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221 B.C. Olympiad 139.4


Consuls: P. Cornelius Cn.f. Scipio Asina, M. Minucius C.f. Rufus
Achaean General: Timoxenus (II?)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY {13 Choiak -E = January} Document: SelPap_267A, a petition from a widow in the Arsinoite nome.
1a {30 Gorpiaeus -M = 13 Tybi -E = February} Document: Austin_318,B  a petition from Aristomachus to Ptolemy IV.
2 ROM {1 March -R} The triumph of Marcellus over the Insubres and Germans, in which he carries back the spolia opima to Rome.
* Read Plutarch's account
Naev:Praet_1; Verg:Aen_6'855-859; +FastTr_p101; [Liv]:Per_20; ValMax_3.2'5;L  Silius_1'133;L  +Plut:Marc_8'1-11, :Rom_16'7; Flor_1.20'5; Ampel_21'1;L  [Vict]:VirIll_45'2;L  +Eutrop_3.6'2.
3 MAC << Antigonus defeats an invading Illyrian army.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Polyb_2.70'6; ~Plut:Cleom_30'3-4; { CAH_7.1'472; OCD_a.}
4 PER << Molon starts a rebellion against Antiochus.
~Polyb_5.41'1-42'9; { CAH_7.1'434; Green_701.}
5 SYR Antiochus marries Laodice, the daughter of Mithridates of Pontus.
~Polyb_5.43'1-4; { Green_701.}
6 SPA ++ Hannibal develops his skills as a soldier and officer while serving under Hasdrubal in Spain.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_21.4'5-10; Frontin:Str_4.3'8; Suda_A'2452.
7 ++ Hasdrubal pursues a policy of expansion in Spain, and seeks political influence at Carthage.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.8'1-5; Diod_25.12'1; Liv_21.2'5; Silius_1'144-150;L  Appian:Hisp_8'
8 Hasdrubal is assassinated, and Hannibal is appointed to be the new Carthaginian commander in Spain.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_2.36'1-7, 3.13'3-4; Diod_25.12'1; ~Nepos_23.3'1-2, 7'4; Liv_21.2'6, 3'1; ValMax_3.3e'7;L  Silius_1'144-270;L  ~Appian:Hisp_8, :Hann_2-3; Ampel_28'4;L  Just_29.1'7, 44.2'4, 5'5-6; Zonar_8'21;(p55)  { CAH_8'28; OCD_h.}
9 MES Molon gains control of Apollonia.
~Polyb_5.43'5-45'4.
9a MAC {10 Dius - M} Document: SEG_60.586, two letters of Antigonus granting privileges to men who fought at Sellasia.
10 PEL ?? The philosopher Prytanis is appointed by Antigonus to draw up a legal code at Megalopolis.
Polyb_5.93'8.
11 ?? The drunken behaviour of Euphorion at a banquet given by Prytanis.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_11.477'e<q" Hegesander>; Suda_E'3801.
12 MAC ?? A saying of Apollophanes, a parasite of Antigonus.
Athen_6.251'd<q" Phylarch_46>.
13 ++ General remarks on the achievements of Antigonus.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_32.21'25, 40.54'4.
14 The death of Antigonus Doson, who is succeeded by Philippus V.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_2.70'6-8, +71'6, 4.87'6-8, 39.8'5-6; Liv_40.56'4; Plut:Cleom_30'3-4; Paus_7.7'5; Just_28.4'16-29.1'2; +[Euseb]:Chron_237-239,(↓)  241,(↓)  243; !Hieron:Chron_1799; ExcBarb_44A; ChronSynt_91; { CAH_7.1'472; Errington_p103.}
14a CIL ?? Document: SEG_39.1426, a letter from Thraseas about a dispute between the cities of Nagidus and Arsinoē.
14b GRE ?? Document: IG_2³.1150, an Athenian decree in honour of the people of Ephesus.
15 EGY ?? Document: BD_69, an oath made by Semtheus of Heracleopolis, concerning his duties as assistant to a banker.
15a ?? Document: OGIS_726, the dedication of two Jewish synagogues in Egypt.
16 ?? Ptolemy III defeats and kills Adaeus.
Trog:Prol_27.
17 ?? The phoenix appears at Heliopolis.
Tac:Ann_6'28.
18 ?? Ptolemy III introduces the cult of Sarapis at Alexandria.
Tac:Hist_4'84; { Tacitus reports this as an alternative account - most authors agreed that the cult was introduced by Ptolemy I.}
19 ?? Berenice rebukes Ptolemy for playing dice while sentencing criminals to death.
Aelian:VH_14'43.
20 EXT ?? Ptolemy III is a keen collector of rare wild animals, and sends Simmias to explore Ethiopia.
Diod_3.18'4, 41'1, 42'1; Aelian:NA_16'39.
21 EGY ++ Callicrates and Panaretus are favourites of Ptolemy.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_6.251'd<q" Euphantus>, 12.552'c.
22 << The death of Ptolemy III, and accession of Ptolemy IV.
* Read Polybius' account
+PHaun_6'22; +Polyb_2.71'6, 39.8'5-6; +AstrCan_3; Strab_17'795;(1.11)  Plut:Cleom_33'1; ClemAl:Strom_1'21;(↓↓)  Just_29.1'5, 30.1'2; [Euseb]:Chron_127,(↓)  161; ChronPasc_432'B; +Hieron:Chron_1797; ExcBarb_35B; { CAH_7.1'435; OCD_p; Bennett=222.}
23 CIS The consuls subdue the Istrians.
* Read Zonaras' account
[Liv]:Per_20; +Eutrop_3.7'1; +Oros_4.13'16;L  +Zonar_8'20;(p49)  { CAH_7.2'435; CAH_8'91.}
24 AFR The Barcid faction at Carthage appeals to Hannibal for help.
* Read Appian's account
~Appian:Hisp_8-9, :Hann_3'
25 SPA Hannibal subdues the Olcades.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_3.13'5-8; Liv_21.5'3-4, '7; { CAH_8'32; OCD_h.}
26 PAL The Egyptian army holds a defensive position against Antiochus at Gerrha.
~Polyb_5.45'5-46'5; { CAH_7.1'434.}
27 MES Molon defeats Xenoetas, the general of Antiochus.
~Polyb_5.46'6-48'10.
28 PEL The Messenian ephors fine Dorimachus the Aetolian for encouraging brigands to attack their territory.
~Polyb_4.3'1-4'9; { CAH_7.1'474; Green_702.}
29 MES Molon gains control of Babylonia.
~Polyb_5.48'11-16.
30 Antiochus takes command of the war against Molon.
~Polyb_5.48'17-50'14.
31 {December?} Antiochus stops for the winter at Antiocheia in Mygdonia.
~Polyb_5.51'1.
32 SPA >> Civil dissension at Saguntum.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_3.15'7, 30'2; { CAH_8'34.}
33 ROM ?? L.Metellus officiates at the dedication of a temple to Ops.
CIL_add.7'Dec19; Plin:HN_11'174.L 
34 >> The death of L.Metellus, the pontifex maximus.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:Sen_30; ValMax_8.13'2;L  { OCD_m.}
35 >> Q.Metellus delivers a funeral oration in praise of his father.
Plin:HN_7'139-141;L  { CAH_8'424.}
36 >> Fabius "Censorius" puts his son to death on a charge of theft.
+Oros_4.13'17-18.L 
37 >> Fabius Maximus (? or Minucius) is forced to resign as dictator.
* Read Plutarch's account
Liv_22.9'7; ValMax_1.1'5;L  Plut:Marc_5'6-7; { OCD_f..}

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