217 B.C. Olympiad 140.4

Consuls: Cn. Servilius P.f. Geminus, C. Flaminius C.f. (II)
Athenian archon: Callimachus
Achaean General: Aratus (XIV)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM Sempronius returns to Rome to hold elections for new consuls.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.15'6, 57'4; ~Zonar_8'25;(p103)  { CAH_8'49.}
2 EGY {27 Daesius -M = 29 Hathur -E = January} Document: SelPap_2.270, a petition from Pistus son of Leontomenes.
3 PEL << The incompetence of the Achaean general Eperatus allows Pyrrhias to lead an Aetolian raid into Achaea.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.30'1-6, 91'4; { CAH_7.1'480.}
4 CIS Hannibal makes an unsuccessful attack on Placentia.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_25.17'1; ~Liv_21.57'5-14, 27.39'14; ~Appian:Hann_7;(↓)  ~Zonar_8'24.(p99) 
5 Hannibal retires to winter quarters in Cisalpine Gaul.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.77'3-78'4; ~Zonar_8'24.(p101) 
6 Hannibal crosses the Apennines.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.58'1-59'10; Silius_4'739-748; +Oros_4.14'8; ~Zonar_8'24;(p101)  { OCD_h.}
7 ROM Bad omens at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.62'1-11; ValMax_1.6'5; ~Plut:Fab_2'2-3; DioCass_fr.57'7; +Oros_4.15'1.
8 The new consuls make preparations for fighting against Hannibal.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_3.75'1-8; +Appian:Hann_8'
9 {March -R} Flaminius enters his consulship at Ariminum.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_21.15'6, 63'1-15, +22.1'5-7; Silius_4'707-721.
10 ETR Hannibal follows a difficult route through marshes into Etruria.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.78'1-80'1; Nepos_23.4'2-3; +Liv_22.1'1-4, 2'1-11; Strab_5'217;(1.11)  Silius_4'749-762; Juvenal_10'154-158; +Oros_4.15'2-3; +Zonar_8'25.(p105) 
11 SPA Cn.Scipio defeats a Carthaginian fleet near the Ebro.
* Read Livy's account
Sosyl_1; +Polyb_3.95'1-96'6; +Liv_22.19'1-20'3; Frontin:Str_4.7'9; ~Zonar_9'1;(p129)  { CAH_8'57; OCD_s.}
12 PEL Aratus becomes general of the Achaean League.
Polyb_5.30'7; { CAH_7.1'480.}
13 Lycurgus returns to Sparta and invades Messenia.
14 Aratus puts an end to civil dissension at Megalopolis.
15 Lycus of Pharae defeats the Aetolians near Leontium.
16 ETR Hannibal devastates the countryside in Etruria.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.80'3-82'10; Cic:Div_1'77, 2'67; +Liv_22.3'1-14; Silius_5'66-69; Plut:Fab_2'2-3'1; Flor_1.22'14; +Appian:Hann_9; AmmMarc_15.10'11; +Oros_4.15'4; +Zonar_8'25;(p105)  { OCD_h.}
17 AFR The Carthaginians demand Hannibal's son for a human sacrifice.
Silius_4'763-829; { This is clearly unhistorical.}
18 SPA P.Scipio arrives in Spain.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.97'1-5; +Liv_22.20'4-22'3; Appian:Hisp_15, +:Hann_8; ~Zonar_9'1;(p131)  { CAH_8'57; OCD_s.}
18a EGY {26 Pharmuthi -E = 8 June} The death of Anemhor, the high priest of Memphis.
19 PAL {1 Pachon -E = 13 June} The Egyptian army advances to meet Antiochus.
#THI_259; +Polyb_5.79'1-80'7.
20 ETR {21 June -R} Hannibal defeats and kills Flaminius at Lake Trasimene.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.81'9-85'6, 5.101'3, 105'3; Cic:ND_2'8, :Div_1'77, 2'21; Nepos_23.4'3; +Liv_22.4'1-7'5; #Ovid:Fast_6'763-768; Strab_5'226-227;(2.9)  ValMax_1.6'6; Frontin:Str_2.5'24, 6'4, 4.7'25; Silius_5'1-6'61; Plut:Fab_3'1-3; Flor_2.6'13-14; +Appian:Hann_10; Eutrop_3.9'2; +Oros_4.15'5-7; +Zonar_8'25;(p105-7)  { CAH_8'49; OCD_f.}
21 PAL {10 Pachon -E = 22 June} The Egyptian army defeats Antiochus at Raphia.
* Read Polybius' account
#THI_259; Daniel_11'11-12; +Polyb_5.81'1-86'11; 3Macc_1'1-5, 3'14; Strab_16'759;(2.31)  Plut:Mor_972'C; Aelian:NA_7'44; Just_30.1'6; Trog:Prol_30; Porph:Fr_44; { CAH_7.1'437; Green_289-290.}
22 ETR Maharbal defeats a Roman cavalry force led by C.Centenius.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.86'1-5; Nepos_23.4'3; +Liv_22.8'1; +Appian:Hann_11, 17; +Zonar_8'25.(p109) 
23 GRE The Eleans and Aetolians make raids into their opponents' territory.
24 MAC An unsuccessful attack by Philippus on Melitaea.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.97'1-98'11, 9.18'5-9; { CAH_7.1'480.}
25 {June} Philippus captures Thebes in Phthiotis.
* Read Polybius' account
@  (?) THI_70; +Polyb_5.99'1-100'11; Diod_26.9'1; Liv_28.7'12; { CAH_7.1'480.}
26 ROM {? July} Q.Fabius Maximus is appointed dictator, and collects new recruits for the army, including some freedman.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.85'7-10, 86'6-7, 87'6-9, 88'7-8; +Liv_22.7'6-8'7, 9'7-11'9, 31'8-11; +FastCap_p60; ValMax_9.12'2; Silius_6'552-595, '609-640, 7'1-89; Plut:Fab_3'4-5'1; +Appian:Hann_11-12; Polyaen_8.14'1; DioCass_fr.57'8; Macrob:Sat_1.11'31;L  +Zonar_8'25;(p109)  { CAH_8'50; OCD_f.}
27 MAC << Document: Syll_532, an inscription from Lamia in honour of the poetess Aristodama.
27a ASI << Document: THI_52, a treaty of isopoliteia between Miletus and Tralles. { Errington_p179.}
28 ETR Hannibal advances to the Adriatic coast and rests his army in Picenum.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.86'8-87'5, 88'1-6; +Liv_22.9'1-6; Silius_6'595-609, '641-650, 17'320-321; +Appian:Hann_12; +Zonar_8'25;(p109)  { CAH_8'50.}
29 M.Cato serves as a soldier in the Roman army for the first time.
* Read Plutarch's account
Nepos:Cat_1'2; Plut:CatMai_1'8; { Cato was 17 years old at the time.}
30 Fabius declines to enter a set battle with Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.88'9-90'6; Diod_26.3'1-2; +Liv_22.12'1-12; Sen:Dial_3.11'5; Silius_7'90-157; Plut:Fab_5'1-6, :Mor_195'C; +Appian:Hann_12; Polyaen_8.14'1; DioCass_fr.57'9-10; +Zonar_8'25;(p111)  { CAH_8'50.}
31 ITA Hannibal crosses to Campania, which he lays waste.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.90'7-92'7; +Liv_22.13'1-14'15, 25'7; Silius_6'651-716, 7'158-271; (?) Polyaen_6.38'9; DioCass_fr.57'8; +Zonar_8'25;(p109)  { OCD_h.}
32 Hannibal is trapped by Fabius near Falernum, but escapes.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.92'8-94'8; Nepos_23.5'1-2; +Liv_22.15'1-18'6; Quint_2.17'19; Frontin:Str_1.5'28; Silius_7'272-380, 12'501-504; Plut:Fab_6'1-7'2; +Appian:Hann_13-15; Polyaen_6.38'8; +Zonar_8'26;(p113)  { CAH_8'50.}
33 SPA Abelux persuades Bostar to release the Spanish hostages from Saguntum.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.97'6-99'9; +Liv_22.22'4-21; ~Zonar_9'1.(p131) 
34 PAL Ptolemy visits Jerusalem, and attempts to enter the temple.
* Read 3Maccabees' account
~3Macc_1'6-2'24, 3'15-19.
35 ++ General remarks on the Fourth Syrian War, and the devastation which it caused in Coele Syria.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_1.3'1-2; Joseph:AJ_12'129-130.
36 {? September} Peace terms are agreed between Antiochus and the Egyptians; the end of the Fourth Syrian War.
* Read Polybius' account
THI_259; (?) SEG_38.1571; +Polyb_5.87'1-8, 14.12'3; Just_30.1'7; Porph:Fr_44; { CAH_7.1'437.}
37 MAC {21 Hyperberetaeus -M = ? September} Document: BD_31 (Syll_543'1-22), a letter from Philippus to Larissa and a subsequent decree passed by the city assembly. { CAH_7.1'511.}
38 PEL ?? Aratus fails in an attack on Cynaetha.
Polyb_9.17'1-10; { At an unspecified date during the Social War.}
38a AEG ?? Document: Syll_573, a dedication at Delos by Philippus of spoils from the land war.
38b GRE ?? Document: THI_117, a statue of an Aetolian, Simus, set up by Achaean exiles.
39 Peace terms are agreed at Naupactus between the Aetolians and Philippus and his allies; the end of the Social War.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.2'3, 4.28'5, +5.101'5-105'10; (?) Paus_6.15'2; Just_29.2'1-3'8; { CAH_7.1'481; CAH_8'94.}
40 {? October} Agelaus becomes general of the Aetolian League.
41 ETR A Carthaginian fleet approaches Caieta in Latium.
~Silius_7'409-493; { CAH_8'66.}
42 ITA Roman successes at Geronium.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.94'9-10, 100'1-102'11; +Liv_22.18'7-10, 23'1-24'14; ValMax_3.8'2, 4.8'1, 7.3e'8; Frontin:Str_1.8'2; Silius_7'380-408, '494-507; Plut:Fab_7'2-8'2; +Appian:Hann_15-16;(↓)  DioCass_fr.57'15, '35; [Vict]:VirIll_43'6-7; +Zonar_8'26;(p117)  { CAH_8'51; OCD_minucius.}
43 ROM The magister equitum, M.Minucius, is granted the same powers as Fabius.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.103'1-8, 106'2, 5.2'4; Nepos_23.5'3; +Liv_22.25'1-27'11; Silius_7'508-522; Plut:Fab_8'3-10'5, :Mor_195'C; +Appian:Hann_12-13;(↓)  DioCass_fr.57'11, '16-17, '20; [Vict]:VirIll_43'3; +Zonar_8'26;(p119)  { CAH_8'51; OCD_m.}
44 ITA Fabius saves Minucius from defeat by Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.104'1-105'11; Diod_26.3'3; Nepos_23.5'3; +Liv_22.28'1-30'10, 23.11'8-10; CIL_11.1828; ValMax_5.2'4; Plin:HN_22'10;L  Frontin:Str_2.5'22, 4.6'1; Silius_7'523-750, 9'563-567; Plut:Fab_11'1-15'3, :Mor_195'D; +Appian:Hann_13; DioCass_fr.57'19-20; +Zonar_8'26;(p125)  { CAH_8'51.}
45 AFR Servilius raids the African coast.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.96'7-14; +Liv_22.31'1-7; +Zonar_8'26;(p129)  { CAH_8'66.}
46 ILL Philippus invades Illyria.
+Polyb_5.108'1-9; { CAH_8'95.}
46a EGY {1 Artemisios - M = 1 Phaophi -E = November} Document: THI_259, a decree of the Egyptian priests in honour of Ptolemy IV. { Hölbl_p162.}
47 ROM ?? A woodpecker sits on the head of P.Aelius Tubero, and is interpreted as a bad omen.
ValMax_5.6'4; Plin:HN_10'41;L  Frontin:Str_4.5'14; { Before the battle of Cannae; but a similar story about P.Aelius Paetus is listed under 203 B.C..}
48 >> A plebiscitum removes restrictions to the re-election of consuls for the duration of the war.
+Liv_27.6'7; { CAH_8'68.}
49 >> Gold coins are minted at Rome for the first time, and the weight of the bronze coins is halved.
+Plin:HN_33'45, '47.
50 >> A record number of 57 earthquakes are reported at Rome during the year.
51 == The delaying tactics of Fabius earn him the title of Cunctator.
* Read Florus' account
Ennius:Ann_360-362; Liv_23.11'10; Verg:Aen_6'845-846; Quint_8.2'11; Frontin:Str_1.3'3; Flor_1.22'27-28; Ampel_18'6, 46'6; [Vict]:VirIll_43'2; AmmMarc_29.5'32; ~Oros_4.15'7.
52 ROM == Document: CIL_1.607, a dedication by Minucius.

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