52 B.C. Olympiad 182.1

Consuls: Cn. Pompeius Cn.f. Magnus (III), Q. Caecilius Q.f. Metellus Pius Scipio
Athenian archon: Lysander
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Anthestion of Argos

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 Jan -R} The first day of the year is a market day at Rome, which is interpreted as a bad omen.
+DioCass_40.47'1-2; { By this time, the Roman calendar was clearly several months in advance of the "real" Julian calendar, so that the events of January which are reported here actually took place late in 53 B.C., according to modern reckoning.}
2 General comments on the violent and subversive political career of P.Clodius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_72-76, :Phil_2'11, 8'16; ValMax_3.5'3; Plut:Mor_805'C; Macrob:Sat_2.6'6.L 
3 ETR {18 Jan -R} Clodius is murdered by Milo's followers, near Bovillae.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_27-57, 63, 77, 86, #98, #:Att_5.13'1, :Phil_2'21; +Caes:BGall_7.1'1; [Liv]:Per_107; +Ascon_31-32,L  #34-35,L (↓)  49;L  Appian:BCiv_2'20-21;(↓)  +DioCass_40.48'1-3; Schol:Bob_111; { CAH_9'407; OCD_c.}
4 ROM {19 Jan -R} Clodius' body is burnt in the senate-house, and the building is destroyed by the flames.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Mil_33, 86, 90-91; [Liv]:Per_107; Ascon_7,L (↓)  #32-33,L (↓)  42,L  46,L  55;L (↓)  Plin:HN_34'21; Plut:Brut_20'5; Appian:BCiv_2'21; +DioCass_40.49'1-5; { CAH_9'407-408.}
5 {20 Jan -R} A mob attacks the house of the interrex Lepidus, and Milo returns to Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_61; [Liv]:Per_107; #Ascon_33,L  43;L  Appian:BCiv_2'22; +DioCass_40.49'5.
6 {23 Jan -R} The tribunes Q.Pompeius and C.Sallustius call for the prosecution of Milo.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_47; Ascon_49-50,L (↓)  #50-51.L (↓) 
7 CIS << Caesar suggests that Pompeius should marry Octavia, the grand-daughter of Caesar's sister, although she is already married.
Suet:Caes_27'1; { CAH_9'408.}
8 ROM {? 19 Feb -R} Metellus Scipio denounces Milo in the senate.
#Ascon_34-35.L (↓) 
9 The senate passes the Ultimate Decree, and instructs Pompeius to levy troops throughout Italy.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Mil_67, 70; +Caes:BGall_7.1'1; +Ascon_34,L  51;L (↓)  +DioCass_40.50'1-3; { CAH_9'409.}
10 The two Appii, sons of C.Claudius, ask for permission to interrogate the slaves of Milo.
11 GAL Vercingetorix, a chieftain of the Arverni, instigates a major rebellion throughout Gaul.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.1'2-5'7, 8.30'1, 38'3; [Liv]:Per_107; Plut:Caes_25'3-26'2; Flor_1.45'20-21; DioCass_40.33'1; Oros_6.11'1; { CAH_9'409; OCD-v.}
12 The Romans make an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Commius, king of the Atrebates, because he is suspected of supporting the rebels in Gaul.
* Read Caesar's account
~Caes:BGall_8.23'2-6, 47'2, 48'3; DioCass_40.43'1-2; { While Caesar was absent in Cisalpine Gaul (so not during the following winter).}
13 ROM {25 Intercal. -R} The senate appoints Pompeius to be sole consul.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_107; Vell_2.47'3; #Ascon_35-36;L (↓)  Plut:CatMin_47'2-3, :Caes_28'7, +:Pomp_54'6-8; Suet:Caes_26'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'23;(↓↓)  +DioCass_40.50'3-5; { CAH_9'410; OCD_p.}
14 Cato helps M.Favonius to be elected as aedile.
Plut:CatMin_46'1-3; { OCD_f; MRR_2'160.}
15 << Cicero is made an augur, in place of P.Crassus.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_8.3'1, :Phil_2'4; Plut:Cic_36'1; { CAH_9'412; OCD_cic.}
16 {27 Intercal. -R} Pompeius passes a law to set up special courts to judge cases of violence.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_13, 15, 21-22, 31, 79, :Phil_2'22; #Ascon_36;L  Plin:HN_34'139; { CAH_9'410; OCD_p.}
17 {28 Intercal. -R} The senate passes a decree condemning the murder of Clodius, the burning of the senate-house, and the attack on Lepidus' house.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_12-14, 31; #Ascon_44-45.L 
18 Cato refuses an invitation to become one of Pompeius' advisers.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:CatMin_48'1-4, +:Pomp_54'8-9.
19 Pompeius marries Cornelia, the daughter of Metellus Scipio.
* Read Plutarch's account
Vell_2.54'2; +Plut:Pomp_55'1-5; { CAH_9'410; OCD_p.}
20 Trebellius Calcha pretends to the (?) heir of Clodius.
21 Pompeius passes a retrospective law to set up special courts to judge cases of bribery in elections.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_65-67, :Brut_324, :Fin_4'1; Caes:BCiv_3.1'4; Vell_2.47'3; +Ascon_36-38,L  50-52;L (↓)  Plut:CatMin_48'5-8, +:Pomp_55'6-8; Tac:Dial_38'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'23, '24;(↓)  +DioCass_40.52'1-4; { OCD_p.}
22 The sons of C.Claudius indict Milo on a charge of violence.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_59; +Ascon_38-39.L (↓) 
23 Plautius Hypsaeus is convicted of bribery.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_9.5'3; +Plut:Pomp_55'10; +Appian:BCiv_2'24; +DioCass_40.53'1.
24 GAL Caesar hurries back to Gaul despite the wintry weather, and invades the territory of the Arverni.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.6'1-9'2, 8.30'1; Plut:Caes_26'3-4; Flor_1.45'22; DioCass_40.33'2; Oros_6.11'2.
25 ROM ?? Milo catches the historian Sallustius in the act of adultery.
@  (?) [Cic]:InSall_16; Gell_17.18'1.
26 {4 April -R} The first day of Milo's trial is disrupted by Clodius' supporters.
27 {6 April -R} In a public speech, the tribune Plancus urges the people of Rome not to allow Milo to escape unpunished.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_3, 71; Ascon_40,L (↓)  #42,L  52.L 
28 {7 April -R} Milo is convicted of the murder of Clodius, despite a speech in his defence by Cicero, and goes into exile.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mil_1-105; [Liv]:Per_107; #Ascon_30,L  40-42,L (↓)  53-54;L  Lucan_1'319-323; (?) Plin:HN_2'147; Quint_3.6'93, 7.1'34-37; Plut:Cic_35'1-4; Suet:Caes_30'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'24; +DioCass_40.54'1-4; Schol:Bob_111-125; { OCD_m.}
29 {8 April -R} Milo is convicted on another charge, of bribery, and also separately on two other charges.
30 M.Saufeius, a henchman of Milo, is brought to trial twice, but acquitted on both occasions.
Ascon_54-55.L (↓) 
31 Sex.Cloelius, the principal henchman of P.Clodius, is brought to trial and convicted.
Ascon_55-56;L (↓)  { CAH_9'411.}
32 C.Memmius and M.Scaurus are convicted of bribery, in trials prompted by Pompeius' law.
+Appian:BCiv_2'24; { OCD_m.}
33 GAL M.Antonius rejoins Caesar in Gaul, as his quaestor.
Cic:Phil_2'50; { OCD_a=51; MRR_2'160.}
34 Caesar captures Noviodunum, a stronghold of the Bituriges.
35 ROM All ten tribunes pass a law enabling Caesar to stand as a candidate for consul in absentia.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_7.1'4, 8.3'3; Caes:BCiv_1.9'2, 32'3; [Liv]:Per_107, 108; Suet:Caes_26'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'25; +DioCass_40.51'1-2, 56'2; { CAH_9'412.}
36 Pompeius protects his father-in-law, Metellus Scipio, from charges of bribery.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_9.5'3; +Plut:Pomp_55'7; +Appian:BCiv_2'24;(↓)  +DioCass_40.51'2-3, 53'2; { CAH_9'410; OCD_s.}
37 GAL Caesar besieges and eventually captures Avaricum, another stronghold of the Bituriges.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.14'1-32'1, :BCiv_3.47'5; [Liv]:Per_107; Flor_1.45'23; Polyaen_8.23'8; DioCass_40.34'1-4; Oros_6.11'3-4; { CAH_9'410-411.}
38 Caesar settles a dispute between Cotus and Convictolitavis, as to who should be the leader of the Aedui.
39 Caesar advances into the territory of the Arverni, and captures a hill near their stronghold, Gergovia.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.34'2-36'7; Polyaen_8.23'9; DioCass_40.35'1-36'4.
40 Litaviccus urges the Aedui to revolt against the Romans, but the revolt is suppressed by Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.37'1-43'4; Appian:Gall_21'1;(11)  DioCass_40.37'1-3.
41 ROM Pompeius passes a law forcing candidates for elections to appear at Rome, but he exempts Caesar from the law.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_8.3'3, :Phil_2'24; Plut:Pomp_56'1-3; Suet:Caes_28'2-3; +DioCass_40.56'1-3; { CAH_9'413.}
42 Pompeius passes another law, establishing a gap of five years after a magistrate's year of office, before they can govern a province.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_1.85'9; +DioCass_40.56'1.
43 PAL C.Cassius captures Tarichaeae in Galilee.
* Read Josephus' account
~Joseph:BJ_1'180-182, :AJ_14'120-122; { OCD_c.}
44 ROM Pompeius's command as governor of Spain is extended for a further five years.
* Read Dio's account
Plut:Caes_28'8, +:Pomp_55'12; +Appian:BCiv_2'24; +DioCass_40.56'2; Festus:Brev_5'2; { OCD_p.}
45 GAL Caesar suffers a reverse, while attempting to capture Gergovia.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.43'5-53'2, :BCiv_3.73'6; [Liv]:Per_107; Strab_4'191;(2.3)  Plut:Caes_26'8; Suet:Caes_25'2; Polyaen_8.23'10; DioCass_40.36'4-5, 38'1; Oros_6.11'6; { CAH_9'411; OCD_g.}
46 The Aedui openly revolt from the Romans, and capture Noviodunum.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.53'3-56'5; Plut:Caes_26'5; DioCass_40.38'1-3; Oros_6.11'5.
47 ROM {July/August -R} Metellus Scipio is chosen to be Pompeius' colleague as consul, for the remainder of the year.
* Read Dio's account
#Plut:Pomp_55'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'25;(↓↓)  +DioCass_40.51'2-3; { CAH_9'410; OCD_p.}
48 GAL Labienus defeats the Gauls near Lutetia.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.57'1-62'10; DioCass_40.38'4; { OCD_lab.}
49 A congress of Gauls appoints Vercingetorix to be their supreme commander.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BGall_7.63'1-65'5; Oros_6.11'7.
50 Vercingetorix attacks Caesar in the territory of the Allobroges, but is defeated.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.66'1-67'7; Plut:Caes_26'7; DioCass_40.39'1-3.
51 SYR C.Cassius repels a small invasion of Syria by the Parthians.
52 ROM {September -R} M.Favonius as aedile holds games at Rome, in which he gives Cato a place of honour.
Plut:CatMin_46'3-8; { CAH_9'404=53; MRR_2'160.}
53 Curio holds games, featuring a rotating theatre, in honour of his father.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_2.3'1; Plin:HN_36'116-120; Plut:CatMin_46'7; { At the same time as Favonius' games; MRR_2'160.}
54 ETR {September -R} The setting of the dialogue at Tusculum, in books 3 & 4 of Cicero's De Finibus.
Cic:Fin_3'6-9, 4'1-2.
55 GAL Vercingetorix retreats to Alesia, where Caesar begins to besiege him.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.68'1-74'2; Tac:Ann_11'23; Plut:Caes_27'1-4; Flor_1.45'24-25; DioCass_40.39'3-40'1; { OCD_a.}
56 ROM Cato stands as a candidate for consul, but fails to be elected.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_108; Sen:Dial_12.13'5, :Ben_5.17'2; Petron:Sat_119;(↓↓)  Plut:CatMin_49'2-50'3; +DioCass_50.58'1-4; { CAH_9'413; OCD_c.}
57 CIS The Illyrians invade the territory of Tergeste.
Caes:BGall_8.24'3; { CAH_9'412.}
58 GAL The Gauls assemble a huge army, to go to the relief of Alesia.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.75'1-76'5; Oros_6.11'7-8.
59 As food becomes scarce, Vercingetorix forces women and children to leave Alesia, but the Romans refuse to receive them.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.79'1-78'5, 8.34'1, :BCiv_3.47'5; Flor_1.45'25; DioCass_40.40'2-4.
60 The Gallic relief army reaches Alesia, but two attempts to attack the Roman fortifications are repelled with heavy losses.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.79'1-82'1; Frontin:Str_2.3'18; Plut:Caes_27'5-7; Polyaen_8.23'11; DioCass_40.41'1-3.
61 The relief army and the Gauls besieged in Alesia make a co-ordinated attack on the Romans, but are decisively defeated.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.83'1-88'7; Diod_4.19'2; [Liv]:Per_108; Strab_4'191;(2.3)  Vell_2.47'1; Flor_1.45'25; DioCass_40.40'6; Oros_6.11'9.
62 Vercingetorix surrenders himself to Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.89'1-5; Strab_4'191;(2.3)  Plut:Caes_27'8-10; Flor_1.45'26; DioCass_40.41'1-3; Oros_6.11'10-11; { CAH_9'412.}
63 The Aedui and Arverni submit to Caesar, and he prepares to spend the winter in Gaul with his legions.
64 ROM The senate authorises a thanksgiving of twenty days for Caesar's victories in Gaul.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_7.90'8; +DioCass_40.50'4; { CAH_9'412.}
65 == Metellus Scipio annuls Clodius' law, which had curtailed the powers of the censors.
+DioCass_40.57'1-3; { CAH_9'413.}
66 == Caesar makes fresh efforts to win popular support at Rome.
* Read Suetonius' account
Plut:CatMin_49'1, :Caes_28'1-6; Suet:Caes_26'3-28'1.
67 == Gemellus invites Metellus Scipio and the tribunes to an orgy.
68 == Two thousand pounds of gold are stolen from the throne of Jupiter Capitolinus.
69 == Document: Cic:Fam_5.16, a letter from Cicero to T.Fadius.
70 == Ser.Galba pledges a sum of money to Pompeius.
71 == General comments of Pompeius' third consulship.
* Read Gellius' account
Cic:Phil_1'18; Tac:Ann_3'28; Appian:BCiv_2'25; Gell_10.1'6-7.
72 == Praise for M.Caelius' conduct as tribune of the plebs.
Cic:Brut_273; { OCD_c; MRR_2'160.}
73 ITA == Italy exports olive oil to the Roman provinces.
74 SPA == Q.Cassius is wounded while serving as quaestor in Spain.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_48'1, 50'1; { OCD_c; MRR_2'160.}
75 PEL == The statue of Zeus at Olympia is struck by lightning.
76 GRE ?? Ariobarzanes II rebuilds the Odeium at Athens.
* Read Vitruvius' account
Sherk_47h;B  Vitr_5.9'1.
77 CAP == Ariobarzanes II is killed, apparently by a conspiracy of his enemies.
Cic:Fam_15.2'5; { OCD_a.}
78 PER << Orodes kills Surenas, the general who defeated Crassus.
Plut:Crass_33'5; { ~OCD_s.}
79 GAL {29 December -R} Caesar sets out on a winter campaign against the Bituriges.
#Caes:BGall_8.1'1-2'1; { CAH_9'414.}

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