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81 B.C. Olympiad 174.4


Consuls: M. Tullius M.f. Decula, Cn. Cornelius Cn.f. Dolabella

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ETR Sulla punishes the inhabitants of Praeneste.
* Read Appian's account
ValMax_9.2'1;L  Lucan_2'193-195; ~Plut:Sull_32'1-2, :Mor_815'F-816'A; ~Appian:BCiv_1'94; ~Oros_5.21'10.L 
2 ROM {28 January -R} The triumph of Sulla, over Mithridates, including a parade of the booty recovered from Praeneste.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:LegMan_8; #FastTr_p108; ValMax_2.8'7;L  Plin:HN_33'16;L  Plut:Sull_34'1-2; Appian:BCiv_1'99,(↓)  +'101;(↓)  Eutrop_5.9'1; { CAH_9'789.}
3 << Sulla publishes proscriptions listing his enemies, who are hunted down and killed, including Q.Aurelius (? Lollius), Baebius, Q.Caecilius, Carrinas, Damasippus, Cn.Decidius, Fidustius, Lucretius, M.Plaetorius, and Venuleius.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:RoscAm_16, :Clu_161; QCic:Pet_9;(2)  Cic:Sull_72; Sall:Cat_11'4-8, 51'32-34; Diod_38.19'1; ~[Liv]:Per_88; Vell_2.28'2-4; ValMax_9.2'1;L  Sen:Dial_1.3'7-8; Ascon_90-91;L  Lucan_2'139-173, '193-232; Plin:HN_7'134;L  Plut:Sull_1'6-7, 31'1-12; Flor_2.9'25-26; ~Appian:BCiv_1'95-96, '104,(↓)  4'26, '44;(↓)  DioCass_fr.109'8-21, 45.17'1, 47.3'1-5'2, 11'4, 51.21'6; August:DeCiv_3'28;(↓)  ~Oros_5.21'2-8;L  { CAH_9'197; OCD_prosc.}
4 << Catilina is involved in the cruel murder of M.Marius Gratidianus.
* Read Seneca's account
QCic:Pet_10;(3)  Sall:Hist_1'36-37;L  ~[Liv]:Per_88; ValMax_9.2'1;L  Sen:Dial_5.18'1-3; Ascon_84,L  90,L  91;L  Lucan_2'173-193; Plin:HN_34'27;L  Plut:Sull_32'3-4, :Cic_10'2; Flor_2.9'26; Exsuper_32-33; ~Oros_5.21'7;L  { CAH_9'195.}
5 SIC << Pompeius establishes law and order in Sicily; he is persuaded by Sthenius not to punish (?) Himera.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Verr_2.2'113, :LegMan_30, 61; Diod_38.20'1; Plin:HN_7'96;L  ~Plut:Pomp_10'2-3, '10-14, :Mor_203'C-D, 815'E-F; [Vict]:VirIll_77'1;L  Eutrop_5.9'1.
6 << Document: CIL_1.2710, an inscription in honour of Pompeius at Agrigentum.
7 IT+ Sulla punishes the Italian towns which supported his opponents, including Arretium, Florentia, Interamnium, Larinum, Praeneste, Spoletium, Sulmo, and Volaterrae.
* Read Florus' account
Cic:Caecin_95, 97, 101-102, :Clu_25, :Dom_79, :Fam_13.4'1, :Att_1.19'4; Sall:Hist_1.48'12; Flor_2.9'27-28; ~Appian:BCiv_1'96; August:DeCiv_3'28.(↓) 
8 Sulla founds colonies of his veterans at Aleria, Arretium, Capua, Faesulae, Suessula, and Urbana.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Cat_2'20, 3'14, :Mur_49; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Sen:Dial_12.7'9; Plin:HN_14'62;L  ~Appian:BCiv_1'96, '100,(↓)  '104,(↓)  2'94; { OCD_s.}
9 ROM The Romans treat their provinces harshly and raise heavy taxes.
* Read Appian's account
[Caes]:BAfr_56'3; +Appian:BCiv_1'102.
10 AFR Pompeius defeats and kills Domitius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:LegMan_30, 61; ~[Liv]:Per_89; ValMax_6.2'8;L  ~Plut:Pomp_11'1-12'5, :Mor_203'D; DioCass_36.25'2; Eutrop_5.9'1; ~Oros_5.21'13;L  { CAH_9'789.}
11 NUM Pompeius invades Numidia and established Hiempsal as king.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Caes]:BAfr_22'2; Sall:Hist_1'45;L  ~[Liv]:Per_89; ~Plut:Pomp_12'6-8, 38'5, :Mor_324'A; Appian:BCiv_1'80;(↓)  [Vict]:VirIll_77'2;L  Eutrop_5.9'1; ~Oros_5.21'14.L 
12 ROM << M.Piso divorces his wife Annia in order to win favour with Sulla.
~Vell_2.41'2.
13 Caesar goes into hiding after antagonising Sulla, and avoids capture by bribing Cornelius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Vell_2.41'2, 43'1; ~Plut:Caes_1'1-7; ~Suet:Caes_1'1-2, 74'1.
14 Crassus and other friends of Sulla enrich themselves by buying up the property of the victims of the proscriptions.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RoscAm_126, :Verr_2.3'81-82, :LegAgr_2'56; Sall:Cat_37'6; Cic:Off_1'43, :Att_7.7'7; Sall:Hist_1'40,L  '42,L  1.48'12; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Ascon_18;L  Plin:HN_33'145,L  36'116;L  Plut:CatMin_17'5, :Sull_33'3, :Crass_2'3, ~6'6-7, 34'1; Flor_2.11'3; DioCass_41.11'2; Schol:Bob_89.
16 Sulla passes a law imposing sanctions on the children of proscribed men.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Verr_2.1'123, :Fam_13.5'2; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Sen:Dial_4.34'3; ~Plut:Sull_31'8; DioCass_43.50'2, 51.21'6.
17 AFR Pompeius persuades his army not to mutiny after they are ordered by Sulla to return to Italy.
~Plut:Pomp_13'1-5.
18 Pompeius rewards Hasdrubal of Gades and several others with Roman citizenship for their services in Africa.
Cic:Balb_51.
19 Cn.Pompeius takes on the name Magnus ("the Great").
* Read Plutarch's account
Liv_30.45'6; Plut:Sert_18'3, ~:Pomp_13'6-9, 23'2, :Crass_7'1, 12'4, :Mor_203'E; { CAH_9'197.}
20 {12 March -R} The triumph of Pompeius, for his victories in Africa.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:LegMan_61; [Caes]:BAfr_22'3; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Vell_2.40'4; Plin:HN_7'96,L  8'4;L  Plut:Sert_18'3, ~:Pomp_14'1-11, 45'7, :Crass_7'1, 12'4, :Mor_203'E-F, 804'F; Appian:BCiv_1'80;(↓)  GranLic_31; [Vict]:VirIll_77'2;L  ~Eutrop_5.9'1; !Hieron:Chron_1939; { CAH_9'197; OCD_p.}
21 ROM {27 March -R} Document: Sherk_63B  (OGIS_441), a decree of Sulla and the Roman senate, renewing a grant of autonomy to the city of Stratoniceia.
22 ETR << The inhabitants of Norba set fire to their town, after it is captured by Lepidus.
~Appian:BCiv_1'94-95;(↓)  { CAH_9'195; OCD_n.}
23 AS1 << L.Lucullus serves as quaestor under Murena; he is not involved in the fighting, and studies philosophy with Antiochus of Ascalon.
* Read Aelian's account
Cic:Acad_2'2,L  '4;L  Aelian:VH_12'25.
24 << Lucullus buys a copy of a painting by Pausias.
Plin:HN_35'125.L 
25 << Murena fails to suppress the pirates.
Appian:Mith_83'
26 << L.Murena serves honourably under his father's command in Asia.
Cic:Mur_11-12.
27 Sulla sends Gabinius to recall Murena from Asia.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:LegMan_8; ~Appian:Mith_66; { MRR_2'54.}
28 ITA ?? M.Plautius commits suicide after the death of his wife.
ValMax_4.6'3;L  { MRR_2'465; Plautius may possibly have been a naval officer serving under Sulla.}
29 ROM Sulla digs up the body of Marius and destroys his monuments.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Leg_2'56;L  ValMax_9.2'1;L  Plin:HN_7'187;L  Suet:Caes_11'1; GranLic_33.
30 {1 June -R} Sulla formally ends the proscriptions.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:RoscAm_128; August:DeCiv_3'28;(↓)  { CAH_9'198.}
31 Sulla grants Roman citizenship to the slaves who supported him: they are called the Cornelii.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:BCiv_1'100;(↓)  Exsuper_34.
32 SPA C.Annius forces Sertorius to abandon Spain.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Hist_1'84-86;L  ~Plut:Sert_7'2-4; { OCD_s.}
33 ROM Sulla reluctantly agrees to pardon Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
~Suet:Caes_1'2-3, 45'3; DioCass_43.43'4; Macrob:Sat_2.3'9;L  { Immediately before Caesar's mission to Nicomedes.}
34 ++ The dignified behaviour of M.Cato as a young man.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:CatMin_1'1-10, 2'6-7, :Mor_28'B.
35 Cato is restrained from making threats against Sulla.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_3.1'2;L  Plut:CatMin_3'1-7.
36 ROM The triumphs of Murena, over Mithridates, and Flaccus, from Celtiberia and Gaul.
* Read Fasti's account
FastTr_p108<x>; GranLic_31<x>; { CAH_9'789.}
37 MAU Sertorius attempts to settle in Mauretania, and later on the island of Pityussa, but is forced to leave both of them.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Hist_1'87-88;L  Plut:Sert_7'5-7.
38 ROM Sex.Roscius (senior) is murdered.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RoscAm_17-19, 95-104, 126, ~128; Quint_7.2'2; { OCD_r.}
39 BAE Sertorius thinks of setting out for the "Blessed Isles".
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Hist_1'89-92;L  ~Plut:Sert_8'1-9'1.
40 ROM Xenocles speaks in the Roman senate to defend Asia against the charge of supporting Mithridates.
Strab_13'614.(1.66) 
41 Apollonius Molon addresses the senate, who restore control of the Caunians to Rhodes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_14'652;(2.3)  ValMax_2.2'3;L  { OCD_a.}
42 Cicero regularly listens to Molon during his stay in Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_312; ValMax_2.2'3;L  Quint_12.6'7.
43 Aemilia, the wife of Pompeius, dies in childbirth.
Plut:Sull_33'4; { Only a few months after their marriage.}
44 PON Caesar visits the court of Nicomedes, and is accused of having an indecent association with the king.
* Read Suetonius' account
~Plut:Caes_1'7-8; ~Suet:Caes_2'1, 49'1-4; Ampel_34'3;L  DioCass_43.20'2, '4; [Vict]:VirIll_78'1;L  { MRR_2'54.}
45 ETR Chrysogonus, while at Volaterrae, plots to seize the property of Sex.Roscius, and persuades the decurions of Ameria not to seek an interview with Sulla.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:RoscAm_20-26, 105-110, 115-117, 125; Plut:Cic_3'2; { Chrysogonus began this plot very soon after hearing of the death of Roscius.}
46 MAU Sertorius defeats Ascalis and captures Tingis, after which he digs up the alleged remains of Antaeus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_17'829;(3.8)  ~Plut:Sert_9'2-11.
47 AEG C.Norbanus commits suicide to avoid capture at Rhodes.
~[Liv]:Per_89.
48 ROM << The death of the young son of Sulla and Metella.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sen:Dial_6.12'6;L  ~Plut:Sull_37'3.
49 {Nov. -R} The death of Metella, during the games to celebrate the anniversary of the battle at the Colline Gate.
Plut:Sull_35'1-4.
50 == Sulla extends the "pomerium", the city boundary of Rome.
* Read Tacitus' account
Sen:Dial_10.13'8; Tac:Ann_12'23; Gell_13.14'4; DioCass_43.50'1; { CAH_9'205; OCD_m.}
51 == Sulla enlarges the "curia", the senate-house.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fin_5'2; Plin:HN_34'26;L  DioCass_40.50'3.
52 == Sulla curtails the power of the tribunes of the plebs.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Verr_2.1'155, :Leg_3'22;L  Caes:BCiv_1.7'3; [Liv]:Per_89; Vell_2.30'4; Ascon_67,L  78;L (↓)  Suet:Caes_5'1; +Appian:BCiv_1'100, 2'29; [Vict]:VirIll_75'11;L  { CAH_9'789; OCD_s.}
53 == Sulla increases the number of praetors to ten, and the number of quaestors to twenty.
* Read Tacitus' account
CIL_1.587; Tac:Ann_11'22; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'32<q" Pomponius>; { OCD_s.}
54 == Sulla passes a Lex Annalis, setting a fixed sequence of magistracies.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Acad_2'1;L  +Appian:BCiv_1'100; { CAH_9'789; OCD_s.}
55 == Sulla passes the Lex Cornelia de Provinciis, regulating the conduct of provincial governors.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_1.9'25, 3.6'3, '6, 10'6; { OCD_s.}
56 == Sulla increases the number of priests and augurs.
* Read Livy's account
~[Liv]:Per_89; DioCass_37.37'1; [Vict]:VirIll_75'11.L 
57 == Sulla restores the size of the senate, by creating new senators.
* Read Sallust's account
Sall:Cat_37'6; ~[Liv]:Per_89; +Appian:BCiv_1'100;(↓)  { CAH_9'789; OCD_s.}
58 == Sulla passes a Lex Judicaria, to transfer membership of juries from the equites to senators.
~Cic:Verr_1'37-38, 2.2'77; Vell_2.32'3; Tac:Ann_11'22.
59 == Sulla passes a law about the falsification of wills.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Verr_2.1'108; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'32<q" Pomponius>, 28.3'15<q" Javolenus>; Justin:Dig_28.1'12, 6'28, 34.8'1, 49.15.22'1<q" Julianus>; Justin:Dig_28.6'29<q" Scaevola>, 49.15.10'1, 11'1<q" Papinian>; Justin:Dig_35.2.1'1, 35.2'18, 38.2.4'1<q" Paulus>; Justin:Dig_28.3.6'12, 38.16.1'1, 43.5.3'6<q" Ulpian>, 48.10'1-33.
60 == Sulla passes a series of laws, setting up courts to try cases of murder, extortion, treason, bribery and insults.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Clu_151, 154, :Pis_50, :RabPost_8-9, :Fam_3.11'2; Sen:Apocol_14'1; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'32<q" Pomponius>, 29.5.25'1<q" Gaius>, 48.5.23'2<q" Papinian>; Justin:Dig_9.2.5'1, 47.10.5'1-7, 7'1<q" Ulpian>; Justin:Dig_47.10.37'1, 48.8'1-17<q" Marcian>; Justin:Dig_47.13'2, 48.5.33'1<q" Macer>; Justin:Dig_48.2.12'4<q" Venuleius>; Schol:Bob_78; { CAH_9'503, '512; OCD_s.}
61 == Sulla passes a sumptuary law, limiting private expenditure on feasts.
* Read Gellius' account
Gell_2.24'11; AmmMarc_16.5'1; Macrob:Sat_3.17'11-12.L 
62 == Sulla passes an agrarian law, confirming the distribution of land to his veterans.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:LegAgr_2'35, '68-70, '78, '81, 3'7, '12; GranLic_10.
63 == Lentulus Sura refuses to justify his conduct as quaestor, when challenged by Sulla.
Plut:Cic_17'2; { MRR_2'53.}
64 == Document: Cic:Quinct_, Cicero's first surviving speech, in defence of P.Quinctius.
* Read St.Jerome's account
+Gell_15.28'3, '6; !Hieron:Chron_1934; { OCD_c.}
64a == M.Messala becomes an augur.
Macrob:Sat_1.9'14;L  { Messala Rufus was augur for 55 years, and died in 26 B.C. (OCD).}
65 ?? Voltacilius Plotus opens a school of rhetoric at Rome, which is attended by Cn.Pompeius.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Rhet_3; +Hieron:Chron_1936; { OCD_v.}
66 == Document: CIL_1.722, a dedication by the freedmen (Cornelii) to Sulla.
67 ETR == Document: CIL_1.719, marking the reestablishment of boundary stones between Pisaurum and Fundanum by M.Varro Lucullus.
68 AEG == Document: Sherk_62a,B  a letter from Sulla authorising Alexander of Laodiceia, envoy of the Dionysiac Artists, to erect a stele at Cos.
69 AS1 == Rutilius is invited back by Sulla, but refuses to return from exile.
* Read Seneca's account
ValMax_6.4'4;L  Sen:Dial_1.3'7, :Ep_24'4; Quint_11.1'13.
70 BAE == M.Fonteius is sent on a mission to further Spain.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Font_6, 45; { MRR_2'54.}
71 EGY {? December} The death of Ptolemy IX Soter; his daughter Cleopatra Berenice takes over as ruler of Egypt.
FGrH_252'A6; +AstrCan_3; Paus_1.9'3; ~[Euseb]:Chron_165, 171; { CAH_9'318; Hölbl_p213; Bennett.}

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