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217 B.C. Olympiad 140.4


Consuls: Cn. Servilius P.f. Geminus, C. Flaminius C.f. (II)
Athenian archon: Callimachus
Achaean General: Aratus (XIV)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM Sempronius returns to Rome to hold elections for new consuls.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.15'6, 57'4; ~Zonar_8'25;(p103)  { CAH_8'49.}
2 EGY {27 Daesius -M = 29 Hathur -E = January} Document: SelPap_2.270, a petition from Pistus son of Leontomenes.
3 PEL << The incompetence of the Achaean general Eperatus allows Pyrrhias to lead an Aetolian raid into Achaea.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.30'1-6, 91'4; { CAH_7.1'480.}
4 CIS Hannibal makes an unsuccessful attack on Placentia.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_25.17'1; ~Liv_21.57'5-14, 27.39'14; ~Appian:Hann_7;(↓)  ~Zonar_8'24.(p99) 
5 Hannibal retires to winter quarters in Cisalpine Gaul.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.77'3-78'4; ~Zonar_8'24.(p101) 
6 Hannibal crosses the Apennines.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.58'1-59'10; Silius_4'739-748;L  +Oros_4.14'8;L  ~Zonar_8'24;(p101)  { OCD_h.}
7 ROM Bad omens at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_21.62'1-11; ValMax_1.6'5;L  ~Plut:Fab_2'2-3; DioCass_fr.57'7; +Oros_4.15'1.L 
8 The new consuls make preparations for fighting against Hannibal.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_3.75'1-8; +Appian:Hann_8'
9 {March -R} Flaminius enters his consulship at Ariminum.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_21.15'6, 63'1-15, +22.1'5-7; Silius_4'707-721.L 
10 ETR Hannibal follows a difficult route through marshes into Etruria.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.78'1-80'1; Nepos_24.4'2-3; +Liv_22.1'1-4, 2'1-11; Strab_5'217;(1.11)  Silius_4'749-762;L  Juvenal_10'154-158;L  +Oros_4.15'2-3;L  +Zonar_8'25.(p105) 
11 SPA Cn.Scipio defeats a Carthaginian fleet near the Ebro.
* Read Livy's account
Sosyl_1; +Polyb_3.95'1-96'6; +Liv_22.19'1-20'3; Frontin:Str_4.7'9; ~Zonar_9'1;(p129)  { CAH_8'57; OCD_s.}
12 PEL Aratus becomes general of the Achaean League.
Polyb_5.30'7; { CAH_7.1'480.}
13 Lycurgus returns to Sparta and invades Messenia.
+Polyb_5.91'1-92'10.
14 Aratus puts an end to civil dissension at Megalopolis.
+Polyb_5.93'1-10.
15 Lycus of Pharae defeats the Aetolians near Leontium.
+Polyb_5.94'1-9.
16 ETR Hannibal devastates the countryside in Etruria.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.80'3-82'10; Cic:Div_1'77, 2'67; +Liv_22.3'1-14; Silius_5'66-69;L  Plut:Fab_2'2-3'1; Flor_1.22'14; +Appian:Hann_9; AmmMarc_15.10'11; +Oros_4.15'4;L  +Zonar_8'25;(p105)  { OCD_h.}
17 AFR The Carthaginians demand Hannibal's son for a human sacrifice.
Silius_4'763-829;L  { This is clearly unhistorical.}
18 SPA P.Scipio arrives in Spain.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.97'1-5; +Liv_22.20'4-22'3; Appian:Hisp_15, +:Hann_8; ~Zonar_9'1;(p131)  { CAH_8'57; OCD_s.}
19 PAL {1 Pachon -E = 13 June} The Egyptian army advances to meet Antiochus.
#Inscr_17; +Polyb_5.79'1-80'7.
20 ETR {21 June -R} Hannibal defeats and kills Flaminius at Lake Trasimene.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.81'9-85'6, 5.101'3, 105'3; Cic:ND_2'8, :Div_1'77, 2'21; Nepos_23.4'3; +Liv_22.4'1-7'5; #Ovid:Fast_6'763-768; Strab_5'226-227;(2.9)  ValMax_1.6'6;L  Frontin:Str_2.5'24, 6'4, 4.7'25; Silius_5'1-6'61;L  Plut:Fab_3'1-3; Flor_2.6'13-14; +Appian:Hann_10; Eutrop_3.9'2; +Oros_4.15'5-7;L  +Zonar_8'25;(p105-7)  { CAH_8'49; OCD_f.}
21 PAL {10 Pachon -E = 22 June} The Egyptian army defeats Antiochus at Raphia.
* Read Polybius' account
#Inscr_17; Daniel_11'11-12; +Polyb_5.81'1-86'11; 3Macc_1'1-5, 3'14; Strab_16'759;(2.31)  Plut:Mor_972'C; Aelian:NA_7'44; Just_30.1'6; Trog:Prol_30; Porph:Fr_44; { CAH_7.1'437; Green_289-290.}
22 ETR Maharbal defeats a Roman cavalry force led by C.Centenius.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.86'1-5; Nepos_23.4'3; +Liv_22.8'1; +Appian:Hann_11, 17; +Zonar_8'25.(p109) 
23 GRE The Eleans and Aetolians make raids into their opponents' territory.
+Polyb_5.95'1-96'8.
24 MAC An unsuccessful attack by Philippus on Melitaea.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.97'1-98'11, 9.18'5-9; { CAH_7.1'480.}
25 {June} Philippus captures Thebae in Phthiotis.
* Read Polybius' account
@  (?) Inscr_70; +Polyb_5.99'1-100'11; Diod_26.9'1; Liv_28.7'12; { CAH_7.1'480.}
26 ROM {? July} Q.Fabius Maximus is appointed dictator, and collects new recruits for the army, including some freedman.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.85'7-10, 86'6-7, 87'6-9, 88'7-8; +Liv_22.7'6-8'7, 9'7-11'9, 31'8-11; +FastCap_p60; ValMax_9.12'2;L  Silius_6'552-595,L  '609-640,L  7'1-89;L  Plut:Fab_3'4-5'1; +Appian:Hann_11-12; Polyaen_8.14'1; DioCass_fr.57'8; Macrob:Sat_1.11'31;L  +Zonar_8'25;(p109)  { CAH_8'50; OCD_f.}
27 MAC << Document: Syll_532, an inscription from Lamia in honour of the poetess Aristodama.
28 ETR Hannibal advances to the Adriatic coast and rests his army in Picenum.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.86'8-87'5, 88'1-6; +Liv_22.9'1-6; Silius_6'595-609,L  '641-650,L  17'320-321;L  +Appian:Hann_12; +Zonar_8'25;(p109)  { CAH_8'50.}
29 M.Cato serves as a soldier in the Roman army for the first time.
* Read Plutarch's account
Nepos:Cat_1'2; Plut:CatMai_1'8; { Cato was 17 years old at the time.}
30 Fabius declines to enter a set battle with Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.88'9-90'6; Diod_26.3'1-2; +Liv_22.12'1-12; Sen:Dial_3.11'5; Silius_7'90-157;L  Plut:Fab_5'1-6, :Mor_195'C; +Appian:Hann_12; Polyaen_8.14'1; DioCass_fr.57'9-10; +Zonar_8'25;(p111)  { CAH_8'50.}
31 ITA Hannibal crosses to Campania, which he lays waste.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.90'7-92'7; +Liv_22.13'1-14'15, 25'7; Silius_6'651-716,L  7'158-271;L  (?) Polyaen_6.38'9; DioCass_fr.57'8; +Zonar_8'25;(p109)  { OCD_h.}
32 Hannibal is trapped by Fabius near Falernum, but escapes.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.92'8-94'8; Nepos_23.5'1-2; +Liv_22.15'1-18'6; Quint_2.17'19; Frontin:Str_1.5'28; Silius_7'272-380,L  12'501-504;L  Plut:Fab_6'1-7'2; +Appian:Hann_13-15; Polyaen_6.38'8; +Zonar_8'26;(p113)  { CAH_8'50.}
33 SPA Abelux persuades Bostar to release the Spanish hostages from Saguntum.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.97'6-99'9; +Liv_22.22'4-21; ~Zonar_9'1.(p131) 
34 PAL Ptolemy visits Jerusalem, and attempts to enter the temple.
* Read 3Maccabees' account
~3Macc_1'6-2'24, 3'15-19.
35 ++ General remarks on the Fourth Syrian War, and the devastation which it caused in Coele Syria.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_1.3'1-2; Joseph:AJ_12'129-130.
36 {? September} Peace terms are agreed between Antiochus and the Egyptians; the end of the Fourth Syrian War.
* Read Polybius' account
Inscr_17; +Polyb_5.87'1-8, 14.12'3; Just_30.1'7; Porph:Fr_44; { CAH_7.1'437.}
37 MAC {21 Hyperberetaeus -M = ? September} Document: BD_31 (Syll_543'1-22), a letter from Philippus to Larissa and a subsequent decree passed by the city assembly. { CAH_7.1'511.}
38 PEL ?? Aratus fails in an attack on Cynaetha.
Polyb_9.17'1-10; { At an unspecified date during the Social War.}
38a AEG ?? Document: Syll_573, a dedication at Delos by Philippus of spoils from the land war.
39 GRE Peace terms are agreed at Naupactus between the Aetolians and Philippus and his allies; the end of the Social War.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.2'3, 4.28'5, +5.101'5-105'10; (?) Paus_6.15'2; Just_29.2'1-3'8; { CAH_7.1'481; CAH_8'94.}
40 {? October} Agelaus becomes general of the Aetolian League.
+Polyb_5.107'5-7.
41 ETR A Carthaginian fleet approaches Caieta in Latium.
~Silius_7'409-493;L  { CAH_8'66.}
42 ITA Roman successes at Geronium.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.94'9-10, 100'1-102'11; +Liv_22.18'7-10, 23'1-24'14; ValMax_3.8'2,L  4.8'1,L  7.3e'8;L  Frontin:Str_1.8'2; Silius_7'380-408,L  '494-507;L  Plut:Fab_7'2-8'2; +Appian:Hann_15-16;(↓)  DioCass_fr.57'15, '35; [Vict]:VirIll_43'6-7;L  +Zonar_8'26;(p117)  { CAH_8'51; OCD_minucius.}
43 ROM The magister equitum, M.Minucius, is granted the same powers as Fabius.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.103'1-8, 106'2, 5.2'4; Nepos_23.5'3; +Liv_22.25'1-27'11; Silius_7'508-522;L  Plut:Fab_8'3-10'5, :Mor_195'C; +Appian:Hann_12-13;(↓)  DioCass_fr.57'11, '16-17, '20; [Vict]:VirIll_43'3;L  +Zonar_8'26;(p119)  { CAH_8'51; OCD_m.}
44 ITA Fabius saves Minucius from defeat by Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.104'1-105'11; Diod_26.3'3; Nepos_23.5'3; +Liv_22.28'1-30'10, 23.11'8-10; CIL_11.1828; ValMax_5.2'4;L  Plin:HN_22'10;L  Frontin:Str_2.5'22, 4.6'1; Silius_7'523-750,L  9'563-567;L  Plut:Fab_11'1-15'3, :Mor_195'D; +Appian:Hann_13; DioCass_fr.57'19-20; +Zonar_8'26;(p125)  { CAH_8'51.}
45 AFR Servilius raids the African coast.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.96'7-14; +Liv_22.31'1-7; +Zonar_8'26;(p129)  { CAH_8'66.}
46 ILL Philippus invades Illyria.
+Polyb_5.108'1-9; { CAH_8'95.}
46a EGY {1 Artemisios - M = 1 Phaophi -E = November} Document: Inscr_17, a decree of the Egyptian priests in honour of Ptolemy IV. { Hölbl_p162.}
47 ROM ?? A woodpecker sits on the head of P.Aelius Tubero, and is interpreted as a bad omen.
ValMax_5.6'4;L  Plin:HN_10'41;L  Frontin:Str_4.5'14; { Before the battle of Cannae; but a similar story about P.Aelius Paetus is listed under 203 B.C..}
48 >> A plebiscitum removes restrictions to the re-election of consuls for the duration of the war.
+Liv_27.6'7; { CAH_8'68.}
49 >> Gold coins are minted at Rome for the first time, and the weight of the bronze coins is halved.
+Plin:HN_33'45,L  '47.L 
50 >> A record number of 57 earthquakes are reported at Rome during the year.
~Plin:HN_2'200.L 
51 == The delaying tactics of Fabius earn him the title of Cunctator.
* Read Florus' account
Ennius:Ann_360-362; Liv_23.11'10; Verg:Aen_6'845-846; Quint_8.2'11; Frontin:Str_1.3'3; Flor_1.22'27-28; Ampel_18'6,L  46'6;L  [Vict]:VirIll_43'2;L  AmmMarc_29.5'32; ~Oros_4.15'7.L 
52 ROM == Document: CIL_1.607, a dedication by Minucius.

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