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208 B.C. Olympiad 143.1


Consuls: M. Claudius M.f. Marcellus (V), T. Quinctius L.f. Crispinus
Achaean General: Philopoemen
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Heracleitus of Samos

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {March -R} The new consuls are given joint command of the war against Hannibal in Italy.
+Liv_27.22'1-13.
2 The triumph of Fabius, for his recovery of Tarentum.
+CIL_11.1828; ~Plut:Fab_23'2; { This is not recorded by other writers, and seems improbable - compare for instance the refusal of a triumph for the recovery of Capua.}
3 PEL Philopoemen is elected general of the Achaean League for the first time, and prepares their army for war.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_11.8'1-10'9; Plut:Phil_8'5-9'14, 11'1; Polyaen_6.4'3; { OCD_p; Green_704.}
3a GRE ?? Document: Syll_555 & 556, decrees of Delphi in honour of the Messenians and their officers.
4 ROM {5 July -R} The Ludi Apollinares are established as a regular annual festival.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_27.23'1-7; Macrob:Sat_1.17'27;L  { CAH_8'427; OCD_l.}
5 ETR Varro is sent to suppress an incipient revolt at Arretium.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_27.24'1-25'5; Plut:Fab_23'3; Zonar_9'6.(p205) 
6 SPA Hasdrubal retreats towards the Pyrenees after being defeated by Scipio at Baecula; Scipio rebukes his Spanish allies for calling him king.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_10.38'7-40'12; Diod_26.24'1; +Liv_27.18'1-20'2, 28.42'14-15; ValMax_5.1'7;L  Memn_18'3; Silius_15'410-492;L  Appian:Hisp_24; DioCass_fr.57'48; ~Eutrop_3.15'3; +Oros_4.18'7;L  Zonar_9'8;(p201)  { CAH_8'59-60; OCD_s.}
7 Philippus marches on Heracleia.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_10.41'1-42'8; Liv_28.5'1-17; { See Lazenby, p.165.}
8 EXT Antiochus defeats the Bactrians.
~Polyb_10.49'1-15; { CAH_8'397; Green_704.}
9 ROM The college of priests prevents Marcellus from dedicating a joint temple to Honour and Virtue.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Verr_2.4'121, '123, :ND_2'61; +Liv_27.25'7-10; ValMax_1.1'8.L 
10 ITA ?? Hannibal adopts new methods of fortifying camps, to guard against attack by Marcellus.
Frontin:Str_2.3'9.
11 ROM ?? Marcellus habitually ignores the auspices.
Cic:Div_2'77.
12 ++ General remarks on the pugnacious character and achievements of Marcellus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Rep_5'10;L  Plin:HN_7'92;L  Plut:Pel_2'9-10, :Marc_1'1-2'1, 9'7, 31'1-32'3, :Fab_19'1-5; Ampel_18'10;L  [Vict]:VirIll_45'3;L  AmmMarc_25.3'13.
13 ITA The consuls are caught in an ambush by Hannibal near Venusia; Marcellus is killed and Crispinus is injured.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_10.32'1-12; Nepos_23.5'3; +Liv_27.25'6-28'2; ValMax_1.6'9,L  5.1e'6;L  Plin:HN_11'189;L  Silius_15'334-398;L  Plut:Marc_28'2-30'9, 33'6-10; +Appian:Hann_50; [Vict]:VirIll_45'7-8;L  ~Eutrop_3.16'2; +Oros_4.18'6,L  '8;L  Suda_Ai'87; +Zonar_9'9;(p207)  { CAH_8'55; OCD_m.}
14 Hannibal relieves Locri, after failing to trick his way into Salapia.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_10.33'8; +Liv_27.28'3-29'8; Frontin:Str_4.7'26, '38; +Appian:Hann_51; +Zonar_9'9;(p207)  { CAH_8'55.}
15 GRE The Roman proconsul Sulpicius captures Oreus.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_11.5'8; ~Liv_28.5'18-6'12, 31.46'6, '11; DioCass_fr.57'57; ~Zonar_9'11;(p229)  { See Lazenby, p.165.}
15a {Hyperberetaeus -M} Document: Syll_552, a letter from king Philippos to Abai in Phocis.
15b ?? Document: Inscr_67, a decree of Lilaea in Phocis, in honour of the garrison sent by Attalus.
16 Attalus returns to Asia to face an attack from Bithynia.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_11.7'1; ~Liv_28.7'1-13; ValMax_1.8e'8;L  Frontin:Str_1.4'6; DioCass_fr.57'57-58; { Green_704.}
17 SPA The three Carthaginian generals in Spain hold a conference, and decide that Hasdrubal should attempt to march to Italy.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_27.20'3-8; Appian:Hisp_28, ~:Hann_52.
18 ROM Crispinus dies of wounds sustained earlier in the year.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_27.33'6-7; +FastCap_p62.
19 T.Manlius Torquatus is appointed dictator to hold elections; M.Livius is persuaded to come out of retirement, and is elected consul.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_27.33'8-35'1, 28.28'12, 29.37'13-14, 30.2'8; +FastCap_p62; ValMax_2.9'6,L  4.2'2;L  Plut:Marc_29'18.
19a ASI Magnesia asks the Greek states to recognise its territory as inviolable because of the cult of Artemis Leucophryene.
~Syll_557; { Errington_180; thirteen years after the original apparition of the goddess in 221/0 B.C.}
19b GRE {6 Pyanepsion -G = Oct./Nov.} Document: IG_2³.1170, an Athenian decree acknowledging that the territory of Magnesia is inviolable.
20 ROM >> The new consuls prepare to meet Hannibal and his brother Hasdrubal at opposite ends of Italy.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_27.35'2-36'4; ValMax_4.2'2,L  7.2'6;L  [Vict]:VirIll_50'2;L  ~Zonar_9'9.(p209) 
21 >> The censors complete the census of Roman citizens, revealing a drop in numbers since the start of the war.
+Liv_27.36'6-7.

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