63 B.C. Olympiad 179.2

Consuls: M. Tullius M.f. Cicero, C. Antonius M.f. Hybrida

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} Cicero successfully opposes an agrarian law proposed by the tribune Rullus.
Cic:LegAgr_1'1-3'16, #:Att_2.1'3; #:Pis_4, #:Fam_13.4'1; Plin:HN_7'117, 8'210; Quint_2.16'7; +Plut:Cic_12'1-5; +DioCass_37.25'4; { CAH_9'351.}
2 BOS << Mithridates plans further expeditions, including the invasion of Italy.
* Read Appian's account
Plut:Pomp_41'2; Flor_1.40'25; ~Appian:Mith_109; +DioCass_37.11'1-4; { ~CAH_9'254.}
3 ROM << Catilina gains the support of Sempronia and other women.
* Read Sallust's account
~Sall:Cat_24'3-25'5; ~Appian:BCiv_2'2.(↓) 
4 Cicero procures the cooperation of his colleague Antonius, and of Fulvia, the mistress of Q.Curius.
* Read Sallust's account
Cic:Sest_8, +:Pis_5; +Sall:Cat_26'1-4; +Plut:Cic_12'4; Flor_2.12'5-6; +Appian:BCiv_2'3; Justin:Dig_48.4'8<q" Papinian>; +DioCass_37.33'4, 38.10'3-4; { OCD_a.}
5 Cicero opposes some other proposals of the tribunes, including the cancellation of debts.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Off_2'84; +DioCass_37.25'3-4.
6 Caesar prosecutes C.Piso, who is defended by Cicero.
* Read Sallust's account
Sall:Cat_49'2; +Cic:Flac_98; { CAH_9'351.}
7 Various omens, including an inauspicious "augurium salutis" and an eclipse of the moon.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Div_1'18-22, '105, 2'45, '47; Plin:HN_2'137; +DioCass_37.24'1-25'2; +Obseq_61; { CAH_9'352.}
8 Cicero helps the equites to retain the privilege of special seats at the theatre.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Att_2.1'3; Plin:HN_7'117; +Plut:Cic_13'14; { CAH_9'352; OCD_roscius.}
9 SYR Pompeius marches to Damascus, establishing Roman control over Tripolis and the territory of the Ituraeans.
* Read Josephus' account
~Joseph:AJ_14'38-40; Festus:Brev_14'2, 16'3; Eutrop_6.14'1; +Oros_6.6'1.
10 ROM Labienus and Caesar accuse C.Rabirius of treason, but he is defended by Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RabPerd_1-38, +:Att_2.1'3, +:Pis_4; ~Ascon_5;L  Suet:Caes_12'1; +DioCass_37.26'1-28'4, 37'2; { CAH_9'352; OCD_r.}
11 ++ General comments on the character of Metellus Pius, the pontifex maximus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Arch_26; Plut:CatMai_24'11, :Mor_273'D-E; { OCD_m.}
12 The right to elect new Roman priests is transferred back to the people, on the proposal of Labienus.
+DioCass_37.37'1; { CAH_9'352.}
13 Crowds greet Murena on his return to Rome from the province of Gaul.
~Cic:Mur_68-69; { MRR_2'117.}
14 SYR Pompeius receives envoys from Hyrcanus and Aristobulus at Damascus.
* Read Josephus' account
Diod_40.2'1; Joseph:BJ_1'131-132, ~:AJ_14'41-47; Euseb:HistEc_1.7'12; Sulpit_2'26; August:DeCiv_18'45.(↓↓) 
15 ROM Caesar is elected to be pontifex maximus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Cat_49'2; Vell_2.43'3; Plut:Caes_7'1-4, :Mor_206'A; ~Suet:Caes_13'1; +DioCass_37.37'1-3, 44.48'3; { CAH_9'353; OCD_c.}
16 Cicero delivers a speech "about the children of the proscribed".
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Att_2.1'3, +:Pis_4; Plin:HN_7'117; { CAH_9'352-353.}
17 BOS ?? Mithridates outdoes his rivals in eating and drinking contests.
Plut:Mor_624'A;(Q1.6)  Athen_10.415'e.
18 ?? Mithridates discovers an antidote which protects him against poisoning.
Plin:HN_25'5-7,L  '62-63,L  '65,L  '127,L  29'24;L  Mart_5.76'1-2; Juvenal_6'660-661, 14'252-253.
19 ?? Mithridates learns 22 languages in order to speak to his subjects.
* Read Quintilian's account
ValMax_8.7e'16; Plin:HN_7'88, 25'6;L  Quint_11.2'50; Gell_17.17'2; [Vict]:VirIll_76'1.
20 ?? Teucer of Cyzicus and Aesopus write about the achievements of Mithridates.
* Read Suda's account
Suda_Ai'333, T'426.
21 ?? Mithridates is guarded at night by a bull, a horse and a deer.
22 Mithridates commits suicide after his son Pharnaces starts a rebellion.
* Read Appian's account
@  (?) SEG_56.934; ~[Liv]:Per_102; ValMax_9.2e'3; Lucan_1'336-337, 2'580-582; Flor_1.40'26; Appian:Mith_110-112, 117; Paus_3.23'5; Gell_17.16'2-6; +DioCass_37.12'1-14'1; Festus:Brev_16'1; [Vict]:VirIll_76'7-8; Eutrop_6.12'3; Oros_6.5'4-7; { CAH_9'254; OCD_m.}
23 ++ General comments on the long reign of Mithridates, and his wars against the Romans.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:ProvCon_31, :Mur_34; Strab_1'14,(2.1)  7'311,(4.6)  12'540-541,(3.1)  '544,(3.9)  '545,(3.11)  '555,(3.28)  '556;(3.30)  Plin:HN_7'97-99, 16'137;L  Plut:Mor_624'B;(Q1.6)  Flor_1.40'2; Appian:Syr_48, :Mith_112,(↓)  118-119, 121; Just_37.1'7-8; Oros_6.1'29-30, 5'11-12.
24 ARA Pompeius prepares to fight against Aretas and the Nabataean Arabs.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_16'779;(4.21)  Lucan_2'590; ~Plut:Pomp_41'1-2; Flor_1.40'29; ~Appian:Mith_106; +DioCass_37.14'3-15'2; [Vict]:VirIll_77'6-7; Oros_6.6'1; { CAH_9'261; Pompeius did not defeat the Nabataeans, because he invaded Judaea instead.}
25 ROM Cicero persuades the senate to pass a decree to prohibit bribery in elections.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mur_3, 5, 46-47, 67, :Vat_37, +:Pis_4; +DioCass_37.29'1; Schol:Bob_79, 140,L  151,L  +166;L  { CAH_9'353.}
26 ROM Catilina forms an abortive plot to kill the consuls before the elections.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Mur_79, :Cat_1'11, 4'2; +Sall:Cat_26'5; +Plut:Cic_14'1-4; +DioCass_37.29'2-4.
27 Lentulus Spinther as aedile organises magnificent games.
+Cic:Off_2'57; ValMax_2.4'6; +Plin:HN_9'137,L  19'23;L  { MRR_2'116.}
28 Metellus Celer is allocated the province of Gaul, in place of Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Cat_4'23, :Fam_5.2'3, +:Att_2.1'3, :Pis_5; { CAH_9'354; OCD_m.}
29 PAL Pompeius enters Judaea; Hyrcanus submits to him, but Aristobulus remains defiant.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'139-140, ~:AJ_14'48-52; +DioCass_37.15'2-3; { CAH_9'261.}
30 Pompeius receives news of the death of Mithridates.
* Read Appian's account
Joseph:BJ_1'138, ~:AJ_14'53; ~Plut:Pomp_41'3-42'2; Appian:Mith_113; +Oros_6.6'1; Movses_2'15; { CAH_9'261-262; according to Plutarch, this happened slightly later, after the capture of Jerusalem.}
31 Pompeius stays near Jericho, and puts Aristobulus under arrest.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'139-140, ~:AJ_14'54-57; Plut:Pomp_39'3; +DioCass_37.15'3; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'6; [Euseb]:Chron_129;(↓)  ChronPasc_453'A.
32 EGY {5 Mesore -E = August} Document: SelPap_2.393, instructions from Athenaeus for the payment of soldiers' wages.
33 ROM Catilina is unsuccessful in the elections for new consuls.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mur_1, 7, 48-53, 70-74, :Sull_51-52, :Cael_11-14; +Sall:Cat_26'5; +Plut:Cic_14'5-6; +DioCass_37.29'5-30'1; { CAH_9'353; OCD_c.}
34 Cato and Metellus Nepos are elected to be tribunes for the following year.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Plut:CatMin_20'1-21'2, :Crass_36'3; { OCD_c.}
35 The triumphs of L.Lucullus, over Mithridates, and M.Lucullus, over the Bessi.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Cic:Mur_69, +:Acad_2'3; Diod_4.21'4; CIL_11.1832; Vell_2.34'2; Plut:CatMin_29'5-8, :Luc_37'2-6; Athen_6.274'f; Eutrop_6.10'1; Schol:Bob_177;L  { OCD_l.}
36 A supplication and other special honours are voted for Pompeius' victory over Mithridates.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:ProvCon_27; Vell_2.40'4; +DioCass_37.21'3-23'4.
37 EGY ++ An account of the vast wealth of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, at this time.
38 << Document: SelPap_2.394, instructions from Dionysius for a payment to Horus the hawk-tender.
39 ROM {23 September -R} The birth of C.Octavius, the future emperor Augustus.
* Read Suetonius' account
#OGIS_458'22-23, '31, '55-56<t=B  Sherk_101>; #EhrJon:Fast_Sep23; [Liv]:Per_119; +Vell_2.36'1; #Suet:Aug_5'1, 94'1-5, 100'1, '3; +DioCass_45.1'2-2'1; ~Hieron:Chron_2029; { CAH_9'354; OCD_a; the birthday of Augustus was still being celebrated by Roman soldiers in the 3rd century A.D. - see the Dura-Europos calendar.}
40 Cicero and Catulus both have dreams about the future greatness of Octavius.
41 PAL {October} Pompeius captures Jerusalem.
* Read Josephus' account
Cic:Flac_67-68; ~[Liv]:Per_102; Strab_16'762-763;(2.40)  Joseph:BJ_1'141-151, 5'395-397, +:AJ_14'58-71, '466, '487, 20'244; Appian:Syr_50; +DioCass_37.16'1-4; Eutrop_6.14'2; +Oros_6.6'2-4; ChronPasc_453'A-B; ChronSynt_65,(↓)  67;(↓)  { CAH_9'261; OCD_j.}
42 Pompeius enters the inner sanctuary of the temple at Jerusalem.
* Read Josephus' account
Liv_fr'26a;L  Joseph:BJ_1'152-153, ~:AJ_14'72; Tac:Hist_5'9; Flor_1.40'30; Tert:Apol_16'3; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'6; Hieron:Chron_1950; August:DeCiv_18'45;(↓↓)  ChronPasc_453'A; { OCD_j.}
43 ETR Catilina sends out C.Manlius and others to foment revolt in Italy.
* Read Sallust's account
+Sall:Cat_27'1-2, 28'4; +Plut:Cic_15'1; ~Appian:BCiv_2'2.(↓) 
44 ROM {20 October -R} Crassus receives an anonymous letter with details of Catilina's conspiracy.
* Read Plutarch's account
#Plut:Cic_15'1-2, :Crass_13'3-4; +DioCass_37.31'1; { CAH_9'354<18 October>.}
45 {21 October -R} Cicero informs the senate of the seriousness of the threat from Catilina, and it passes the Ultimate Decree.
* Read Sallust's account
#Cic:Cat_1'4, '7; +Sall:Cat_29'1-3; +Plut:Cic_15'3-4; +DioCass_37.31'1-2; { CAH_9'354; OCD_cic.}
46 ETR {27 October -R} Manlius collects an army and openly starts a revolt in Etruria.
#Cic:Cat_1'7; #Sall:Cat_30'1; { CAH_9'354.}
47 ROM L.Saenius reports Manlius' revolt to the senate; Q.Metellus and others are sent out to restore order in various parts of Italy.
* Read Sallust's account
Cic:Cat_2'26; +Sall:Cat_30'1-31'3; +Plut:Cic_16'1; +DioCass_37.31'3, 33'4; { OCD_met.}
48 Catilina agrees to stay at the house of Metellus, in order to free himself from suspicion.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Cat_1'19; +DioCass_37.32'1-2.
49 PAL Pompeius appoints Hyrcanus to be high priest and ruler of the Jews.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'153, ~:AJ_14'73, 15'180, 20'244-245; Flor_1.40'30; +DioCass_37.16'4; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'6; [Euseb]:Chron_129;(↓)  Sulpit_2'26; August:DeCiv_18'45;(↓↓)  +Oros_6.6'4; ChronPasc_453'B; { OCD_hasmoneans.}
50 Pompeius imposes Roman control over Judaea, and takes away Aristobulus as a prisoner.
* Read Josephus' account
Strab_16'765;(2.46)  Joseph:BJ_1'154-157, ~:AJ_14'74-78, :Ap_2'134; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'6; Hieron:Chron_1950; AmmMarc_14.8'12; Sulpit_2'26; August:DeCiv_18'45;(↓↓)  ChronPasc_453'B; { CAH_9'261.}
51 SYR Pompeius leaves Scaurus to be governor of Syria.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'157, ~:AJ_14'79; Appian:Syr_51, :BCiv_5'10; { CAH_9'262; MRR_2'116.}
52 ROM {1 November -R} Catilina's supporters make an abortive attack on Praeneste.
53 L.Paullus prepares to prosecute Catilina.
* Read Sallust's account
+Sall:Cat_31'4; +DioCass_37.31'3; Schol:Bob_149.L 
54 {6 November -R} Catilina and the other conspirators meet at Laeca's house.
* Read Sallust's account
#Cic:Cat_1'8-9, 2'12-13, :Sull_52; +Sall:Cat_27'3-28'1; +DioCass_37.32'3-33'1.
55 {7 November -R} C.Cornelius and L.Vargunteius fail in an attempt to kill Cicero at his home.
#Cic:Cat_1'9-10, 4'2, :Mur_79, :Sull_52; +Sall:Cat_28'2-3.
56 {8 November -R} Cicero speaks in the senate against Catilina; Catilina leaves Rome.
Cic:Cat_1'1-33, 2'12-13, 3'17, :Mur_6, +:Att_2.1'3, :Pis_5; +Sall:Cat_31'5-32'2; Diod_40.5a'1; [Liv]:Per_102; +Vell_2.34'3-4; ValMax_9.11'3; Plut:CatMin_22'1-2, +:Cic_16'3-4, :Caes_7'6; Flor_2.12'7; +Appian:BCiv_2'3; +DioCass_37.33'1-2; { CAH_9'355; OCD_cat.}
57 {9 November -R} Document: Cic:Cat_2, Cicero's second speech against Catilina, to an assembly of the people.
58 ETR C.Manlius sends envoys to Marcius Rex.
+Sall:Cat_32'3-34'1; { CAH_9'354.}
59 Catilina sends a letter to Catulus.
60 Catilina joins Manlius; Antonius is appointed as general against them.
* Read Sallust's account
+Sall:Cat_36'1-3; +Plut:Cic_16'4; Flor_2.12'8; +Appian:BCiv_2'3;(↓)  +DioCass_37.33'2-3; { CAH_9'355; OCD_a.}
61 ROM Fulvius, Clodius and others leave Rome with the intention of joining Catilina.
* Read Sallust's account
Sall:Cat_36'4-37'2, 39'3-5; ValMax_5.8'5; +Ascon_50.L 
62 Cato prosecutes the consul-elect Murena, who is defended by Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Mur_1-90, :Flac_98, :Dom_134, :Fin_4'74; +Plut:CatMin_21'3-10, 28'3, :Cic_35'3, 50'5, :Mor_91'D; Schol:Bob_151;L  { CAH_9'355-356; OCD_m.}
63 The conspirators contact the envoys of the Allobroges through P.Umbrenus.
* Read Sallust's account
Cic:Cat_4'2, :Dom_134; +Sall:Cat_39'6-41'5; Hor:Epod_16'6; Quint_5.10'30; +Plut:Cic_18'3-4; Flor_2.12'8-9; +Appian:BCiv_2'4; +DioCass_37.34'1.
64 ETR Q.Metellus and others arrest Catilina's agents throughout Italy.
* Read Sallust's account
Cic:Fam_5.2'1, :Sest_9-11; +Sall:Cat_42'1-3; Flor_2.12'9.
65 BOS Pompeius allows Pharnaces to become king of Bosporus.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:Mith_113, 120;(↓)  +DioCass_37.14'2; { CAH_9'265; OCD_pharn.}
66 PON Mithridates' body is sent to Pompeius.
67 Pompeius returns towards Rome via Pontus.
* Read Dio's account
Joseph:BJ_1'157-158, ~:AJ_14'79; +DioCass_37.20'1-2; Eutrop_6.14'2.
68 ?? Pompeius investigates the trade routes to India.
69 ROM Cethegus forms another plot to murder Cicero, as part of a general insurrection in Rome.
* Read Sallust's account
+Sall:Cat_43'1-4; Diod_40.5'1; Lucan_2'541-543; Plut:CatMin_22'3, +:Cic_16'2, 17'1, 17'4-18'2; Juvenal_8'231-244; +Appian:BCiv_2'3.(↓) 
70 {2 December -R} The envoys of the Allobroges are arrested on the Milvian bridge, along with T.Volturcius, one of the conspirators.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Cat_3'4-6, :Flac_102, +:Pis_5, :Planc_90; +Sall:Cat_44'1-46'5; +Plut:Cic_18'4-5; +Appian:BCiv_2'4; +DioCass_37.34'2; Schol:Bob_107;L  { CAH_9'356; OCD_cat.}
71 {3 December -R} The Allobroges appear before the senate; Lentulus resigns from his position as praetor, and a thanksgiving is decreed for the suppression of the conspiracy.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Cat_3'1-29, 4'5, '13, :Sull_27, 36-45, +:Att_2.1'3, +:Pis_6, :Phil_2'12-13, '17; +Sall:Cat_46'6-48'2, 52'36; +Plut:Cic_19'1-20'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'4, '5; +DioCass_37.34'2-4, 36'3; Schol:Bob_83;L  { CAH_9'356-357.}
72 {4 December -R} The senate gives rewards to the Allobroges for their help; L.Tarquinius implicates Crassus in the conspiracy.
* Read Sallust's account
#Cic:Cat_4'5; #Sall:Cat_48'3-50'1; Plut:Crass_13'2; +DioCass_37.35'1-2.
73 {5 December -R} Following a debate in the senate, the leading conspirators are executed.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Cat_4'1-24, :Sull_33, #:Att_1.19'6, +2.1'3, +12.21'1, :Flac_102-103, :Phil_2'17; +Sall:Cat_50'1-55'6; +Vell_2.34'4-35'4; Plut:CatMin_22'4-24'4, +:Cic_20'3-22'5, :Brut_5'2-4, :Caes_7'7-8'7, :Ant_2'1-3; Suet:Caes_14'1-2; Flor_2.12'10-11; +Appian:BCiv_2'5-6; +DioCass_37.35'3-36'3, 38.17'1-2, 46.20'2-21'2; +Eutrop_6.15'1; { CAH_9'357; OCD_cicero.}
74 Cicero is given the title "parens patriae", by either Catulus or Cato.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Pis_6; Plin:HN_7'117; Plut:Cic_23'3; Appian:BCiv_2'7; { CAH_9'357.}
75 ETR Catilina avoids battle with Antonius, and awaits the outcome of events at Rome.
* Read Sallust's account
+Sall:Cat_56'1-5; DioCass_37.39'1.
76 ROM The search for other conspirators continues at Rome.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_17'1-2; +DioCass_37.36'3-4.
77 Sestius uses his army to prevent the new tribunes from fomenting more unrest.
78 EGY {Choiak - E = December} Document: SelPap_1.55 (POxy_1664), an agreement between Moschion and his uncles.
79 ROM {29 December -R} The tribune Metellus Nepos attempts to prevent Cicero from making a statement at the end of his year as consul.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_5.2'7-8, +:Pis_6-7, :Att_6.1'22; +Ascon_6;L  +Plut:Cic_23'1-2; #DioCass_37.38'1-2; Schol:Bob_82,L  127;L  { CAH_9'357-358.}
80 SYR << Antiochus is killed by the Arabs but Philippus, another Seleucid prince, escapes.
Diod_40.1a'1, 1b'1; { Green_658-659.}
81 ROM ++ General comments on the career of the textual critic Asclepiades of Myrleia.
Suda_A'4173; { ~OCD_a; the chronology in Suda is confused - the entry may be about two different men.}
82 PON ?? Asclepiades of Prusa dies in old age after a distinguished career as a doctor.
Plin:HN_7'124, 26'12-20,L  29'6;L  Apul:Flor_19; { Asclepiades was a contemporary of Mithridates.}
83 ITA == The inhabitants of Puteoli complain to Cicero about the behaviour of the quaestor Vatinius.
+Cic:Vat_12; Schol:Bob_145;L  { MRR_2'116.}
84 ROM == L.Flaccus wins approval for his conduct as praetor urbanus.
Cic:Flac_6; { OCD_f; MRR_2'115.}
85 Document: Cic:Fam_13.76, a letter of commendation for C.Valgius Hippianus.
86 == The grammarian L.Orbilius Pupillus arrives in Rome.
+Suet:Gram_9; { OCD_o.}
87 ++ The outstanding writers of this period include Cicero, Caesar, Sallustius, Lucretius and Catullus.
88 << The birth of M.Agrippa.
~Plin:HN_7'45-46; { OCD_a.}
89 == General comments on the consulship of Cicero, and the failure of Catilina's conspiracy.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Sull_15-17, 34, 53-66, 70-71, :Cael_15, :Flac_1, 95-97, :Pis_7, 14-16, :Phil_2'11-20; Verg:Aen_8'668-669; Ascon_82;L (↓)  Plin:HN_33'34; Juvenal_10'122; Plut:Mor_797'D.

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