Summary of Events, Fourth Century B.C.   - 324 to 301 B.C.

The summary contains events, which ancient writers thought to be significant - that may not be the same as what modern writers consider significant.
The numbers in red are the "event numbers", which can be used to find more information in the lists of events for each individual year - click on the link at the top of each year, to go to these lists.


324 B.C.
6   Calanus, an Indian sage accompanying Alexander, commits suicide.
9   Alexander marries Stateira at a mass wedding of his officers in Susa.
24   Harpalus arrives in Athens with a large amount of money; he is later put in prison, but escapes.
26   Mutiny at Opis; Alexander sends the veterans back home.
28   The Areopagus starts an enquiry into claims that leading Athenians accepted bribes from Harpalus.
32   Alexander meets some of the Amazons.
36   The death of Hephaestion, the close friend of Alexander.

323 B.C.
2   Alexander demands that the Greek states should grant him divine honours.
4   Demosthenes is found guilting of taking some of the money brought by Harpalus, and goes into exile.
7   Alexander enters Babylon, despite the warnings of the Chaldaeans.
26   Cities are founded by Alexander throughout his empire.
28   Sayings of Alexander, addressed to Anaxarchus and others.
31   The final plans of Alexander for further conquests.
35   According to rumours, Antipater persuades his sons to poison Alexander.
38   The death of Alexander.
40   Sayings of Diogenes, illustrating his Cynic philosophy.
42   The death of Diogenes the Cynic.
45   After violent disputes, the Macedonians agree to appoint Perdiccas to be regent, with Craterus and Antipater in supporting roles.
46   Philippus Arrhidaeus becomes king of the Macedonians.
48   The Macedonians appoint satraps to govern the provinces of their empire.
53   Ptolemaeus establishes himself as satrap of Egypt - counted as the beginning of his reign.
58   The Athenians gain the support of other Greek states as they prepare for war.
64   Aristotle leaves Athens and goes to Chalcis; Theophrastus becomes head of the Peripatetic school.
66   The Greek army defeats Antipater, and he retreats to Lamia.

322 B.C.
1   A saying of Phocion, about the success of Leosthenes as Athenian general against the Macedonians.
3   Leosthenes is killed, while attacking Lamia.
7   Phocion persuades the Athenians not to invade Boeotia, and defeats the Macedonians near Rhamnus.
8   Leonnatus joins the Macedonian army in Thessaly, but he is killed in a battle against the Greek army.
9   Cleitus, the commander of the Macedonian fleet, decisively defeats the Athenians near Amorgos.
10   Perdiccas defeats and kills Ariarathes of Cappadocia, and appoints Eumenes to be governor of the region.
14   Ophellas, the general of Ptolemaeus, defeats Thibron and gains control of Cyrene.
16   Phryne removes her clothes while Hypereides is defending her in court.
17   Sayings of Aristotle, addressed to Antipater and others.
20   The death of Aristotle, at Chalcis in Euboea.
22   The Macedonians defeat the Greek army near Crannon in Thessaly.
26   The Athenians pass a sentence of death on Demosthenes, Hypereides and their leading supporters, who have already fled from the city.
27   The Athenians surrender to Antipater, and a Macedonian garrison is installed in Munychia.
28   Antipater sends Archias to capture the Athenian exiles.
30   Perdiccas decides to marry Cleopatra, the sister of Alexander the Great, instead of Nicaea, the daughter of Antipater.
34   Hypereides is captured by Archias on the island of Aegina, and is put to death by Antipater.
41   Other sayings of Demosthenes, addressed to Demades, Phocion, and others.
43   Demosthenes commits suicide on the island of Calauria, to avoid being captured.

321 B.C.
1   Ptolemaeus diverts the procession carrying Alexander's body, and brings it to Alexandria.
3   Demades urges Perdiccas to cross over into Europe to attack Antipater.
6   Perdiccas consults with his advisers, and decides to attack Ptolemaeus in Egypt.
11   Neoptolemus deserts to Antipater and attacks Eumenes, but is defeated.
14   Ptolemaeus fights off an attack by Perdiccas on the "Fort of the Camels".
15   Craterus joins Neoptolemus in another attack on Eumenes, but they are defeated and are both killed.
17   Onias becomes Jewish high priest.
18   A Roman army is trapped by the Samnites at the Caudine Forks; it is forced to surrender and then to pass under a yolk.
21   Perdiccas' army suffer heavy casualties while trying to cross the Nile near Memphis.
22   Perdiccas is murdered by his own officers.
23   Pithon and Arridaeus are appointed interim leaders after the death of Perdiccas, and Eumenes is declared a public enemy.
25   The Macedonian leaders meet at Triparadeisus; Antipater is appointed to be the new regent, and new satraps are appointed.
26   Antigonus is appointed to lead the war against Eumenes.
28   The consuls return to Rome and appoint M.Aemilius Papus to be dictator, after Q.Fabius resigns for technical reasons.
31   Antipater hands over his forces in Asia to Antigonus, and returns to Macedonia with the royal family.

320 B.C.
1   New consuls are elected and take office the same day, when the senate debates the Caudine treaty.
2   Eumenes is trapped and defeated by Antigonus at Orcynia.
3   The Romans attempt to hand over Postumius and others responsible for the treaty to the Samnites, but the Samnites refuse to accept them.
7   Eumenes withstands a siege by Antigonus at Nora.
10   Papirius (acting as either consul or magister equitum) captures Luceria and forces the Samnite defenders to pass under a yoke.
16   Crates the cynic philosopher denounces a statue of Phryne at Delphi.
18   Apelles' painting of "Aphrodite Anadyomene" is allegedly a portrait of Phryne (or Pancaspe).

319 B.C.
3   Sayings of Demades, addressed to Phocion and others.
5   Phocion tells Antipater, "You cannot use me both as a friend and as a flatterer".
6   Demades is sent as an envoy to Macedonia, and is put to death together with his son Demeas by Cassander the son of Antipater.
7   Alcetas commits suicide after being defeated in a surprise attack by Antigonus.
9   The death of Antipater, who is succeeded as regent by Polyperchon.
13   Antigonus sends Hieronymus to end the siege of Eumenes.
14   Ptolemaeus gains control of Syria after expelling the satrap Laomedon.
18   Agathocles returns from exile with help from Hamilcar, and is appointed "plenipotentiary general".
19   Arrhidaeus attacks Cyzicus, but fails to capture it.
21   The triumph of Papirius Cursor, over the Samnites.
24   Polyperchon and Olympias appoint Eumenes to be commander of the Macedonian forces in Asia.
27   The birth of Pyrrhus, son of Aeacides.

318 B.C.
1   Nicanor captures Peiraeus, with the collusion of Phocion.
3   Eumenes gains the loyalty of the "Silver Shields" by invoking the name of Alexander.
5   Alexander the son of Polyperchon arrives in Attica; Polyperchon hands over Phocion and his friends to the Athenians.
6   Sayings of Phocion, addressed to Archibiades, Aristogeiton, Callicles, Polyeuctus, and others.
9   The Athenians condemn Phocion and put him to death.
15   The philosopher Anaxarchus is captured and cruelly put to death by Nicocreon.
20   Nicanor suffers an initial defeat, but by the intervention of Antigonus completely overwhelms the fleet of Polyperchon in the Hellespont.

317 B.C.
1   The Athenians agree terms with Cassander, who sets up Demetrius of Phalerum as their leader.
7   Polyperchon reoccupies Macedonia with help from Olympias, and captures Philippus and Eurydice.
11   Olympias kills Philippus, and forces Eurydice to commit suicide.
13   The beginning of the reign of Cassander, according to some calculations.
14   The beginning of the reign of Antigonus, according to some calculations.
20   Olympias massacres her opponents in Macedonia.
23   Antigonus marches through a desolate region to launch a surprise attack on Eumenes, but his army reveals its position by lighting fires.
24   Eumenes tricks Antigonus into delaying his attack.
25   Cassander besieges Olympias at Pydna.

316 B.C.
8   Agathocles stages a coup and massacres his opponents at Syracuse.
9   Agathocles is appointed sole general: the beginning of his reign as tyrant of Syracuse.
10   Antigonus defeats Eumenes in Gabiene.
11   Eumenes is handed over to Antigonus by his own army.
12   Olympias surrenders to Cassander.
16   Antigonus puts Eumenes to death.
19   Cassander puts Olympias to death.
26   Cassander marries Thessalonice, the daughter of Philippus.
29   Cassander founds the city of Cassandreia on the site of Potideia: Lysippus designs a special kind of vessel to hold wine from the city.
33   Cassander refounds Thebes, but Crates refuses to take part in the resettlement.

315 B.C.
4   Seleucus takes refuge with Ptolemaeus, in anticipation of an attack by Antigonus.
7   Cassander founds the city of Thessalonice.
12   Antigonus rejects an ultimatum from Ptolemaeus, Seleucus, and Cassander.
29   A remark of Aeschines about a speech of Demosthenes: "What if you had heard the beast himself?".

314 B.C.
9   Theophr:HP, Theophrastus' "History of Plants".
15   C.Maenius is elected dictator to investigate anti-Roman plots at Capua.

313 B.C.
7   The dictator C.Poetelius captures Fregellae.
9   Xenocrates converts Polemon from a dissolute life to the study of philosophy.
18   The death of the philosopher Xenocrates, who is succeeded as head of the Academy by Polemon.
22   Ptolemaeus gains control of Cyprus and makes Nicocreon king of the island.

312 B.C.
6   The censors allow sons of freedmen to become members of the senate, and distribute landless citizens amongst all the existing tribes.
13   Ptolemaeus defeats Demetrius at the battle of Gaza.
21   The construction of the Via Appia.
22   The construction of the Appian Aqueduct.
23   Ap.Claudius arranges for the religious secrets of the Potitii family to be divulged; soon afterwards, the family dies out.

311 B.C.
3   Ptolemaeus sends Seleucus with a small force to reoccupy Babylonia.
5   Ptolemaeus settles some of the Jews in Egypt.
6   The beginning of the reign of Seleucus in Babylonia.
7   The start of the Seleucid Era.
9   The flute-players return to Rome after protesting at the removal of their privileges by Ap.Claudius.
12   Seleucus gains complete control of Babylonia.
16   Zenon of Citium moves to Athens; he loses his wealth in a shipwreck and becomes a student of philosophy.
18   The Carthaginians under Hamilcar defeat Agathocles by the river Himera.
35   The foundation of Seleuceia on the Tigris.

310 B.C.
3   Roman victory over the Etruscans near Sutrium.
4   Fabius crosses the Ciminian forest.
12   Agathocles sails out of Syracuse after arranging for the defence of the city.
13   An eclipse of the sun alarms Agathocles' men.
14   Agathocles lands at Latomiae in Africa.
15   Agathocles burns his boats.
30   Cassander murders Alexander IV and his mother Roxane.

309 B.C.
4   Heracles is put to death after Cassander and Polyperchon come to an agreement.
5   Epicurus attends lectures by Nausiphanes and other philosophers.
6   Epicurus starts teaching at Mytilene, and then at Lampsacus.
8   Hamilcar is defeated and killed at Syracuse.
11   Cursor threatens an ally from Praeneste with the lictor's axe.
15   The triumph of Cursor, over the Samnites.
18   The triumph of Fabius, over the Etruscans.

308 B.C.
3   Ophellas, the Macedonian governor of Cyrene, brings an army to help Agathocles in the war against Carthage.
6   The foundation of the city of Lysimacheia.
9   Areus succeeds Cleomenes II as king of Sparta.
13   Agathocles murders Ophellas and wins over his army.

307 B.C.
6   Laws passed by Demetrius of Phalerum while he was in control at Athens.
12   Demetrius the son of Antigonus captures Peiraeus and expels Demetrius of Phalerum from Athens.
17   Demetrius captures Megara.
22   Demetrius captures and destroys Munychia.
26   The soldiers kill Archagathus and Heracleides, the sons of Agathocles.
30   The Athenians grant extravagant honours to Demetrius and his father Antigonus.
31   The Athenians condemn Demetrius of Phalerum to death in his absence, and destroy his statues.
33   Deinarchus is accused of having secret dealings with Cassander, and is forced to go into exile at Chalcis.

306 B.C.
5   Demetrius defeats Menelaus and begins to besiege Salamis.
10   The Hernici and Anagnini surrender to Marcius.
11   The foundation of the city of Antigoneia, Antigonus' capital in Syria.
12   Demetrius heavily defeats Ptolemaeus in a naval battle off Salamis.
13   Demetrius takes control of Cyprus, but allows Menelaus to escape to Egypt.
18   Agathocles agrees to peace terms with the Carthaginians.
19   Antigonus and his son Demetrius adopt the title of King.
27   Ap.Claudius goes blind, and retires from public life.

305 B.C.
6   The death of Dionysius, tyrant of Heracleia, who is succeeded by his sons Oxathras and Clearchus.
15   The Athenian general Olympiodorus defeats the army of Cassander at Elateia, with help from the Aetolians.
22   Ptolemaeus proclaims himself king.
23   Seleucus proclaims himself king, and is given the epithet Nicator.
24   Cassander and Lysimachus take the title of king.
25   Demetrius constructs a large siege engine, which is called a Helepolis.
26   Demetrius begins to be called Poliorcetes, "the Besieger".

304 B.C.
2   Demetrius prevents the destruction of a picture by Protogenes.
15   Fighting between Seleucus and the Indian king Sandracottus.
23   The Athenians grant further honours to Demetrius.
24   Cn.Flavius, the son of a freedman, holds office as curule aedile but is opposed by the nobility, who try to prevent him from dedicating a temple to Concordia.
25   The censors Q.Fabius and P.Decius distribute the urban plebs amongst four tribes.

303 B.C.
1   Demetrius' licentious behaviour during his winter stay at Athens, especially with the courtesans Lamia and Leaena; Democles commits suicide to escape the attentions of Demetrius.
10   Demetrius captures Sicyon, and moves the city to a different site.
13   Seleucus agrees peace terms with Sandracottus, and receives in return 500 elephants.
14   Demetrius captures Corinth, and then Bura, Scyrus, Orchomenus, and other cities in the Peloponnese.

302 B.C.
3   Cassander instigates a coalition with the other kings against Antigonus.
6   Lamia holds a banquet at Athens in honour of Demetrius.
10   The dictator C.Junius Bubulcus defeats the Aequi: the final subjugation of the Aequi.
11   Lysimachus invades Asia and captures Sigeum, Synnada, Ephesus, Colophon, and other cities.
13   Bubulcus celebrates a triumph over the Aequi, and dedicates a temple to Salus, with paintings by Fabius Pictor.
23   Mithridates II escapes from Antigonus and takes refuge in a fort at Cimiata, from which he gains control of the neighbouring territory.

301 B.C.
5   Antigonus founds cities at Alexandria Troas, Nicaea, and Smyrna.
9   Sayings of Antigonus, addressed to Aristodemus, Bias, Hermodotus, Marsyas, Thrasyllus, and others.
12   Antigonus is defeated and killed by Seleucus and Lysimachus at Ipsus.
15   After being a follower of Crates the cynic, Zenon starts to attend the lectures of Stilpon and Polemon.
17   The other kings divide up the remains of Antigonus' empire.
21   Ptolemaeus captures Jerusalem.

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