12'2; Porph:Fr_50; { CAH_8'344.}
8a << Document: BD_40A, describing fighting in Egypt during the invasion by Antiochus.
8b GRE ?? Document: BD_(2)48,B  a decree of Chalcis in response to a consignment of grain from Ptolemy VI.
9 AEG The Rhodians decide to try to mediate between Perseus and the Romans.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.10'1-11'6; +Liv_44.29'6-8; { CAH_8'337.}
10 ILL {?May} The praetor L.Anicius arrives in Illyria.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.30'1-15; Appian:Ill_9;(↓)  +Eutrop_4.6'4.
11 ITA {May} Paullus sets sail from Brundisium for Corcyra.
* Read Diodorus' account
#Diod_31.11'1; #Liv_45.41'3, '5; +Plut:Aem_12'1, #36'4; Appian:Mac_19'2.(35) 
12 GRE {June} Paullus arrives at Delphi.
* Read Diodorus' account
#Diod_31.11'1; #Liv_45.41'3; #Plut:Aem_36'4; Appian:Mac_19'2;(35)  { Green_430.}
13 MAC {June} Paullus reaches the Roman army at the river Elpeus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Diod_30.20'1, #31.11'1; +Liv_44.32'5-35'5, #45.41'4; ValMax_2.7'14;L  Plut:Aem_12'1-14'11, :Gal_1'2, :Mor_198'A; #Appian:Mac_19'2;(35)  Just_33.1'6; +Eutrop_4.6'4; +Zonar_9'23.(p341) 
14 ILL {?June} Anicius captures Genthius, the king of the Illyrians.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.31'1-32'5, 45.26'13-14, 43'4; Strab_6'287;(4.2)  +Plut:Aem_13'3; Flor_1.29'2; Appian:Ill_9; Festus:Brev_7'5; +Eutrop_4.6'4; +Zonar_9'24;(p349)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_i.}
15 MAC {June} Paullus decides to attack Perrhaebia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Pacuv:Paulus_5;L  +Liv_44.35'6-15; +Plut:Aem_15'1-11; +Zonar_9'23.(p341) 
16 {June} Paullus engages in fighting by the Elpeus.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.14'4; +Liv_44.35'16-20; +Zonar_9'23.(p341) 
17 The Romans sustain heavy casualties in further fighting by the Elpeus.
+Liv_44.35'21-22.
18 {2 September -R = 20 June} Nasica defeats the Macedonian garrison at Pythium.
* Read Plutarch's account
#Diod_31.11'1; +Liv_44.35'23-24, #45.41'4; +Plut:Aem_16'1-4; Flor_1.28'7; +Zonar_9'23;(p343)  { CAH_8'316.}
19 {3 September -R = 21 June} Paullus advances to Pydna; Sulpicius Gallus predicts a lunar eclipse, which occurs during the night.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.16'1-3; Cic:Rep_1'23-24;L  #Liv_44.36'1-37'9; ValMax_8.11'1;L  Plin:HN_2'53;L  Quint_1.10'47; Frontin:Str_1.12'8; +Plut:Aem_16'5-17'10, :Mor_198'A-B; Just_33.1'7; +Zonar_9'23;(p343)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_g.}
20 {4 September -R = 22 June} Paullus defeats Perseus at the battle of Pydna.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.17'1-4; Pacuv:Paulus_1-4;L  Diod_30.22'1; +Liv_44.37'10-44'3, 45.37'9-10, 41'4-5; Vell_1.9'4; Frontin:Str_2.3'20, 4.5'17; Plut:CatMai_20'10-11, +:Aem_17'11-23'8, 36'4, :Mor_70'A-B; Flor_1.28'8-9, 14-15; Appian:Mac_19'2;(35)  Just_33.2'1-4; [Euseb]:Chron_239; [Vict]:VirIll_58'1;L  #Eutrop_4.7'1; +Oros_4.20'39;L  +Zonar_9'23;(p345)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_pa; scenes from the battle of Pydna appear on the Monument of Aemilius Paullus - see the discussion by Michael Taylor.}
21 The Thracian garrison is tricked into leaving Amphipolis.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.43'8, 44'4-8; Frontin:Str_3.16'5.
22 ROM P.Vatinius has a divine revelation from the Dioscuri, announcing Paullus' victory.
Cic:ND_2'6, 3'11, '13; ValMax_1.8'1;L  Plin:HN_7'86;L  MinFel:Oct_7'3, 27'4.
23 MAC {6 September -R = 24 June} Perseus arrives at Amphipolis.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_30.21'1-2; #Liv_44.45'1-14, 45.41'6; +Plut:Aem_23'9-24'2; +Zonar_9'23.(p345) 
24 AEG {7 September -R = 25 June} Perseus takes refuge in Samothrace.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_29.25'1; #Liv_44.45'14-15, 45.40'2; Vell_1.9'4; ValMax_1.8'1;L  +Plut:Aem_23'11; Flor_1.28'9; Ampel_16'4; +Zonar_9'23.(p345) 
25 ROM An unsubstantiated rumour about victory in Macedonia spreads at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.1'2-5; +Plut:Aem_24'4-6, 31'6; +Zonar_9'24.(p351) 
26 MAC Paullus reaches Pella.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_44.46'1-11; +Plut:Aem_24'3.
27 PAL Jason attacks Menelaus, who appeals for help to Antiochus.
* Read 2Maccabees' account
2Macc_1'7, ~5'5-10; Joseph:AJ_12'239-240; Hieron:Chron_1845; Malal_206; { CAH_8'348; Green_512.}
28 ROM {16 September -R = 4 July} Official news of the victory at Pydna reaches Rome.
#Liv_45.1'6-11.
29 AEG A Roman delegation arrives at Samothrace to negotiate with Perseus.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.4'2-7; Flor_1.28'10; +Zonar_9'23.(p345) 
30 Euander the Cretan is killed, probably by order of Perseus.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.5'1-12; DioCass_fr.66'3; +Zonar_9'23.(p347) 
31 The Macedonian fleet withdraws to Cassandreia after receiving news of the battle of Pydna.
+Liv_45.10'1-15.
32 A Roman embassy led by Popillius goes to Rhodes, and persuades an assembly to condemn to death those suspected of sympathising with Perseus.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.10'4-15; DioCass_fr.68'1.
33 GRE Document: IG_2³.1334, a decree in honour of Calliphanes, an Athenian who was with the Roman army at Pydna.
34 ROM {25 September -R = 13 July} Envoys from Paullus arrive at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_45.1'5, #2'1-12; ValMax_1.8'1;L  +Zonar_9'24.(p351) 
35 ?? The first bakers start up business at Rome.
~Plin:HN_18'107.L 
36 AEG ++ The Rhodians and other Greek states fail to give full support to the Romans during the war against Perseus.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_30.7'2-8'8; Sall:Cat_51'5; Diod_31.5'1, '3; Liv_45.31'7, '15, 42'7-10; Vell_1.9'2; Paus_7.10'8-9; Gell_6.3'3-5, '15-16.
37 MAC ++ General remarks about the war between Rome and Perseus, and the Roman conquest of Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_30.3'1, 36.9'7; Diod_31.9'1, 32.4'5; Memn_18'4; Plut:Sull_12'9-11, :Tim_40'1-4,(1)  :Mor_474'F-475'A; Malal_208-209; Zonar_9'22.(p335) 
38 AEG Perseus surrenders to the Romans; the end of the war against Perseus, the last king of Macedonia.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_31.25'6-7; Diod_31.11'2; +Liv_45.6'1-12; Vell_1.9'5; +Plut:Aem_26'1-7; DioCass_fr.66'4; Just_33.2'5; [Euseb]:Chron_241;(↓)  Malal_196; ExcBarb_44A; +Zonar_9'23;(p349)  { CAH_8'316; OCD_p.}
39 EGY {Paoni -E = July} Popillius meets Antiochus near Alexandria, and promptly orders him to withdraw from Egypt.
* Read Polybius' account
#Austin_212'R4-11,B  'V6-13;B  Daniel_11'29-30; ~Polyb_29.27'1-13; Cic:Phil_8'23; Diod_31.2'1-2; +Liv_45.12'3-8, 23'12; Vell_1.10'1-2; ValMax_6.4'3;L  Plin:HN_34'24;L  Plut:Mor_202'E-203'A; Appian:Syr_66; Just_34.3'1-4; Trog:Prol_34; Porph:Fr_50; !Hieron:Chron_1845; Zonar_9'25;(p361)  { CAH_8'344; OCD_p.}
40 << Antiochus carries back a large quantity of loot from his invasions of Egypt.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_30.26'9; Porph:Fr_49.
41 MAC Paullus receives Perseus at the Roman camp.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_29.20'1-21'9; Cic:Tusc_5'118;L  Diod_30.23'1-2; +Liv_45.7'1-9'1; ValMax_5.1'8;L  +Plut:Aem_26'8-27'6; Flor_1.28'10-11; DioCass_fr.66'4; +Eutrop_4.7'2; +Zonar_9'23.(p349) 
42 ROM Rhodian envoys, led by Agepolis, address the senate, and are accused of supporting Perseus.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.19'1-11; Diod_30.24'1; +Liv_45.3'1-4'1, 23'11-12; Gell_6.3'2-3; { CAH_8'337.}
43 {11 October -R = 28 July} A thanksgiving is held for Paullus' victory.
#Liv_45.2'12.
44 {29 October -R = 15 August} A thanksgiving is held for Anicius' victory.
#Liv_45.3'2.
45 EGY {30 Epeiph -E = August} Document: SelPap_1.97, a letter from Isias to Hephaestion.
46 {Epeiph -E = August} Document: Austin_212,B  a statement by Hor claiming that he foretold the retreat of Antiochus from Egypt.
47 PAL Antiochus captures Jerusalem, and massacres the inhabitants.
* Read 2Maccabees' account
~2Macc_5'11-21; 4Macc_4'21-23; Joseph:BJ_1'19, '32-33, 5'394, 6'436, :AJ_12'248-250; ChronPasc_464'B, 509'B; Hieron:Chron_1857; Sulpit_2'19; Malal_206; ExcBarb_35B; ChronSynt_65, 67;(↓)  Suda_A'2693; { CAH_8'534; Green_513.}
48 CIS The consul Licinius takes charge of an army in Cisalpine Gaul, but remains inactive.
+Liv_45.12'9-13.
49 MAC Paullus punishes deserters by throwing them under his elephants.
ValMax_2.7'14.L 
50 Paullus rewards Q.Tubero with some silver from the Macedonian spoils.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_4.3'7;L  Sen:Ep_95'72-73, 98'13, 104'21, 120'19; Plin:HN_33'142;L  ~Plut:Aem_28'10-13, :Mor_198'C; { Plinius has confused Q.Aelius Tubero with Sex.Aelius Paetus.}
51 ASI The Galatians attack Eumenes.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_29.22'1-4; Diod_31.12'1-13'1; Liv_45.19'3, 20'1; { CAH_8'333.}
52 ROM Embassies from Antiochus, Ptolemy, Eumenes and Masinissa, and from Pisa and Luna, appear before the senate.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_30.16'2; +Liv_45.13'1-14'9; ValMax_5.1'1.L 
53 PON Prusias of Bithynia calls himself a freedman of Rome.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_30.18'3-4; Diod_31.15'2; Liv_45.44'19; Plut:Mor_336'E; Appian:Mith_2; DioCass_fr.69'1; { Appianus states that this was after the capture of Perseus, though Walbank (p441) suggests it may have been in 172 B.C., before the start of the war.}
54 ILL Anicius subdues Illyria and Epirus, and organizes their administration.
* Read Diodorus' account
@  (?) Cato:Orig_5'4;L (96)  Diod_31.8'2-3, '5; ~Liv_45.26'1-15; Strab_7'315;(5.6)  { Walbank_p431.}
55 AEG Deinon and Polyaratus, the most outspoken supporters of Perseus at Rhodes, are brought to Rome.
Polyb_30.6'1-9'21; { Not long after Popilius' mission to Egypt.}
56 EGY The Egyptians set free Menalcidas of Lacedaemon, at the request of Popillius.
Polyb_30.16'1-2; { Walbank_p439.}
57 GRE Paullus tours the Greek cities.
* Read Livy's account
CIL_1.622; Polyb_30.10'1-6; ~Liv_45.27'1-28'6; ~Plut:Aem_28'1-5; { Walbank_p431.}
58 ROM ?? Caecilius' cognomen "Statius" indicates that he was originally a slave.
Gell_4.20'13.
59 == The death of the dramatist Caecilius Statius.
!Hieron:Chron_1838; { OCD_c.}
60 == Crates of Mallus lectures at Rome.
Suet:Gram_2; { CAH_8'471; OCD_c.}

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