216 B.C. Olympiad 141.1

Consuls: L. Aemilius M.f. Paullus (II), C. Terentius C.f. Varro
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Dorotheus of Rhodes

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM Fabius resigns as dictator.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_22.31'7, 32'1-4; ~Plut:Fab_14'1; Appian:Hann_16; DioCass_fr.57'21; ~Zonar_8'26;(p127)  { CAH_8'51.}
2 AFR << Hannibal asks for reinforcements from Carthage, but receives none.
* Read Appian's account
Silius_8'21-24; ~Appian:Hann_16; DioCass_fr.57'14; Zonar_8'26.(p117) 
3 ROM Roman preparations for continuing the war against Hannibal.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.106'1-11, 5.108'10; +Liv_22.36'1-5; +Appian:Hann_17; { CAH_8'51.}
4 More ominous portents at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_22.36'6-9; ValMax_5.6'4; Frontin:Str_4.5'14; DioCass_fr.57'22.
5 An embassy from Hieron of Syracuse, offering support to the Romans.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_22.37'1-13; ValMax_4.8e'1; ~Zonar_8'26;(p129)  { Green_227.}
6 A Carthaginian caught spying at Rome is released with his hands cut off.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_22.33'1; ~Zonar_9'1.(p129) 
7 A conspiracy by slaves is betrayed and suppressed.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_22.33'2; ~Zonar_9'1.(p129) 
8 {March -R} L.Veturius is appointed dictator, to hold the elections for new consuls.
* Read Livy's account
~Liv_22.33'9-35'87; +FastCap_p60; ValMax_3.4'4; Silius_8'242-262; Plut:Marc_9'1; +Appian:Hann_17; { CAH_8'79-80.}
9 ITA Anna appears to Hannibal.
10 Hannibal captures Cannae.
11 ROM The consuls leave Rome to join their army.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.108'1; +Liv_22.38'1-40'4; Frontin:Str_4.1'4; Silius_8'263-348, 10'621-622; Plut:Fab_14'1-5; +Appian:Hann_17; DioCass_fr.57'23-24; +Eutrop_3.10'1; +Zonar_9'1.(p135) 
12 PEL Timoxenus is elected to be general of the Achaean League.
13 GRE << The breakdown of law and order in Boeotia.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_20.6'1, 22.4'2; { This happened 25 years before the early part of 192 B.C.; it is not clear exactly what event Polybius had in mind.}
14 AEG << The birth of the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace.
Suda_A'3892; { OCD_a.}
14a << Document: OGIS_730, a decree of Siphnos in honour of Perigenes, a flute-player.
14b GRE << Document: THI_124, a decree of the Acarnanians concerning a festival at Actium.
14c CRE ?? Document: THI_106, a treaty between the cities of Gortyn and Lato.
14d PAL << Document: SEG_20.467, a statue of Ptolemy IV at Joppa.
15 PER ++ General comments on the growth of the Parthian kingdom under Arsaces, who establishes a stronghold at Dara.
* Read Justin's account
Strab_11'515;(9.2)  Just_41.5'1-4; AmmMarc_23.6'3-4, '55.
16 << The death of Arsaces I, king of Parthia.
* Read Justin's account
Arrian:Fr_31; Just_41.5'5-7; Suda_A'4015; { OCD_a; OHIH_p169.}
17 PEL ?? Lycurgus expels Agesipolis from Sparta.
Liv_34.26'14; { For Agesipolis, see Walbank 3,p.224.}
18 Cleitomachus of Thebes wins the pancration contest at the Olympic Games.
* Read Suda's account
+Paus_6.15'4; Suda_K'1766.
19 ITA The consuls arrive at the Roman camp in Apulia.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.108'2-109'13; +Liv_22.40'5-9; Silius_8'349-621; +Zonar_9'1.(p137) 
20 {July -R} The Roman army marches to confront Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.110'1-112'9; +Liv_22.41'1-45'4; Silius_8'622-9'177, '258-261; +Appian:Hann_17-19; +Zonar_9'1.(p139) 
21 EGY << Ptolemy uses elephants to attack the Egyptian Jews, but the Jews are miraculously saved.
* Read 3Maccabees' account
~3Macc_2'25-7'23; ChronPasc_432'A, 'C-433'A; Hieron:Chron_1797, +1801.
22 ASI Antiochus enters an alliance with Attalus against Achaeus.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_5.107'4, +109'5, 20.17'6; { CAH_8'526; Green_293.}
23 {2 August -R} Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae; Paullus is killed in the battle.
* Read Livy's account
Ennius:Ann_274-283; +Polyb_3.113'1-118'10; Gell_2.19'9<q" Cato:Orig_4'14>, #5.17'5, 10.24'6-7<q" Cato:Orig_4'13>; Cic:Div_2'71; Nepos_23.4'4; +Liv_22.45'5-52'3, 24.43'8, 25.6'5-9, 12'5; Vell_1.9'3; ValMax_3.2'11, 4'4, 5.1e'6, 6'4, 7.4e'2, 9.5e'3; Frontin:Str_2.2'7, 3'7, 5'27, 4.5'5, '7, '14; Silius_9'178-10'386, 13'711-718; Plut:Marc_9'2, 10'4, '7, :Aem_2'3-4, :Fab_15'1-17'1; Flor_1.22'15-20; +Appian:Hann_19-26; Polyaen_6.38'3-4; Ampel_46'5; DioCass_fr.57'25-26; +Eutrop_3.10'2-3; AmmMarc_18.5'6; August:DeCiv_3'19; +Oros_4.16'1-4, 5.5'7-8; Macrob:Sat_1.16'26;L  +Zonar_9'1,(p133)  '1;(p141-3)  { CAH_8'51; OCD_c.}
24 The Roman survivors collect at Canusium.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Off_3'114; +Liv_22.52'4-54'6, 24.18'3-4; ValMax_2.9'8, 4.8'2, 5.6'7; Frontin:Str_4.7'39; Silius_10'387-448; +Appian:Hann_26; DioCass_fr.57'28-29; [Vict]:VirIll_49'5-6; +Oros_4.16'3, '6; +Zonar_9'2.(p145) 
25 ROM News of the defeat at Cannae reaches Rome; the senate debates how to react.
* Read Livy's account
Ennius:Ann_284-286; Cic:Off_3'47; +Liv_22.54'7-57'6; ValMax_1.1'15; Plin:HN_7'180; Silius_10'578-604; Plut:Fab_17'3-18'3; +Appian:Hann_27; Gell_3.15'4; +Zonar_9'2.(p147) 
26 SIC A Carthaginian fleet raids the coast of Sicily.
+Liv_22.56'6-8; { CAH_8'61, '66.}
27 ROM M.Junius Pera is elected dictator, and enlists all available men into the army, including some slaves.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_22.57'7-12; +FastCap_p60; ValMax_5.6'8, 7.6'1; Seneca:Contr_5'7,L  9.4'5;L  Silius_10'640-649; Plut:Marc_9'3-6; Flor_1.22'23-26; SHA:MAnt_21'6; August:DeCiv_3'19;(↓)  +Oros_4.16'7-9; Macrob:Sat_1.11'31;L  +Zonar_9'2;(p149)  { CAH_8'74.}
28 SPA Hasdrubal defeats the Tartessians near Ascua.
~Liv_23.26'1-27'8; { CAH_8'57.}
29 ILL An abortive naval expedition by Philippus against Illyria.
+Polyb_5.109'1-110'11; { CAH_8'96.}
30 ASI Prusias defeats the Gauls near Arisba.
+Polyb_5.111'1-7; { OCD_p=218.}
31 ROM The Romans refuse to ransom back the prisoners captured at Cannae.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_6.58'1-13; Cic:Off_1'40, 3'113-115; +Liv_22.58'1-61'10, 25.6'14-16, 34.50'5; ValMax_2.7'15, 9'8; Seneca:Contr_5'7;L  Silius_10'650-658; +Appian:Hann_28; Gell_6.18'2-11; +Eutrop_3.11'1; +Zonar_9'2;(p149)  { CAH_8'53.}
32 ITA Roman allies in southern Italy start to desert to Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.118'2-3, 5.111'8; Diod_26.12'1-3; +Liv_22.61'10-13, 24.45'2, 27.1'4, 29.17'1-2; Frontin:Str_1.8'6; Silius_11'1-27; ~Appian:Hann_31; Gell_10.3'19; +Eutrop_3.11'1; August:DeCiv_4'29;(↓)  +Oros_4.16'10; { CAH_8'52, '75-76.}
33 ROM Varro returns to Rome.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_22.61'113-15; ValMax_3.4'4, 4.5'2; Frontin:Str_4.5'6; Silius_10'605-639; +Plut:Fab_18'4-5; Oros_5.5'9, '11.
34 ITA Hannibal invades the territory of Neapolis.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.1'1-10; (?) Polyaen_6.38'10; +Zonar_9'2.(p151) 
35 Capua goes over to Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_7.1'1-2; Diod_26.10'1; +Liv_23.2'1-7'3, 25.15'9, 31.31'12; ValMax_3.7e'6, 8'1, 6.4'1; Silius_11'28-224; +Zonar_9'2;(p151-3)  { CAH_8'53; OCD_c.}
36 Hannibal removes Decius Magius, a prominent supporter of the Romans, from Capua.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.7'4-10'13; Silius_11'225-384.
37 GRE The Romans consult the oracle at Delphi.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.11'1-6; Silius_12'320-341; +Appian:Hann_27; +Zonar_9'3;(p159)  { CAH_8'427.}
38 AFR Mago brings news of the battle of Cannae to Carthage, and shows as proof a large pile of gold rings removed from Roman casualties.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.11'7-13'8; ValMax_7.2e'16; Plin:HN_33'20; Silius_11'483-611; Fronto:Ep_2'p28; Flor_1.22'18; +Eutrop_3.11'1; August:DeCiv_3'19; +Oros_4.16'5; Suda_A'2452; +Zonar_9'1,(p143)  '2.(p151) 
39 ITA Hannibal captures Nuceria.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.14'5-15'6; ValMax_9.6e'2; Silius_12'424-425; Plut:Marc_10'1-2; DioCass_fr.57'30, '34; +Zonar_9'2;(p153)  { CAH_8'77.}
40 Hannibal unsuccessfully attacks Nola.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.15'7-17'6, 25.41'1, 27.2'2; ValMax_9.6e'2; Frontin:Str_2.4'8, 3.16'1; Plut:Pel_2'10, :Marc_10'2-11'8; Flor_1.22'29; DioCass_fr.57'31-34; [Vict]:VirIll_45'4; +Zonar_9'2;(p157)  { CAH_8'53.}
41 Hannibal fails to capture Casilinum.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_23.17'7-18'9; +Zonar_9'2.(p159) 
42 Hannibal begins the siege of Petelia.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_7.1'3; +Liv_23.20'4-10; Frontin:Str_4.3'18; ~Appian:Hann_29'
43 Hannibal defeats the dictator Junius.
* Read Zonaras' account
Frontin:Str_2.5'25; Polyaen_6.38'5; +Zonar_9'3.(p161) 
44 Hannibal takes his army back to Capua for the winter.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:LegAgr_2'95; Diod_26.11'1; +Liv_23.18'10-16; Strab_5'250-251;(4.13)  ValMax_7.6'2, 9.1e'1; Sen:Ep_51'5, '7; Silius_11'385-482; Flor_1.22'21-22; Lucian:DMort_12'6; [Vict]:VirIll_42'5; ~Zonar_9'3;(p163)  { OCD_h.}
45 CIS The Gauls destroy a Roman army led by L.Postumius.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.118'6; Cic:Tusc_1'89; +Liv_23.24'6-13; +FastCap_p60; Frontin:Str_1.6'4; +Oros_4.16'11; ~Zonar_9'3;(p163)  { CAH_8'53.}

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