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51 B.C. Olympiad 182.2


Consuls: Ser. Sulpicius Q.f. Rufus, M. Claudius M.f. Marcellus
Athenian archon: Lysiades

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_7.2 & 13.75, letters from Cicero to M.Marius and T.Titius.
2 T.Munatius Plancus and Q.Pompeius Rufus, the tribunes of the previous year, are convicted on a charge of violence, and expelled from Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_7.2'2, 8.1'4; ValMax_4.2'7,L  6.2'5;L  Plut:CatMin_48'8-10, :Pomp_55'8-9; DioCass_40.55'1-4; { CAH_9'414; OCD_p.}
3 M.Marcellus unsuccessfully attempts to persuade the senate to send a new governor to replace Caesar in Gaul.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Fam_8.1'2; +Caes:BGall_8.53'1-2; [Liv]:Per_108; Plut:Caes_29'1; Suet:Caes_28'2-29'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'25,(↓)  '26; +DioCass_40.59'1; { CAH_9'415.}
4 GAL {Jan./Feb. -R} Caesar attacks the Bituriges, despite the harsh winter weather.
#Caes:BGall_8.2'2-4'1.
5 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_3.2, a letter from Cicero to Appius Claudius.
6 GAL {March/April -R} Caesar attacks the Carnutes.
#Caes:BGall_8.4'2-5'4; { Caesar set out on this expedition on about 10th March.}
7 ROM << Document: Cic:Rep, Cicero's dialogue about the Republic.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_5.12'2, :Fam_8.1'4; { ~CAH_9'717; the book is mentioned by Caelius in a letter written this year (Fam_8.1'4).}
8 Marcellus flogs a magistrate from Novum Comum, and refuses to accept his claim to be a Roman citizen.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_5.11'2; Plut:Caes_20'2; Suet:Caes_28'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'26; { CAH_9'415; OCD_m.}
9 EGY ?? Demetrius, an Academic philosopher, is punished by Ptolemy for refusing to copy the king's dissolute behaviour.
Lucian:Cal_16.
10 Ptolemy Auletes names Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra as his joint heirs.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.108'4-6; [Caes]:BAlex_33'1; Lucan_10'92-94; { Hölbl_p230.}
11 {May -R = March} The death of Ptolemy XII Auletes.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_8.4'5; POxy_1453'22<t= SelPap_2.327>; Strab_17'796;(1.11)  Plut:Ant_86'8; +AstrCan_3; ClemAl:Strom_1'21;(↓↓)  [Euseb]:Chron_167, 169; Hieron:Chron_1967; Malal_197; ChronPasc_456'B; { CAH_9'320-321; Hölbl_p230-231; Bennett.}
12 ++ General comments on the character of Ptolemy Auletes, a keen flute-player.
* Read Lucan's account
Strab_17'796;(1.11)  Lucan_8'481; Plut:Mor_56'E.(12) 
12a {19 Phamenoth -E = 22 March} Cleopatra installs a new Buchis bull in Hermonthis.
Inscr_25; { Hölbl_p231.}
13 ITA {May -R} Document: Cic:Att_5.1-7, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written during Cicero's journey down to Tarentum.
14 {May -R} Document: Cic:Fam_8.1, a letter from Caelius to Cicero.
15 {May/June -R} Document: Cic:Fam_3.3-4, two letters from Cicero to Appius Claudius, written at Brundisium.
16 GAL << Document: Caes:BGall_, Caesar's commentaries on the war in Gaul. { Some scholars suppose that commentaries were written during the war, and published at the end of each year (CAH_9'386,n.65).}
17 ROM Hortensius defends his nephew M.Valerius Messalla against a charge of bribery.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_8.2'1, 4'1, :Att_5.12'2, :Brut_328; ValMax_5.9'2.L 
18 {June -R} Document: Cic:Fam_8.2 & 8.3, two letters from Caelius to Cicero.
19 ETR Pompeius leaves Rome, but stays in Italy (including a visit to Ariminum), instead of going to his Spanish provinces.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_5.7'1, 11'3, :Fam_8.4'4; +DioCass_40.59'2-3; { CAH_9'415.}
20 ITA {June -R} Document: Cic:Att_5.8-10, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written during Cicero's journey from Brundisium to Athens.
20a EGY {1 Epeiph -E = 2 July} Document: Inscr_4, a dedication by the chief priest Onnophris at the start of Cleopatra's reign.
21 GAL Caesar marches against the Bellovaci, who gather their forces to resist him, under the leadership of Correus and Commius.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Fam_8.1'4; +Caes:BGall_8.6'1-14'5; DioCass_40.42'1; Oros_6.11'12;L  { CAH_9'414.}
22 GRE {July -R} Document: Cic:Fam_2.8 & 13.1, letters from Cicero, at Athens, to Caelius and Memmius.
23 Document: Cic:Att_5.11-13, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written during Cicero's journey from Athens to Ephesus.
24 ROM Consuls and tribunes are elected for the following year.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_8.4'1-3, 9'5, 15.7'1, 8'1, 9'1, 12'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'26;(↓)  +DioCass_40.59'4.
25 GAL The Bellovaci successfully retreat from their camp.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_8.15'1-16'4; DioCass_40.42'2-3.
26 The Romans defeat and kill Correus, and force the Bellovaci into submission.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_8.17'1-23'2; [Liv]:Per_108; Oros_6.11'13-14.L 
27 ASI >> Cicero is amused by a large portrait of his brother Quintus, made when Quintus was governor of Asia.
Macrob:Sat_2.3'4;L  { Macrobius does not say whether this was on Cicero's way out, or on his return from Cilicia.}
28 {27 July -R} Document: Cic:Fam_3.5, a letter from Cicero to Appius Claudius, written at Tralles.
29 CIL {31 July -R} Cicero arrives in the province of Cilicia, at Laodiceia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_5.20'1, 21'9, :Fam_3.5'4, 6'6; { OCD_cic.}
30 ROM {1 August -R} Document: Cic:Fam_8.4, a letter from Caelius to Cicero.
31 BRI Commius sails to Britain, to escape from Caesar.
Frontin:Str_2.13'11; { Not dated by Frontinus; but it was apparently before Commius agreed to a truce with the Romans (Caes:BGBall_8.48).}
32 GAL Caesar ravages the territory of the Eburones.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_8.24'1-25'2; Oros_6.11'15;L  { CAH_9'415.}
33 ILL << The Dalmatians capture Promona, a city of the Liburnians, and defeat an army sent by Caesar.
Appian:Ill_12; { While Caesar was in Gaul, shortly before the start of the civil war.}
34 ROM C.Marcellus, the consul designate, is prosecuted for bribery, probably by Calidius, who is himself brought to trial by the sons of Q.Gallius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_8.4'1, 9'2, '5.
35 CIL Appius Claudius and his son-in-law M.Brutus remain for some time in Cilicia, but fail to meet Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_5.16'4, 17'6, 6.1'2, :Fam_3.6'3, 7'4, 8'6.
36 {August -R} Document: Cic:Att_5.15-17 & Cic:Fam_3.6, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Appius Claudius.
37 ROM << Octavianus delivers a funeral oration in honour of his grandmother Julia, the sister of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
@  (?) NicDam_127'4; Suet:Aug_8'1; Quint_12.6'1; { OCD_augustus; according to Suetonius, Octavianus was twelve years old at the time.}
38 GAL Fabius and Caninius defeat Dumnacus, a chieftain of the Andes.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_8.26'1-31'5; Oros_6.11'16-19.L 
39 ROM {Sept. -R} Document: Cic:Fam_8.5 & 8.9, two letters from Caelius to Cicero.
40 SYR A Parthian army, led by Pacorus, invades Syria.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_5.18'1, 20'2, :Fam_3.8'10, 8.10'1-2, 15.1'1-2, 3'1, 4'2; { CAH_9'417.}
41 CIL Document: Cic:Fam_15.3 & 15.7-9 & 15.12, letters from Cicero to M.Cato, C.Marcellus, M.Marcellus and L.Paullus.
42 {Sept. -R} Document: Cic:Att_5.18-19, two letters from Cicero to Atticus, written near Cybistra.
43 {Sept. -R} Document: Cic:Fam_15.1-2, two dispatches from Cicero to the senate.
44 ROM Q.Pilius and Appius Claudius both prosecute M.Servilius on separate charges of extortion.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_8.8'2-3, :Att_6.3'9.
45 {29 Sept. -R} M.Marcellus summons the senate to discuss several resolutions about the allocation of provinces.
#Cic:Fam_8.8'4-8; { CAH_9'416; OCD_m.}
46 {Oct. -R} Document: Cic:Fam_8.8, a letter from Caelius to Cicero.
47 CIL {Oct. -R} Document: Cic:Fam_2.9 & 3.8, letters from Cicero to Caelius and Appius Claudius, written near Mopsuestia.
48 GAL Caesar captures Uxellodunum.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_8.32'1-44'6; Frontin:Str_3.7'2; Oros_6.11'16-19.L 
49 {Oct. -R} Document: Cic:Fam_15.14, a letter from Cicero to C.Cassius.
50 GAL Commius continues to attack the Romans, but eventually agrees to a truce with M.Antonius.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_8.47'1-48'9; DioCass_40.43'2.
51 Caesar completes the pacification of Gaul, and sends his army into winter quarters.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_8.45'1-46'7, 49'1-3; DioCass_40.43'3; Oros_6.11'15;L  { CAH_9'416.}
52 General comments on Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
* Read Dio's account
Caes:BCiv_3.87'1-4; Sall:Hist_1'9; Strab_4'196;(4.2)  Vell_2.39'1, 47'1; Joseph:BJ_2'373; Plut:Caes_15'5; Gell_15.4'3; DioCass_44.42'1-43'2; Julian:Caes_321'A; Eutrop_6.17'3; Oros_6.12'1-8.L 
53 SYR C.Cassius defeats the Parthians as they retreat from Antioch, and kills Osaces, one of their generals.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_5.20'3, 21'2, :Fam_2.10'2, 15.4'7; :Phil_11'35; Vell_2.46'4; Frontin:Str_2.5'35; DioCass_40.28'3-29'3, 30'3; Just_42.4'5; Festus:Brev_17'4; [Vict]:VirIll_83'2;L  Eutrop_6.18'2; Oros_6.13'5;L  Movses_2'18; { CAH_9'417; OCD_c.}
54 CIL {14 Nov. -R} Document: Cic:Fam_2.10, a letter from Cicero to Caelius, written near Pindenissum.
55 ROM Caesar wins the support of L.Paullus and C.Curio for the coming year, by giving them large bribes.
* Read Velleius' account
Cic:Att_6.3'4; Vell_2.48'3-4; Lucan_4'819-820; Plut:Caes_29'3, :Pomp_58'1-2; Suet:Caes_29'1; Appian:BCiv_2'26;(↓)  DioCass_40.60'1-4; { CAH_9'415; OCD_cur.}
56 {5 Dec. -R} Dispatches from Cicero and C.Cassius, about the Parthian invasion of Syria, are read out at a meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_5.21'2, 6.1'14.
57 Lentulus Spinther celebrates a triumph, for victories won while he was governor of Cilicia.
Cic:Att_5.21'4; { CAH_9'796; OCD_l.}
58 SYR After some delay, Bibulus arrives to be the new Roman governor of Syria.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_5.21'2; Appian:BCiv_5'10; DioCass_40.30'1; { MRR_2'165.}
59 CIL {17 Dec. -R} Cicero captures the stronghold of the Cilician rebels at Pindenissum.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_5.20'1-5, 6.1'9, :Fam_2.10'3, 15.4'10; Plut:Cic_36'4.
60 {Dec -R} Document: Cic:Fam_2.7 & 15.4, letters from Cicero to C.Curio and M.Cato.
61 AEG == The Rhodians renew their treaty of alliance with the Romans.
+Cic:Fam_12.15'2.
62 ROM == The philosopher Poseidonius visits Rome.
+Suda_P'2107.

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