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48 B.C. Olympiad 183.1


Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (II), P. Servilius P.f. Vatia Isauricus
Athenian archon: Philocrates
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ITA {4 January -R} Caesar sets sail from Brundisium, and lands with his army in Epirus.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.2'2-3, #6'1-3; Vell_2.51'2; Lucan_5'403-460; #Plut:Caes_37'3-9, :Ant_7'2, #:Mor_319'B; Suet:Caes_58'2; Flor_2.13'35-36; +Appian:BCiv_2'54; +DioCass_41.43'1-44'3; { At this point, the Roman calendar was about 2 months ahead of the seasons, and Caesar sailed to Epirus in November 49 B.C., according to the Julian calendar.}
2 EPI Bibulus captures some of Caesar's transport ships while they are returning from Epirus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.7'1-8'4; +DioCass_41.44'4.
3 Caesar captures Oricum and Apollonia.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.10'1-12'4; Plut:Pomp_65'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'54-55;(↓)  +DioCass_41.45'1.
4 Document: Cic:Att_11.1, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
5 Bibulus maintains a blockade of Caesar's forces, but dies at sea as a result of his exertions.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.14'1-18'5; +DioCass_41.48'1; Oros_6.15'10;L  { OCD_b.}
6 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_8.17, a letter from Caelius to Cicero.
7 ILL M.Octavius attempts to besiege Salonae, but is driven off by the inhabitants.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.9'1-8; +DioCass_42.11'1-4; Oros_6.15'9;L  { OCD_s.}
8 EPI Pompeius reaches Dyrrachium shortly in advance of Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.13'1-6; Plut:Pomp_65'6; +Appian:BCiv_2'55.
9 Caesar sends Vatinius and Balbus to start talks with Pompeius' army, but Labienus opposes any compromise.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.19'1-8; Vell_2.51'3; Lucan_5'461-475; +Appian:BCiv_2'56, '58; +DioCass_41.47'1-3.
10 Document: Cic:Att_11.2, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
11 NAR ?? Milo sarcastically remarks that he is grateful that Cicero did not defend him more successfully.
DioCass_40.54'3-4.
12 ROM ++ General comments about M.Caelius, a gifted orator.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_273; Sen:Dial_5.8'6; Quint_6.3'25, '59.
13 ITA Caelius and Milo attempt to start a revolt on behalf of debtors, but they are soon caught and killed.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.20'1-22'4; Cic:Brut_273; [Liv]:Per_11; Vell_2.68'1-3; Plin:HN_2'147;L  +DioCass_42.22'1-25'3; +Hieron:Chron_1969; Oros_6.15'10;L  { OCD_c; MRR_2'185.}
14 EPI Caesar tries to return to Italy, but his boat is forced back by a storm.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_9.8'2;L  Lucan_5'476-702; Plut:Caes_38'1-7, :Mor_206'C-D, 319'C-D; Suet:Caes_58'2; Flor_2.13'37; +Appian:BCiv_2'56-58, '150; +DioCass_41.45'1-46'4; AmmMarc_16.10'3.
15 ITA M.Antonius forces Libo, the admiral of Pompeius, to withdraw from Brundisium.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.23'1-24'4; Plut:Ant_7'3.
16 SYR << Scipio maltreats the inhabitants of Syria and Asia, as he prepares to join up with Pompeius.
+Caes:BCiv_3.31'1-33'2; { OCD_sc.}
17 ITA {April -R} M.Antonius sails over from Brundisium to Lissus with the remainder of Caesar's forces.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.25'1-30'7; Lucan_5'703-721; Plut:Caes_39'1, :Ant_7'3-6; Appian:Ill_12, +:BCiv_2'59; +DioCass_41.48'1-4.
18 AEG Cornelia is sent by Pompeius to stay in Lesbos, until the fighting is over.
~Lucan_5'722-815.
19 EPI Pompeius attacks Oricum and Lissus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.39'1-40'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'56.
20 Pompeius and Caesar take up positions around Dyrrachium.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.41'1-42'5; Lucan_6'1-28; +DioCass_41.49'1-50'1.
21 Caesar attempts to surround Pompeius with a line of fortifications.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.43'1-47'3; Vell_2.51'2; Lucan_6'29-79; Plut:Cic_38'4-5; Suet:Caes_35'1; Flor_2.13'38-39; +Appian:BCiv_2'61; +DioCass_41.50'1-2; Oros_6.15'18.L 
22 Document: Cic:Fam_9.9, a letter from Dolabella to Cicero.
23 MAC Scipio arrives in Macedonia and fights against Cassius and Longinus, the generals of Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.34'1-38'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'60;(↓)  +DioCass_41.51'2-3; { MRR_2'187.}
24 EPI Caesar's army suffers from food shortages.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.47'4-49'5; Vell_2.51'2; Lucan_6'80-117; Plin:HN_19'144;L  Plut:Caes_39'1-3; Suet:Caes_68'2; Flor_2.13'42; +Appian:BCiv_2'61; Polyaen_8.23'24; Julian:Caes_323'C.
25 BAE Q.Cassius, the governor of Further Spain, survives an assassination attempt.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_48'1-55'5, :BHisp_42'4; ValMax_9.4'2;L  +DioCass_42.15'1-2.
26 EPI {June -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.3 & 11.4a, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
27 BOS Pharnaces, king of Bosporus, takes advantage of the Roman civil war to attack neighbouring countries.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_11'498;(2.17)  Plut:Caes_50'1; Flor_2.13'61-62; Appian:BCiv_2'91; DioCass_42.45'1-3; Eutrop_6.22'2;
28 MES << The death of Tiraeus, king of Charax, aged 92 years.
Lucian:Macr_16.
29 EPI {July -R} Caesar attacks Pompeius' forces at several points, but fails to break through.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.50'1-55'2; ValMax_3.2'23;L  Lucan_6'118-262; Plut:Caes_16'3-4, :Ant_8'1; Suet:Caes_68'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'60; Polyaen_8.23'12; +DioCass_41.50'3-4; Oros_4.2'40.L 
30 GRE Q.Fufius, one of Caesar's generals, advances into Boeotia and Attica.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.56'1-57'5; +DioCass_42.14'1.
31 EPI {July -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.4 & Cic:Fam_14.6, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Terentia.
32 Pompeius launches a counter-attack and inflicts heavy casualties on Caesar's forces.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.58'1-72'4; [Liv]:Per_111; Lucan_6'263-313; Frontin:Str_3.17'4; Plut:CatMin_54'7-11, :Caes_39'4-8, :Pomp_65'7-8, :Mor_206'D; Suet:Caes_68'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'61-63;(↓)  Polyaen_8.23'26; +DioCass_41.50'4; Eutrop_6.20'2; Oros_6.15'19-21.L 
33 MAC Caesar withdraws from Dyrrachium and marches inland towards Thessaly.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.73'1-79'7; Vell_2.52'1; Lucan_6'314-315; Plut:Caes_39'9-11, :Pomp_66'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'64; Polyaen_8.23'13; +DioCass_41.51'1-3; Oros_6.15'22.L 
34 Caesar allows his soldiers to sack the town of Gomphi.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.80'1-81'3; Plut:Caes_41'6-8; Flor_2.13'41; +Appian:BCiv_2'64; +DioCass_41.51'4-5.
35 Pompeius decides to follow Caesar to Thessaly, instead of returning to Italy.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.82'1; Vell_2.52'1-2; Lucan_6'316-332; Plut:CatMin_55'1-3; :Pomp_66'1-67'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'65-66; +DioCass_41.52'1-54'3.
37 The over-confidence of Pompeius' army leads to disputes between the leaders.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.82'2-84'5; Plut:Caes_40'1-42'4, :Pomp_67'4-68'1, 84'2-11; Flor_2.13'43; +Appian:BCiv_2'67, 4'124.
38 Sex.Pompeius consults Thessalian witches.
~Lucan_6'413-830.
39 Omens predicting the defeat and death of Pompeius.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.105'3-6; Cic:Div_2'79; ValMax_1.6'12;L  Plin:HN_2'92,L  5'58;L  Plut:Caes_43'1-7, 47'1-6, :Pomp_68'2-4; +Appian:BCiv_2'68; Gell_15.18'1-3; +DioCass_41.61'2-5; +Obseq_65a.
40 {9 August -R} Caesar decisively defeats the army of Pompeius near Pharsalus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.85'1-97'5, 99'1-5; Cic:Lig_9, :Phil_2'71, 14'23; Liv_fr'33;L  Vell_2.52'3-4; ValMax_1.5'6,L  4.5'5;L  Sen:Dial_6.20'2, :Ep_71'8-9; Lucan_7'1-872; Frontin:Str_2.3'22, 7'13, 4.7'32; Plut:Brut_4'4-5'1, :Caes_44'1-46'4, :Pomp_68'5-73'11; :Ant_8'2-3, :Mor_206'D-E; Suet:Caes_30'4, 75'2, :Vesp_1'2; Flor_2.13'43-51; +Appian:BCiv_2'69-82; Polyaen_8.23'14, '25, '29; +DioCass_41.55'1-61'1; Eutrop_6.20'3-21'2; Oros_6.15'23-27;L  { CAH_9'433; OCD_pomp.}
41 Caesar shows clemency in pardoning the survivors of Pompeius' army.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.98'1-3; Cic:Phil_2'5; Nepos:Att_7'3; [Liv]:Per_111; Vell_2.52'5-6; Sen:Dial_4.23'4, :Ben_2.20'1-2; Plin:HN_7'94;L  Plut:Brut_6'1-4, :Caes_46'4, 62'3; Appian:BCiv_2'112, '146,(↓)  3'26; Polyaen_8.23'30; +DioCass_41.62'1-63'6, 44.45'1-3, 47'5; [Vict]:VirIll_82'5.L 
42 SIC C.Cassius attacks Caesar's warships around Sicily.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.100'1-101'7; Frontin:Str_4.7'14; [Vict]:VirIll_83'4-5;L  { OCD_cas.}
43 EPI Cicero refuses to lead Pompeius' remaining forces, and hastily leaves Dyrrachium.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Deiot_29, :Top_5, :Div_1'68-69, 2'114; Plut:CatMin_55'4-6, :Cic_38'5-39'2, :Mor_205'D; Macrob:Sat_2.3'9.L 
44 AEG Pompeius goes to meet his wife Cornelia, on the island of Lesbos.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.102'1-4; Cic:Phil_2'39; Liv_fr'39a;L  Lucan_8'1-158; Plut:Pomp_74'1-75'7; Flor_2.13'51; +Appian:BCiv_2'83, 5'133; +DioCass_42.1'1-2'3.
45 Pompeius decides to sail on to Egypt, to seek refuge with king Ptolemy.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.102'5-103'1; Vell_2.53'1-2; Lucan_8'159-471; Quint_3.8'33; Plut:Pomp_76'1-77'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'83; +DioCass_42.2'4-6; Eutrop_6.21'3; Oros_6.15'27-28.L 
46 GLT Deiotarus leaves Pompeius, and returns home to Galatia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Deiot_13, 29.
47 THR L.Cassius surrenders to Caesar at the Hellespont.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_63'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'88, '111; +DioCass_42.6'2; { MRR_2'192.}
48 AFR Cato and Scipio go to Africa with the remains of Pompeius' army.
* Read Dio's account
[Caes]:BAfr_64'1; Vell_2.54'2; Lucan_9'18-50; Plut:CatMin_56'1'2, :Caes_52'1; Flor_2.13'64; +Appian:BCiv_2'87; +DioCass_42.9'3-13'5, 56'2; { CAH_9'433.}
49 ASI Caesar settles affairs in Greece and Asia Minor, while following Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.105'1-2; Plut:Caes_48'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'88, '89; +DioCass_42.6'1-3; Oros_6.15'29.L 
50 Document: Sherk_79B  (Syll_760), the inscriptions on statues dedicated to Julius Caesar after the battle of Pharsalus.
51 BAE The native Spanish troops and the garrison of Corduba openly rebel against Q.Cassius.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_11.16'1; [Caes]:BAlex_56'1-57'4; [Liv]:Per_111; +DioCass_42.15'2; { OCD_cas.}
51a ILL Q.Cornificius governs Illyricum wisely, and keeps it loyal to Caesar.
[Caes]:BAlex_42'1-3.
52 ROM ?? The discovery of a cure for elephantiasis.
~Plin:HN_20'144.L 
53 ++ The artist Pasiteles produces works of great skill and variety.
~Plin:HN_33'130,L  '156,L  36'39-40.L 
54 ?? A stratagem employed by Pompeius, to enable his army to cross a river safely.
Frontin:Str_1.4'8.
55 ++ Vibius and Publicius both closely resemble Pompeius in appearance.
ValMax_9.14'1;L  Plin:HN_7'53.L 
56 ++ The associates of Pompeius include Atticus of Neapolis, Demetrius, Furnius, Pythodorus, Theophanes, Tritanus and C.Velleius.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_13'617,(2.3)  14'649;(1.42)  Vell_2.76'1; Sen:Dial_9.8'6; Plin:HN_7'81;L  Appian:BCiv_5'140; Athen_1.14'f.
57 ?? Calvus and Brutus make insulting comments about Pompeius.
Seneca:Contr_7.4'7,L  10.1'8;L  Plut:Mor_89'E, 800'E.
58 ++ General remarks about the character of Cn.Pompeius, one of Rome's most successful commanders.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Tusc_1'86;L  :Div_2'53; [Verg]:Cat_3'1-10; Vell_2.29'2-5, 33'3; Sen:Ep_11'4, 51'11; Plin:HN_18'35;L  Plut:Pomp_1'1-2'10, :Mor_207'E; Aelian:VH_7'21; DioCass_56.38'4; AmmMarc_17.11'4.
59 EGY {28 September -R} Pompeius is killed, by order of the Egyptian government, as he attempts to land in Egypt.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.103'2-104'3; Cic:Tusc_3'66;L  Prop_3.11'35-38; [Liv]:Per_112; Ovid:Pont_4.3'41-43; Strab_16'760,(2.33)  17'796;(1.11)  Vell_2.53'2-4; Sen:Dial_6.20'4; Lucan_1'683-686, 8'472-711; Quint_3.8'55-57; Plut:Brut_33'3-5, :Cam_19'11, :Pomp_77'1-80'2, :Mor_204'D-E, 717'C;(8.1)  Flor_2.13'52-55; +Appian:BCiv_2'84-86; Aelian:NA_12'6; +DioCass_42.3'1-5'7; [Vict]:VirIll_77'9;L  Oros_6.15'28;L  { OCD_p; there is some confusion about the exact day in the ancient sources - it was probably one day before Pompeius' birthday.}
60 Philippus and Cordus cremate the body of Pompeius on the sea-shore.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_1.8'9;L  Lucan_8'712-872; Plut:Pomp_80'3-6, (?) '10; +Appian:BCiv_2'86; DioCass_69.11'1; [Vict]:VirIll_77'9.L 
61 {2 October -R} Caesar arrives at Alexandria, and is shown the severed head of Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.106'1-107'2; Seneca:Contr_10.3'1;L  Lucan_9'950-10'52; Frontin:Str_1.1'5; Plut:Caes_48'2-4, :Pomp_80'7; +Appian:BCiv_2'89-90; +DioCass_42.7'1-9'2; [Vict]:VirIll_77'9;L  Eutrop_6.21'3; Oros_6.15'29;L  { CAH_9'433.}
62 GRE Calenus, the general of Caesar, captures Megara and subdues the rest of Greece.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Brut_8'6-7; +DioCass_42.14'2-5.
63 PHO Caecilius Bassus escapes to Tyre, after serving in the army of Pompeius.
DioCass_47.26'3.
64 ITA Cicero returns to Brundisium, and Antonius arrives there shortly afterwards.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_14.12'1, :Phil_2'5, '59-69; { CAH_9'433.}
65 ROM {18 October -R} Octavianus puts on the toga virilis.
#EhrJon:Fast_Oct18; NicDam_127'8-12.
66 ROM Caesar is appointed dictator for a second time, with Antonius as his magister equitum.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_2'62; FastCap_p78; [Liv]:Per_112; Plut:Caes_51'1, :Ant_8'4-5; +DioCass_42.17'1-21'2; { CAH_9'435; MRR_2'185.}
67 CYR M.Cato takes command of Pompeius' remaining forces near Cyrene, after they hear that Pompeius has been killed.
* Read Lucan's account
Lucan_9'51-293; Plut:CatMin_56'3-4.
68 EGY Cleopatra secretly enters the palace at Alexandria, and meets with Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Lucan_10'53-331; Plut:Caes_48'9-49'3; Flor_2.13'56-57; DioCass_42.34'1-35'2; [Vict]:VirIll_86'1.L 
69 The inhabitants of Alexandria stage violent protests against the presence of Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_112; Plut:Caes_48'5-9; Appian:BCiv_2'90; DioCass_42.35'2-6; { ~Hölbl_p235.}
70 AFR Cato crosses the desert with his army to join Juba in the province of Africa.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_112; Strab_17'836;(3.20)  Vell_2.54'3; Sen:Ep_104'33; Lucan_9'294-949; Plut:CatMin_56'5-8; [Vict]:VirIll_80'3;L  { ~CAH_9'435; MRR_2'188.}
71 ITA {November -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.5-6, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Brundisium.
72 {November -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.12 & 14.19, two letters from Cicero to Terentia.
73 ROM Following adverse omens, all the temples of Isis and Serapis in Rome are demolished.
+DioCass_42.26'1-2.
74 EGY Achillas leads the Egyptian army into Alexandria, to fight against Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.108'1-110'6; Liv_fr'40;L  [Liv]:Per_112; Vell_2.54'1; Lucan_10'332-485; Plut:Caes_49'4-5; Flor_2.13'58; DioCass_42.36'1-38'2; Oros_6.15'30;L  { Green_666.}
75 ARM Pharnaces defeats Calvinus at Nicopolis, and gains control of Pontus.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_11.16'1; [Caes]:BAlex_34'1-41'2, 74'3; Cic:Deiot_14, 24; [Liv]:Per_112; Plut:Caes_50'1; Suet:Caes_35'2, 36'1; Appian:BCiv_2'91, :Mith_120; DioCass_42.46'1-3; { OCD_ph; MRR_2'188.}
76 BAE After assuming command of the Spanish rebels, M.Marcellus confronts Q.Cassius and Bogud at Ulia.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAlex_57'5-63'6; Liv_fr'37,L  '38;L  +DioCass_42.15'3-16'2; { MRR_2'186-187.}
77 ITA {December -R} Document: Cic:Att_11.7-8, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Brundisium.
78 {December -R} Document: Cic:Fam_14.9 & 14.17, two letters from Cicero to Terentia.
79 ROM == A. Hirtius passes a law, restricting the rights of supporters of Pompeius.
Cic:Phil_13'32; DioCass_42.20'1; { MRR_2'186.}
80 CIS == The orator M.Calidius dies at Placentia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_274-278; +Hieron:Chron_1960; { ~OCD_c.}
81 ROM == Comments on other orators who died this year: Bibulus, Appius Claudius, L.Domitius, P.Lentulus and L.Lentulus.
Cic:Brut_267-268;
82 == The death of Carfania, a litigious woman.
+ValMax_8.3'2;L  Justin:Dig_3.1.1'5.

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