81 B.C. Olympiad 174.4

Consuls: M. Tullius M.f. Decula, Cn. Cornelius Cn.f. Dolabella

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ETR Sulla punishes the inhabitants of Praeneste.
* Read Appian's account
ValMax_9.2'1; Lucan_2'193-195; ~Plut:Sull_32'1-2, :Mor_815'F-816'A; ~Appian:BCiv_1'94; ~Oros_5.21'10.
2 ROM {28 January -R} The triumph of Sulla, over Mithridates, including a parade of the booty recovered from Praeneste.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:LegMan_8; #FastTr_p108; ValMax_2.8'7; Plin:HN_33'16; Plut:Sull_34'1-2; Appian:BCiv_1'99,(↓)  +'101;(↓)  Eutrop_5.9'1; { CAH_9'789.}
3 << Sulla publishes proscriptions listing his enemies, who are hunted down and killed, including Q.Aurelius (? Lollius), Baebius, Q.Caecilius, Carrinas, Damasippus, Cn.Decidius, Fidustius, Lucretius, M.Plaetorius, and Venuleius.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:RoscAm_16, :Clu_161; QCic:Pet_9;(2)  Cic:Sull_72; Sall:Cat_11'4-8, 51'32-34; Diod_38.19'1; ~[Liv]:Per_88; Vell_2.28'2-4; ValMax_9.2'1; Sen:Dial_1.3'7-8; Ascon_90-91;L  Lucan_2'139-173, '193-232; Plin:HN_7'134; Plut:Sull_1'6-7, 31'1-12; Flor_2.9'25-26; ~Appian:BCiv_1'95-96, '104,(↓)  4'26, '44;(↓)  DioCass_fr.109'8-21, 45.17'1, 47.3'1-5'2, 11'4, 51.21'6; August:DeCiv_3'28;(↓)  ~Oros_5.21'2-8; { CAH_9'197; OCD_prosc.}
4 << Catilina is involved in the cruel murder of M.Marius Gratidianus.
* Read Seneca's account
QCic:Pet_10;(3)  Sall:Hist_1'36-37;L  ~[Liv]:Per_88; ValMax_9.2'1; Sen:Dial_5.18'1-3; Ascon_84,L  90,L  91;L  Lucan_2'173-193; Plin:HN_34'27; Plut:Sull_32'3-4, :Cic_10'2; Flor_2.9'26; Exsuper_32-33; ~Oros_5.21'7; { CAH_9'195.}
5 SIC << Pompeius establishes law and order in Sicily; he is persuaded by Sthenius not to punish (?) Himera.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Verr_2.2'113, :LegMan_30, 61; Diod_38.20'1; Plin:HN_7'96; ~Plut:Pomp_10'2-3, '10-14, :Mor_203'C-D, 815'E-F; [Vict]:VirIll_77'1; Eutrop_5.9'1.
6 << Document: CIL_1.2710, an inscription in honour of Pompeius at Agrigentum.
7 IT+ Sulla punishes the Italian towns which supported his opponents, including Arretium, Florentia, Interamnium, Larinum, Praeneste, Spoletium, Sulmo, and Volaterrae.
* Read Florus' account
Cic:Caecin_95, 97, 101-102, :Clu_25, :Dom_79, :Fam_13.4'1, :Att_1.19'4; Sall:Hist_1.48'12; Flor_2.9'27-28; ~Appian:BCiv_1'96; August:DeCiv_3'28.(↓) 
8 Sulla founds colonies of his veterans at Aleria, Arretium, Capua, Faesulae, Suessula, and Urbana.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Cat_2'20, 3'14, :Mur_49; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Sen:Dial_12.7'9; Plin:HN_14'62;L  ~Appian:BCiv_1'96, '100,(↓)  '104,(↓)  2'94; { OCD_s.}
9 ROM The Romans treat their provinces harshly and raise heavy taxes.
* Read Appian's account
[Caes]:BAfr_56'3; +Appian:BCiv_1'102.
10 AFR Pompeius defeats and kills Domitius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:LegMan_30, 61; ~[Liv]:Per_89; ValMax_6.2'8; ~Plut:Pomp_11'1-12'5, :Mor_203'D; DioCass_36.25'2; Eutrop_5.9'1; ~Oros_5.21'13; { CAH_9'789.}
11 NUM Pompeius invades Numidia and established Hiempsal as king.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Caes]:BAfr_22'2; Sall:Hist_1'45;L  ~[Liv]:Per_89; ~Plut:Pomp_12'6-8, 38'5, :Mor_324'A; Appian:BCiv_1'80;(↓)  [Vict]:VirIll_77'2; Eutrop_5.9'1; ~Oros_5.21'14.
12 ROM << M.Piso divorces his wife Annia in order to win favour with Sulla.
13 Caesar goes into hiding after antagonising Sulla, and avoids capture by bribing Cornelius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Vell_2.41'2, 43'1; ~Plut:Caes_1'1-7; ~Suet:Caes_1'1-2, 74'1.
14 Crassus and other friends of Sulla enrich themselves by buying up the property of the victims of the proscriptions.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RoscAm_126, :Verr_2.3'81-82, :LegAgr_2'56; Sall:Cat_37'6; Cic:Off_1'43, :Att_7.7'7; Sall:Hist_1'40,L  '42,L  1.48'12; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Ascon_18; Plin:HN_33'145, 36'116; Plut:CatMin_17'5, :Sull_33'3, :Crass_2'3, ~6'6-7, 34'1; Flor_2.11'3; DioCass_41.11'2; Schol:Bob_89.
16 Sulla passes a law imposing sanctions on the children of proscribed men.
* Read Livy's account
Cic:Verr_2.1'123, :Fam_13.5'2; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Sen:Dial_4.34'3; ~Plut:Sull_31'8; DioCass_43.50'2, 51.21'6.
17 AFR Pompeius persuades his army not to mutiny after they are ordered by Sulla to return to Italy.
18 Pompeius rewards Hasdrubal of Gades and several others with Roman citizenship for their services in Africa.
19 Cn.Pompeius takes on the name Magnus ("the Great").
* Read Plutarch's account
Liv_30.45'6; Plut:Sert_18'3, ~:Pomp_13'6-9, 23'2, :Crass_7'1, 12'4, :Mor_203'E; { CAH_9'197.}
20 {12 March -R} The triumph of Pompeius, for his victories in Africa.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:LegMan_61; [Caes]:BAfr_22'3; ~[Liv]:Per_89; Vell_2.40'4; Plin:HN_7'96, 8'4; Plut:Sert_18'3, ~:Pomp_14'1-11, 45'7, :Crass_7'1, 12'4, :Mor_203'E-F, 804'F; Appian:BCiv_1'80;(↓)  GranLic_31; [Vict]:VirIll_77'2; ~Eutrop_5.9'1; !Hieron:Chron_1939; { CAH_9'197; OCD_p.}
21 ROM {27 March -R} Document: Sherk_63B  (OGIS_441), a decree of Sulla and the Roman senate, renewing a grant of autonomy to the city of Stratoniceia.
22 ETR << The inhabitants of Norba set fire to their town, after it is captured by Lepidus.
~Appian:BCiv_1'94-95;(↓)  { CAH_9'195; OCD_n.}
23 AS1 << L.Lucullus serves as quaestor under Murena; he is not involved in the fighting, and studies philosophy with Antiochus of Ascalon.
* Read Aelian's account
Cic:Acad_2'2, '4; Aelian:VH_12'25.
24 << Lucullus buys a copy of a painting by Pausias.
25 << Murena fails to suppress the pirates.
26 << L.Murena serves honourably under his father's command in Asia.
27 Sulla sends Gabinius to recall Murena from Asia.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:LegMan_8; ~Appian:Mith_66; { MRR_2'54.}
28 ITA ?? M.Plautius commits suicide after the death of his wife.
ValMax_4.6'3; { MRR_2'465; Plautius may possibly have been a naval officer serving under Sulla.}
29 ROM Sulla digs up the body of Marius and destroys his monuments.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Leg_2'56;L  ValMax_9.2'1; Plin:HN_7'187; Suet:Caes_11'1; GranLic_33.
30 {1 June -R} Sulla formally ends the proscriptions.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:RoscAm_128; August:DeCiv_3'28;(↓)  { CAH_9'198.}
31 Sulla grants Roman citizenship to the slaves who supported him: they are called the Cornelii.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:BCiv_1'100;(↓)  Exsuper_34.
32 SPA C.Annius forces Sertorius to abandon Spain.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Hist_1'84-86;L  ~Plut:Sert_7'2-4; { OCD_s.}
33 ROM Sulla reluctantly agrees to pardon Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
~Suet:Caes_1'2-3, 45'3; DioCass_43.43'4; Macrob:Sat_2.3'9;L  { Immediately before Caesar's mission to Nicomedes.}
34 ++ The dignified behaviour of M.Cato as a young man.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:CatMin_1'1-10, 2'6-7, :Mor_28'B.
35 Cato is restrained from making threats against Sulla.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_3.1'2; Plut:CatMin_3'1-7.
36 ROM The triumphs of Murena, over Mithridates, and Flaccus, from Celtiberia and Gaul.
* Read Fasti's account
FastTr_p108<x>; GranLic_31<x>; { CAH_9'789.}
37 MAU Sertorius attempts to settle in Mauretania, and later on the island of Pityussa, but is forced to leave both of them.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Hist_1'87-88;L  Plut:Sert_7'5-7.
38 ROM Sex.Roscius (senior) is murdered.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RoscAm_17-19, 95-104, 126, ~128; Quint_7.2'2; { OCD_r.}
39 BAE Sertorius thinks of setting out for the "Blessed Isles".
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Hist_1'89-92;L  ~Plut:Sert_8'1-9'1.
40 ROM Xenocles speaks in the Roman senate to defend Asia against the charge of supporting Mithridates.
41 Apollonius Molon addresses the senate, who restore control of the Caunians to Rhodes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_14'652;(2.3)  ValMax_2.2'3; { OCD_a.}
42 Cicero regularly listens to Molon during his stay in Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_312; ValMax_2.2'3; Quint_12.6'7.
43 Aemilia, the wife of Pompeius, dies in childbirth.
Plut:Sull_33'4; { Only a few months after their marriage.}
44 PON Caesar visits the court of Nicomedes, and is accused of having an indecent association with the king.
* Read Suetonius' account
~Plut:Caes_1'7-8; ~Suet:Caes_2'1, 49'1-4; Ampel_34'3; DioCass_43.20'2, '4; [Vict]:VirIll_78'1; { MRR_2'54.}
45 ETR Chrysogonus, while at Volaterrae, plots to seize the property of Sex.Roscius, and persuades the decurions of Ameria not to seek an interview with Sulla.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:RoscAm_20-26, 105-110, 115-117, 125; Plut:Cic_3'2; { Chrysogonus began this plot very soon after hearing of the death of Roscius.}
46 MAU Sertorius defeats Ascalis and captures Tingis, after which he digs up the alleged remains of Antaeus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_17'829;(3.8)  ~Plut:Sert_9'2-11.
47 AEG C.Norbanus commits suicide to avoid capture at Rhodes.
48 ROM << The death of the young son of Sulla and Metella.
Sen:Dial_6.12'6; ~Plut:Sull_37'3.
49 {Nov. -R} The death of Metella, during the games to celebrate the anniversary of the battle at the Colline Gate.
50 == Sulla extends the "pomerium", the city boundary of Rome.
* Read Tacitus' account
Sen:Dial_10.13'8; Tac:Ann_12'23; Gell_13.14'4; DioCass_43.50'1; { CAH_9'205; OCD_m.}
51 == Sulla enlarges the "curia", the senate-house.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fin_5'2; Plin:HN_34'26; DioCass_40.50'3.
52 == Sulla curtails the power of the tribunes of the plebs.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Verr_2.1'155, :Leg_3'22;L  Caes:BCiv_1.7'3; [Liv]:Per_89; Vell_2.30'4; Ascon_67,L  78;L (↓)  Suet:Caes_5'1; +Appian:BCiv_1'100, 2'29; [Vict]:VirIll_75'11; { CAH_9'789; OCD_s.}
53 == Sulla increases the number of praetors to ten, and the number of quaestors to twenty.
* Read Tacitus' account
CIL_1.587; Tac:Ann_11'22; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'32<q" Pomponius>; { OCD_s.}
54 == Sulla passes a Lex Annalis, setting a fixed sequence of magistracies.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Acad_2'1; +Appian:BCiv_1'100; { CAH_9'789; OCD_s.}
55 == Sulla passes the Lex Cornelia de Provinciis, regulating the conduct of provincial governors.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_1.9'25, 3.6'3, '6, 10'6; { OCD_s.}
56 == Sulla increases the number of priests and augurs.
* Read Livy's account
~[Liv]:Per_89; DioCass_37.37'1; [Vict]:VirIll_75'11.
57 == Sulla restores the size of the senate, by creating new senators.
* Read Sallust's account
Sall:Cat_37'6; ~[Liv]:Per_89; +Appian:BCiv_1'100;(↓)  { CAH_9'789; OCD_s.}
58 == Sulla passes a Lex Judicaria, to transfer membership of juries from the equites to senators.
~Cic:Verr_1'37-38, 2.2'77; Vell_2.32'3; Tac:Ann_11'22.
59 == Sulla passes a Lex de Falsis, about the falsification of wills.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Verr_2.1'108; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'32<q" Pomponius>, 28.3'15<q" Javolenus>; Justin:Dig_28.1'12, 6'28, 34.8'1, 49.15.22'1<q" Julianus>; Justin:Dig_28.6'29<q" Scaevola>, 49.15.10'1, 11'1<q" Papinian>; Justin:Dig_35.2.1'1, 35.2'18, 38.2.4'1<q" Paulus>; Justin:Dig_28.3.6'12, 38.16.1'1, 43.5.3'6<q" Ulpian>, 48.10'1-33.
60 == Sulla passes a series of laws, setting up courts to try cases of murder, extortion, treason, bribery and insults.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Clu_151, 154, :Pis_50, :RabPost_8-9, :Fam_3.11'2; Sen:Apocol_14'1; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'32<q" Pomponius>, 29.5.25'1<q" Gaius>, 48.5.23'2<q" Papinian>; Justin:Dig_9.2.5'1, 47.10.5'1-7, 7'1<q" Ulpian>; Justin:Dig_47.10.37'1, 48.8'1-17<q" Marcian>; Justin:Dig_47.13'2, 48.5.33'1<q" Macer>; Justin:Dig_48.2.12'4<q" Venuleius>; Schol:Bob_78; { CAH_9'503, '512; OCD_s.}
61 == Sulla passes a sumptuary law, limiting private expenditure on feasts.
* Read Gellius' account
Gell_2.24'11; AmmMarc_16.5'1; Macrob:Sat_3.17'11-12.L 
62 == Sulla passes an agrarian law, confirming the distribution of land to his veterans.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:LegAgr_2'35, '68-70, '78, '81, 3'7, '12; GranLic_10.
63 == Lentulus Sura refuses to justify his conduct as quaestor, when challenged by Sulla.
Plut:Cic_17'2; { MRR_2'53.}
64 == Document: Cic:Quinct_, Cicero's first surviving speech, in defence of P.Quinctius.
* Read St.Jerome's account
+Gell_15.28'3, '6; !Hieron:Chron_1934; { OCD_c.}
64a == M.Messala becomes an augur.
Macrob:Sat_1.9'14;L  { Messala Rufus was augur for 55 years, and died in 26 B.C. (OCD).}
65 ?? Voltacilius Plotus opens a school of rhetoric at Rome, which is attended by Cn.Pompeius.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Rhet_3; +Hieron:Chron_1936; { OCD_v.}
66 == Document: CIL_1.722, a dedication by the freedmen (Cornelii) to Sulla.
67 ETR == Document: CIL_1.719, marking the reestablishment of boundary stones between Pisaurum and Fundanum by M.Varro Lucullus.
68 AEG == Document: Sherk_62a,B  a letter from Sulla authorising Alexander of Laodiceia, envoy of the Dionysiac Artists, to erect a stele at Cos.
68a == Document: Syll_724, a list of annual priests at Ialysus.
68b << Document: Syll_745, a statue of a Rhodian envoy who visited various Roman leaders.
69 AS1 == Rutilius is invited back by Sulla, but refuses to return from exile.
* Read Seneca's account
ValMax_6.4'4; Sen:Dial_1.3'7, :Ep_24'4; Quint_11.1'13.
70 BAE == M.Fonteius is sent on a mission to further Spain.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Font_6, 45; { MRR_2'54.}
71 EGY {? December} The death of Ptolemy IX Soter; his daughter Cleopatra Berenice takes over as ruler of Egypt.
FGrH_252'A6; +AstrCan_3; Paus_1.9'3; ~[Euseb]:Chron_165, 171; { CAH_9'318; Hölbl_p213; Bennett.}

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