48 B.C. Olympiad 183.1

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (II), P. Servilius P.f. Vatia Isauricus
Athenian archon: Philocrates
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ITA {4 January -R} Caesar sets sail from Brundisium, and lands with his army in Epirus.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.2'2-3, #6'1-3; Vell_2.51'2; Lucan_5'403-460; #Plut:Caes_37'3-9, :Ant_7'2, #:Mor_319'B; Suet:Caes_58'2; Flor_2.13'35-36; +Appian:BCiv_2'54; +DioCass_41.43'1-44'3; { At this point, the Roman calendar was about 2 months ahead of the seasons, and Caesar sailed to Epirus in November 49 B.C., according to the Julian calendar.}
2 EPI Bibulus captures some of Caesar's transport ships while they are returning from Epirus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.7'1-8'4; +DioCass_41.44'4.
3 Caesar captures Oricum and Apollonia.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.10'1-12'4; Plut:Pomp_65'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'54-55;(↓)  +DioCass_41.45'1.
4 Document: Cic:Att_11.1, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
5 Bibulus maintains a blockade of Caesar's forces, but dies at sea as a result of his exertions.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.14'1-18'5; +DioCass_41.48'1; Oros_6.15'10;L  { OCD_b.}
6 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_8.17, a letter from Caelius to Cicero.
7 ILL M.Octavius attempts to besiege Salonae, but is driven off by the inhabitants.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.9'1-8; +DioCass_42.11'1-4; Oros_6.15'9;L  { OCD_s.}
8 EPI Pompeius reaches Dyrrachium shortly in advance of Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.13'1-6; Plut:Pomp_65'6; +Appian:BCiv_2'55.
9 Caesar sends Vatinius and Balbus to start talks with Pompeius' army, but Labienus opposes any compromise.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.19'1-8; Vell_2.51'3; Lucan_5'461-475; +Appian:BCiv_2'56, '58; +DioCass_41.47'1-3.
10 Document: Cic:Att_11.2, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
11 NAR ?? Milo sarcastically remarks that he is grateful that Cicero did not defend him more successfully.
12 ROM ++ General comments about M.Caelius, a gifted orator.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_273; Sen:Dial_5.8'6; Quint_6.3'25, '59.
13 ITA Caelius and Milo attempt to start a revolt on behalf of debtors, but they are soon caught and killed.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.20'1-22'4; Cic:Brut_273; [Liv]:Per_11; Vell_2.68'1-3; Plin:HN_2'147;L  +DioCass_42.22'1-25'3; +Hieron:Chron_1969; Oros_6.15'10;L  { OCD_c; MRR_2'185.}
14 EPI Caesar tries to return to Italy, but his boat is forced back by a storm.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_9.8'2;L  Lucan_5'476-702; Plut:Caes_38'1-7, :Mor_206'C-D, 319'C-D; Suet:Caes_58'2; Flor_2.13'37; +Appian:BCiv_2'56-58, '150; +DioCass_41.45'1-46'4; AmmMarc_16.10'3.
15 ITA M.Antonius forces Libo, the admiral of Pompeius, to withdraw from Brundisium.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.23'1-24'4; Plut:Ant_7'3.
16 SYR << Scipio maltreats the inhabitants of Syria and Asia, as he prepares to join up with Pompeius.
+Caes:BCiv_3.31'1-33'2; { OCD_sc.}
17 ITA {April -R} M.Antonius sails over from Brundisium to Lissus with the remainder of Caesar's forces.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.25'1-30'7; Lucan_5'703-721; Plut:Caes_39'1, :Ant_7'3-6; Appian:Ill_12, +:BCiv_2'59; +DioCass_41.48'1-4.
18 AEG Cornelia is sent by Pompeius to stay in Lesbos, until the fighting is over.
19 EPI Pompeius attacks Oricum and Lissus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.39'1-40'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'56.
20 Pompeius and Caesar take up positions around Dyrrachium.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.41'1-42'5; Lucan_6'1-28; +DioCass_41.49'1-50'1.
21 Caesar attempts to surround Pompeius with a line of fortifications.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.43'1-47'3; Vell_2.51'2; Lucan_6'29-79; Plut:Cic_38'4-5; Suet:Caes_35'1; Flor_2.13'38-39; +Appian:BCiv_2'61; +DioCass_41.50'1-2; Oros_6.15'18.L 
22 Document: Cic:Fam_9.9, a letter from Dolabella to Cicero.
23 MAC Scipio arrives in Macedonia and fights against Cassius and Longinus, the generals of Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.34'1-38'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'60;(↓)  +DioCass_41.51'2-3; { MRR_2'187.}
24 EPI Caesar's army suffers from food shortages.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.47'4-49'5; Vell_2.51'2; Lucan_6'80-117; Plin:HN_19'144;L  Plut:Caes_39'1-3; Suet:Caes_68'2; Flor_2.13'42; +Appian:BCiv_2'61; Polyaen_8.23'24; Julian:Caes_323'C.
25 BAE Q.Cassius, the governor of Further Spain, survives an assassination attempt.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_48'1-55'5, :BHisp_42'4; ValMax_9.4'2;L  +DioCass_42.15'1-2.
26 EPI {June -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.3 & 11.4a, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
27 BOS Pharnaces, king of Bosporus, takes advantage of the Roman civil war to attack neighbouring countries.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_11'498;(2.17)  Plut:Caes_50'1; Flor_2.13'61-62; Appian:BCiv_2'91; DioCass_42.45'1-3; Eutrop_6.22'2;
28 MES << The death of Tiraeus, king of Charax, aged 92 years.
29 EPI {July -R} Caesar attacks Pompeius' forces at several points, but fails to break through.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.50'1-55'2; ValMax_3.2'23;L  Lucan_6'118-262; Plut:Caes_16'3-4, :Ant_8'1; Suet:Caes_68'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'60; Polyaen_8.23'12; +DioCass_41.50'3-4; Oros_4.2'40.L 
30 GRE Q.Fufius, one of Caesar's generals, advances into Boeotia and Attica.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.56'1-57'5; +DioCass_42.14'1.
31 EPI {July -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.4 & Cic:Fam_14.6, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Terentia.
32 Pompeius launches a counter-attack and inflicts heavy casualties on Caesar's forces.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.58'1-72'4; [Liv]:Per_111; Lucan_6'263-313; Frontin:Str_3.17'4; Plut:CatMin_54'7-11, :Caes_39'4-8, :Pomp_65'7-8, :Mor_206'D; Suet:Caes_68'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'61-63;(↓)  Polyaen_8.23'26; +DioCass_41.50'4; Eutrop_6.20'2; Oros_6.15'19-21.L 
33 MAC Caesar withdraws from Dyrrachium and marches inland towards Thessaly.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.73'1-79'7; Vell_2.52'1; Lucan_6'314-315; Plut:Caes_39'9-11, :Pomp_66'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'64; Polyaen_8.23'13; +DioCass_41.51'1-3; Oros_6.15'22.L 
34 Caesar allows his soldiers to sack the town of Gomphi.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.80'1-81'3; Plut:Caes_41'6-8; Flor_2.13'41; +Appian:BCiv_2'64; +DioCass_41.51'4-5.
35 Pompeius decides to follow Caesar to Thessaly, instead of returning to Italy.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.82'1; Vell_2.52'1-2; Lucan_6'316-332; Plut:CatMin_55'1-3; :Pomp_66'1-67'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'65-66; +DioCass_41.52'1-54'3.
37 The over-confidence of Pompeius' army leads to disputes between the leaders.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.82'2-84'5; Plut:Caes_40'1-42'4, :Pomp_67'4-68'1, 84'2-11; Flor_2.13'43; +Appian:BCiv_2'67, 4'124.
38 Sex.Pompeius consults Thessalian witches.
39 Omens predicting the defeat and death of Pompeius.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.105'3-6; Cic:Div_2'79; ValMax_1.6'12;L  Plin:HN_2'92,L  5'58;L  Plut:Caes_43'1-7, 47'1-6, :Pomp_68'2-4; +Appian:BCiv_2'68; Gell_15.18'1-3; +DioCass_41.61'2-5; +Obseq_65a.
40 {9 August -R} Caesar decisively defeats the army of Pompeius near Pharsalus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.85'1-97'5, 99'1-5; Cic:Lig_9, :Phil_2'71, 14'23; Liv_fr'33;L  Vell_2.52'3-4; ValMax_1.5'6,L  4.5'5;L  Sen:Dial_6.20'2, :Ep_71'8-9; Lucan_7'1-872; Frontin:Str_2.3'22, 7'13, 4.7'32; Plut:Brut_4'4-5'1, :Caes_44'1-46'4, :Pomp_68'5-73'11; :Ant_8'2-3, :Mor_206'D-E; Suet:Caes_30'4, 75'2, :Vesp_1'2; Flor_2.13'43-51; +Appian:BCiv_2'69-82; Polyaen_8.23'14, '25, '29; +DioCass_41.55'1-61'1; Eutrop_6.20'3-21'2; Oros_6.15'23-27;L  { CAH_9'433; OCD_pomp.}
41 Caesar shows clemency in pardoning the survivors of Pompeius' army.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.98'1-3; Cic:Phil_2'5; Nepos:Att_7'3; [Liv]:Per_111; Vell_2.52'5-6; Sen:Dial_4.23'4, :Ben_2.20'1-2; Plin:HN_7'94;L  Plut:Brut_6'1-4, :Caes_46'4, 62'3; Appian:BCiv_2'112, '146,(↓)  3'26; Polyaen_8.23'30; +DioCass_41.62'1-63'6, 44.45'1-3, 47'5; [Vict]:VirIll_82'5.L 
42 SIC C.Cassius attacks Caesar's warships around Sicily.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.100'1-101'7; Frontin:Str_4.7'14; [Vict]:VirIll_83'4-5;L  { OCD_cas.}
43 EPI Cicero refuses to lead Pompeius' remaining forces, and hastily leaves Dyrrachium.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Deiot_29, :Top_5, :Div_1'68-69, 2'114; Plut:CatMin_55'4-6, :Cic_38'5-39'2, :Mor_205'D; Macrob:Sat_2.3'9.L 
44 AEG Pompeius goes to meet his wife Cornelia, on the island of Lesbos.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.102'1-4; Cic:Phil_2'39; Liv_fr'39a;L  Lucan_8'1-158; Plut:Pomp_74'1-75'7; Flor_2.13'51; +Appian:BCiv_2'83, 5'133; +DioCass_42.1'1-2'3.
45 Pompeius decides to sail on to Egypt, to seek refuge with king Ptolemy.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.102'5-103'1; Vell_2.53'1-2; Lucan_8'159-471; Quint_3.8'33; Plut:Pomp_76'1-77'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'83; +DioCass_42.2'4-6; Eutrop_6.21'3; Oros_6.15'27-28.L 
46 GLT Deiotarus leaves Pompeius, and returns home to Galatia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Deiot_13, 29.
47 THR L.Cassius surrenders to Caesar at the Hellespont.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_63'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'88, '111; +DioCass_42.6'2; { MRR_2'192.}
48 AFR Cato and Scipio go to Africa with the remains of Pompeius' army.
* Read Dio's account
[Caes]:BAfr_64'1; Vell_2.54'2; Lucan_9'18-50; Plut:CatMin_56'1'2, :Caes_52'1; Flor_2.13'64; +Appian:BCiv_2'87; +DioCass_42.9'3-13'5, 56'2; { CAH_9'433.}
49 ASI Caesar settles affairs in Greece and Asia Minor, while following Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.105'1-2; Plut:Caes_48'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'88, '89; +DioCass_42.6'1-3; Oros_6.15'29.L 
50 Document: Sherk_79B  (Syll_760), the inscriptions on statues dedicated to Julius Caesar after the battle of Pharsalus.
51 BAE The native Spanish troops and the garrison of Corduba openly rebel against Q.Cassius.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_11.16'1; [Caes]:BAlex_56'1-57'4; [Liv]:Per_111; +DioCass_42.15'2; { OCD_cas.}
51a ILL Q.Cornificius governs Illyricum wisely, and keeps it loyal to Caesar.
52 ROM ?? The discovery of a cure for elephantiasis.
53 ++ The artist Pasiteles produces works of great skill and variety.
~Plin:HN_33'130,L  '156,L  36'39-40.L 
54 ?? A stratagem employed by Pompeius, to enable his army to cross a river safely.
55 ++ Vibius and Publicius both closely resemble Pompeius in appearance.
ValMax_9.14'1;L  Plin:HN_7'53.L 
56 ++ The associates of Pompeius include Atticus of Neapolis, Demetrius, Furnius, Pythodorus, Theophanes, Tritanus and C.Velleius.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_13'617,(2.3)  14'649;(1.42)  Vell_2.76'1; Sen:Dial_9.8'6; Plin:HN_7'81;L  Appian:BCiv_5'140; Athen_1.14'f.
57 ?? Calvus and Brutus make insulting comments about Pompeius.
Seneca:Contr_7.4'7,L  10.1'8;L  Plut:Mor_89'E, 800'E.
58 ++ General remarks about the character of Cn.Pompeius, one of Rome's most successful commanders.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Tusc_1'86;L  :Div_2'53; [Verg]:Cat_3'1-10; Vell_2.29'2-5, 33'3; Sen:Ep_11'4, 51'11; Plin:HN_18'35;L  Plut:Pomp_1'1-2'10, :Mor_207'E; Aelian:VH_7'21; DioCass_56.38'4; AmmMarc_17.11'4.
59 EGY {28 September -R} Pompeius is killed, by order of the Egyptian government, as he attempts to land in Egypt.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.103'2-104'3; Cic:Tusc_3'66;L  Prop_3.11'35-38; [Liv]:Per_112; Ovid:Pont_4.3'41-43; Strab_16'760,(2.33)  17'796;(1.11)  Vell_2.53'2-4; Sen:Dial_6.20'4; Lucan_1'683-686, 8'472-711; Quint_3.8'55-57; Plut:Brut_33'3-5, :Cam_19'11, :Pomp_77'1-80'2, :Mor_204'D-E, 717'C;(8.1)  Flor_2.13'52-55; +Appian:BCiv_2'84-86; Aelian:NA_12'6; +DioCass_42.3'1-5'7; [Vict]:VirIll_77'9;L  Oros_6.15'28;L  { OCD_p; there is some confusion about the exact day in the ancient sources - it was probably one day before Pompeius' birthday.}
60 Philippus and Cordus cremate the body of Pompeius on the sea-shore.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_1.8'9;L  Lucan_8'712-872; Plut:Pomp_80'3-6, (?) '10; +Appian:BCiv_2'86; DioCass_69.11'1; [Vict]:VirIll_77'9.L 
61 {2 October -R} Caesar arrives at Alexandria, and is shown the severed head of Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.106'1-107'2; Seneca:Contr_10.3'1;L  Lucan_9'950-10'52; Frontin:Str_1.1'5; Plut:Caes_48'2-4, :Pomp_80'7; +Appian:BCiv_2'89-90; +DioCass_42.7'1-9'2; [Vict]:VirIll_77'9;L  Eutrop_6.21'3; Oros_6.15'29;L  { CAH_9'433.}
62 GRE Calenus, the general of Caesar, captures Megara and subdues the rest of Greece.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Brut_8'6-7; +DioCass_42.14'2-5.
63 PHO Caecilius Bassus escapes to Tyre, after serving in the army of Pompeius.
64 ITA Cicero returns to Brundisium, and Antonius arrives there shortly afterwards.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_14.12'1, :Phil_2'5, '59-69; { CAH_9'433.}
65 ROM {18 October -R} Octavianus puts on the toga virilis.
#EhrJon:Fast_Oct18; NicDam_127'8-12.
66 ROM Caesar is appointed dictator for a second time, with Antonius as his magister equitum.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_2'62; FastCap_p78; [Liv]:Per_112; Plut:Caes_51'1, :Ant_8'4-5; +DioCass_42.17'1-21'2; { CAH_9'435; MRR_2'185.}
67 CYR M.Cato takes command of Pompeius' remaining forces near Cyrene, after they hear that Pompeius has been killed.
* Read Lucan's account
Lucan_9'51-293; Plut:CatMin_56'3-4.
68 EGY Cleopatra secretly enters the palace at Alexandria, and meets with Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Lucan_10'53-331; Plut:Caes_48'9-49'3; Flor_2.13'56-57; DioCass_42.34'1-35'2; [Vict]:VirIll_86'1.L 
69 The inhabitants of Alexandria stage violent protests against the presence of Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_112; Plut:Caes_48'5-9; Appian:BCiv_2'90; DioCass_42.35'2-6; { ~Hölbl_p235.}
70 AFR Cato crosses the desert with his army to join Juba in the province of Africa.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_112; Strab_17'836;(3.20)  Vell_2.54'3; Sen:Ep_104'33; Lucan_9'294-949; Plut:CatMin_56'5-8; [Vict]:VirIll_80'3;L  { ~CAH_9'435; MRR_2'188.}
71 ITA {November -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.5-6, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Brundisium.
72 {November -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.12 & 14.19, two letters from Cicero to Terentia.
73 ROM Following adverse omens, all the temples of Isis and Serapis in Rome are demolished.
74 EGY Achillas leads the Egyptian army into Alexandria, to fight against Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.108'1-110'6; Liv_fr'40;L  [Liv]:Per_112; Vell_2.54'1; Lucan_10'332-485; Plut:Caes_49'4-5; Flor_2.13'58; DioCass_42.36'1-38'2; Oros_6.15'30;L  { Green_666.}
75 ARM Pharnaces defeats Calvinus at Nicopolis, and gains control of Pontus.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_11.16'1; [Caes]:BAlex_34'1-41'2, 74'3; Cic:Deiot_14, 24; [Liv]:Per_112; Plut:Caes_50'1; Suet:Caes_35'2, 36'1; Appian:BCiv_2'91, :Mith_120; DioCass_42.46'1-3; { OCD_ph; MRR_2'188.}
76 BAE After assuming command of the Spanish rebels, M.Marcellus confronts Q.Cassius and Bogud at Ulia.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_57'5-63'6; Liv_fr'37,L  '38;L  +DioCass_42.15'3-16'2; { MRR_2'186-187.}
77 ITA {December -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.7-8, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Brundisium.
78 {December -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.9 & 14.17, two letters from Cicero to Terentia.
79 ROM == A. Hirtius passes a law, restricting the rights of supporters of Pompeius.
Cic:Phil_13'32; DioCass_42.20'1; { MRR_2'186.}
80 CIS == The orator M.Calidius dies at Placentia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_274-278; +Hieron:Chron_1960; { ~OCD_c.}
81 ROM == Comments on other orators who died this year: Bibulus, Appius Claudius, L.Domitius, P.Lentulus and L.Lentulus.
82 == The death of Carfania, a litigious woman.
+ValMax_8.3'2;L  Justin:Dig_3.1.1'5.

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