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46 B.C. Olympiad 183.3


Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (III), M. Aemilius M.f. Lepidus
Athenian archon: (?) Eucles

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 AFR {1 January -R} Caesar retreats from Hadrumetum and establishes a new camp at Ruspina.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_6'1-7; DioCass_42.58'4; { The beginning of January 46 B.C. in the old Roman calendar was the equivalent of the middle of October 47 B.C. in the Julian calendar.}
2 Caesar moves to Leptis, and sends Sallustius to the island of Cercina.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_7'1-8'5, 34'1-3.
3 {3 January -R} Caesar moves back to Ruspina.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_9'1-11'4; Cic:Deiot_25; Liv_fr'43;L  Plut:Caes_52'3.
4 {4 January -R} Caesar's army is attacked by Labienus and Petreius, and suffers many casualties.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_12'1-19'4; [Liv]:Per_113; ValMax_3.2'19;L  Plut:Caes_52'7-9; Appian:BCiv_2'95; +DioCass_43.2'2-4.
5 Caesar attempts to gather more supplies for his army.
+[Caes]:BAfr_20'1-21'4.
6 MAU Cn.Pompeius fails to gain the support of king Bogud in Mauretania, and goes off to the Balearic Islands.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_12.2'1; +[Caes]:BAfr_22'1-23'3; DioCass_42.56'3-4, 43.29'1-2.
7 NUM P.Sittius captures Cirta, and forces Juba to return home.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_24'1-25'5; Appian:BCiv_2'96, 4'54; +DioCass_43.3'1-4; { OCD_s.}
8 AFR Caesar avoids battle with Scipio until reinforcements arrive.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAfr_26'1-36'4; +DioCass_43.3'5-4'3.
9 {25 January-R} Caesar beats back another attack by Labienus.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_37'1-42'2; (?) Strab_17'831;(3.12)  +DioCass_43.4'4-5.
10 ROM Omens at Rome, at the start of the new year.
+DioCass_43.2'1.
11 AFR Scipio kills some of Caesar's soldiers, who had been captured at sea.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_43'1-46'4; ValMax_3.8'7;L  Plut:Caes_16'8-9; +DioCass_43.5'1-4.
12 Labienus insists that Scipio should reward a brave soldier.
ValMax_8.14'5.L 
13 Caesar's camp is struck by a violent rain and hail storm.
+[Caes]:BAfr_47'1-6; { after the setting of the Pleiades.}
14 Inconclusive skirmishes between Caesar and Scipio, near Uzitta.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BAfr_48'1-52'5; (?) Strab_17'831;(3.12)  +DioCass_43.4'16, 6'1-2.
15 Caesar receives further reinforcements, but dismisses Avienus and Fonteius, two disloyal tribunes.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_53'1-61'8; +DioCass_43.6'3-4.
16 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_13.29 & 13.44, letters from Cicero to L.Plancus and Q.Gallius.
17 Document: Cic:Fam_13.74, a letter from Cicero to Q.Philippus.
18 GAL Deiotarus hears rumours that Caesar has suffered setbacks in Africa.
Cic:Deiot_25-26.
19 AFR Caesar moves to Aggar.
+[Caes]:BAfr_62'1-70'7.
20 {22 March -R} Caesar trains his troops to fight against elephants, and captures Sarsura.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_71'1-76'2; (?) Suet:Caes_66'1.
21 ROM << Document: Cic:Fam_9.1, a letter from Cicero to M.Varro.
22 AFR {4 April -R} Caesar marches from Aggar to Thapsus.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_77'1-79'2; Plut:Caes_53'1; +DioCass_43.7'1-3.
23 AFR {6 April -R} Caesar decisively defeats Scipio and Juba at Thapsus.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_80'1-86'3; #CIL_add.8'Apr6; [Liv]:Per_114; #Ovid:Fast_4'377-383; Vell_2.55'1; Plin:HN_7'94;L  +Plut:Caes_53'2-7; Flor_2.13'64-67; Appian:BCiv_2'96-97;(↓)  +DioCass_43.8'1-9'1, 44.47'5; Oros_6.16'3;L  { OCD_j.}
24 ?? Sayings of Cato.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sen:Dial_4.32'2-3, 7.21'3; Plut:CatMin_6'4, :Mor_1059'D.
25 {? 9 April -R} Cato commits suicide at Utica, to avoid being captured by Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_87'1-88'7; Cic:Fam_9.18'2, :Tusc_1'74,L  :Off_1'112; Hor:Od_1.12'35-36; [Liv]:Per_114; ValMax_5.1'10;L  Seneca:Contr_10.3'5,L  :Suas_6'2;L  Sen:Dial_1.2'9-10, :Ep_24'6-8, 67'13, 71'15-17; Lucan_6'306-311; Plut:CatMin_58'13-73'1, +:Caes_54'1-2, :Mor_206'E, 781'D; Flor_2.13'70-72; #Appian:BCiv_2'98-99; +DioCass_43.10'1-12'1; [Vict]:VirIll_80'4;L  August:DeCiv_1'23-24; { OCD_c.}
26 ++ General remarks on the character of Cato, a stubborn defender of traditional Roman values.
* Read Plutarch's account
Liv_fr'45;L  ValMax_4.3'12,L  8.7'2;L  Sen:Ep_14'12-13, 51'12, 104'29-33; Plin:HN_pref'9;L  Plut:Phoc_1'3-9, :Oth_13'4, :Mor_804'C, 809'D, 811'A; Julian:Them_256'A-B.(p309) 
27 Juba and Petreius kill each other in a suicide pact.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_91'1-94'2; Vitr_8.3'24; [Liv]:Per_114; Strab_17'831;(3.12)  Sen:Dial_1.2'10; Flor_2.13'69; Appian:BCiv_2'100, '101;(↓)  Ampel_38'1;L  +DioCass_43.8'4; Oros_6.16'4.L 
28 ?? Metellus Scipio is the first to serve foie gras at Rome.
Plin:HN_10'52.L 
29 Scipio commits suicide when his ship is about to be captured near Hippo Regius.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Fam_9.18'2; +[Caes]:BAfr_95'1-96'2; [Liv]:Per_114; ValMax_3.2'13;L  Seneca:Suas_6'2,L  7'8;L  Sen:Ep_24'9-10; Lucan_6'788-789; Flor_2.13'68; Appian:BCiv_2'100, '101;(↓)  +DioCass_43.9'5; Oros_6.16'4-5.L 
30 ROM {April -R} Document: Cic:Att_12.2 & Cic:Fam_9.2-3, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Varro.
31 Document: Cic:Fam_5.21 & 7.3, letters from Cicero to L.Mescinius and M.Marius.
31a EGY {5 Phamenoth -E = March} Document: Inscr_6, privileges granted by Cleopatra to a temple of Isis at Ptolemais.
32 SPA Cn.Pompeius crosses over to Spain, to rally his father's remaining supporters.
* Read Dio's account
[Caes]:BHisp_1'1-5, 7'4, 42'6; [Liv]:Per_113; Vell_2.55'2; Flor_2.13'73-74; Appian:BCiv_2'103; +DioCass_43.29'3-30'5; { OCD_p.}
33 AFR Caesar spares the lives of Q.Ligarius and some others who fought against him in Africa.
* Read Caesar's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_89'1-90'3; Cic:Off_1'112; NicDam_127'16; Vell_2.55'2; Appian:BCiv_2'100; +DioCass_43.12'3-13'4, 44.46'5; { OCD_l.}
34 ?? Some jokes about Faustus, the son of Sulla.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Mor_205'C; Macrob:Sat_2.2'9.L 
35 Faustus, L.Caesar and other leading opponents of Caesar are captured and killed.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_9.7'1-2; :Brut_265-266; [Liv]:Per_114; +Plut:Caes_53'7; Suet:Caes_75'3; Flor_2.13'90; +DioCass_43.12'2; Eutrop_6.23'3; Oros_6.16'5.L 
36 NUM Caesar establishes Numidia as a Roman province, and appoints Sallustius to govern it.
* Read Dio's account
+[Caes]:BAfr_97'1; Ovid:Met_15'746-748; Vell_2.39'3<x>; Appian:BCiv_2'100, 4'53; +DioCass_43.9'2-3; { CAH_9'436; OCD_n.}
37 ROM {May -R} Document: Cic:Att_12.3-4 & Cic:Fam_6.22, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Domitius.
38 Document: Cic:Fam_9.4-5 & 9.7, letters from Cicero to Varro.
39 Document: Cic:Brut_,L  Cicero's "Brutus" - a description of the leading Roman orators. { OCD_c.}
40 AFR {13 June -R} Caesar sails for Sardinia, after settling affairs in Africa.
* Read Caesar's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_97'2-98'1; +DioCass_43.14'1; { CAH_9'436.}
41 SAR {27 June -R} Caesar leaves Sardinia, and sails back towards Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_9.7'2; #[Caes]:BAfr_98'2; +DioCass_43.14'2.
42 ROM {June -R} Document: Cic:Att_12.5c & Cic:Fam_9.6, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Varro.
43 Document: Cic:Orat_, Cicero's "Orator" - a book addressed to M.Brutus.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_12.6'3, :Fam_6.18'4, 12.17'2, 15.20'1; { OCD_c.}
43a {24 July -R} Document: SEG_55.1452, a treaty of alliance between Rome and Lycia.
44 {25 July -R} Caesar arrives in Rome, and is awarded extraordinary honours, including the role of "prefect of morals".
* Read Dio's account
#[Caes]:BAfr_98'2; Cic:Fam_9.15'5; +DioCass_43.14'3-18'6; { CAH_9'436.}
45 {July -R} Document: Cic:Att_12.5 & Cic:Fam_7.33, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Volumnius.
46 Document: Cic:Fam_16.17 & 16.19 & 16.22, letters from Cicero to Tiro.
47 Document: Cic:Fam_9.16 & 9.18, letters from Cicero to Paetus.
48 Cicero publishes a book in praise of Cato.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_12.4'2, 5'2, 13.46'2, :Fam_16.22'1; Quint_5.10'9<q" Cicero>; Plut:Caes_54'5; Gell_13.20'3; { CAH_9'460; OCD_cic=45.}
49 GAL D.Brutus defeats the Bellovaci.
~[Liv]:Per_114; { OCD_brut.}
50 BOS Mithridates of Pergamum is defeated by Asander, while attempting to seize the kingdom of Bosporus.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_11'498,(2.17)  13'625;(4.3)  DioCass_47.26'5; { Dio Cassius makes it clear that Mithridates was collecting troops for this expedition late in 47 B.C. or early in 46 B.C.}
51 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_13.73, a letter from Cicero to Q.Philippus.
52 Caesar forces Antonius to pay the full amount for the purchase of a house that belonged to Pompeius.
~Cic:Phil_2'71-73; Plut:Ant_10'3.
53 Caesar sends out further forces, commanded by Q.Pedius and Q.Fabius Maximus, to suppress unrest in Spain.
* Read Dio's account
[Caes]:BHisp_2'2; +DioCass_43.28'1, 31'1; { OCD_p.}
54 {August - R} Document: Cic:Fam_4.8 & 4.13, letters from Cicero to Marcellus and Figulus.
55 Document: Cic:Fam_7.28 & 9.19-20, letters from Cicero to M'.Curius and Papirius Paetus.
56 Cleopatra and her son Caesarion come to stay in Rome, with the approval of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_52'1-2; +DioCass_43.27'3; Hieron:Chron_1971.
57 {September -R} Caesar recalls M.Marcellus from exile, following a speech in the senate by Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Marc_1-34, :Fam_4.4'3-4, 11'1-2, 6.6'10; [Liv]:Per_115; { OCD_m.}
58 Caesar recalls other exiles, and reinstates them as senators.
* Read Dio's account
Suet:Caes_41'1; +DioCass_43.27'1-2.
59 Caesar celebrates four triumphs on separate days, over Gaul, Egypt, Pontus and Africa.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Off_2'28; [Liv]:Per_115; NicDam_127'17-18; Vell_2.56'1-2; Plin:HN_19'144;L  Quint_6.3'61; +Plut:Caes_55'1-3; Suet:Caes_37'1-38'2, 49'4, 51'1, :Aug_8'1; Flor_2.13'88-89; Appian:BCiv_2'101-102; DioCass_40.41'3, +43.19'1-21'2; { CAH_9'436; OCD_c.}
60 Caesar gives a public banquet and shows of various kinds, some in memory of his daughter Julia.
* Read Dio's account
NicDam_127'19-20; Vell_2.56'1; Plin:HN_8'21-22,L  '53,L  '69,L  '182,L  9'171,L  14'97,L  19'23;L  +Plut:Caes_55'4; Suet:Caes_26'2-3, 39'1-4; Appian:BCiv_2'102; +DioCass_43.21'3-4, 22'3-24'4, 45.17'8; Macrob:Sat_3.15'10.L 
60a Caesar stages a contest between Publilius Syrus and Laberius, two writers of mimes.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_12.18'2; Suet:Caes_39'2; Gell_8.cap'15; Macrob:Sat_2.3'10,L  7'1-9;L  { OCD_l.}
61 {26 Sept. -R} The dedication of Caesar's forum, including the temple of Venus Genetrix and the Basilica Julia.
* Read Dio's account
Aug:ResGest_20; #CIL_add.8'Sep26; Plin:HN_7'126,L  8'155,L  9'116,L  34'18,L  35'136,L  '156,L  37'11;L  Appian:BCiv_2'102; +DioCass_43.22'1-3; +Hieron:Chron_1971; { CAH_9'797; OCD_f.}
61a Servius Galba demands his money back from Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_6.18'3; ~ValMax_6.2'11.L 
62 Document: Cic:Fam_4.7 & 4.9, two letters from Cicero to M.Marcellus.
63 Document: Cic:Fam_5.13 & 5.16, letters from Cicero to Lucceius and Titius.
64 Document: Cic:Fam_6.10 & 6.12-13, letters from Cicero to Trebianus, Ampius and Ligarius.
65 {September -R} Document: Cic:Fam_4.3-4, two letters from Cicero to Sulpicius.
66 {September -R} Document: Cic:Fam_9.17 & 12.17-18, letters from Cicero to Paetus and Cornificius.
67 Caesar passes a law to change the composition of juries.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'19-20, '23-24; Ascon_20;L  Suet:Caes_41'2; +DioCass_43.25'1-2.
68 Caesar passes a law to restrict private spending on luxuries.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Fam_7.26'2, 9.15'5; Suet:Caes_43'1-2; +DioCass_43.25'2; Hieron:Chron_1970; Macrob:Sat_3.17'14.L 
69 Caesar passes other laws, about large families, provincial governors, priesthoods, residence in Italy, relief of debts, illegal guilds, soldiers' wills, and the punishment for murder.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_11.28'2, :Phil_1'19, :AdBrut_13'3;(1.5)  Suet:Caes_42'1-3; +DioCass_43.25'2-3; Justin:Dig_29.1.1'1, 29.1.16.
70 Caesar carries out a census, revealing a large drop in the number of Roman citizens.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_115; +Plut:Caes_55'5-6; Suet:Caes_41'3; Appian:BCiv_2'102.(↓) 
71 Caesar reforms the Roman calendar; the new "Julian calendar" starts at the beginning of the following year.
* Read Plutarch's account
CIL_add.8'Jan29, 'Apr26; Ovid:Fast_3'155-166; Plin:HN_18'211;L  Plut:Caes_59'1-6; Suet:Caes_40'1-2, :Aug_31'2; Appian:BCiv_2'154; +DioCass_43.26'1-3; +Censor:DN_20'8-11, 21'7; AmmMarc_26.1'10-14; Macrob:Sat_1.10'2,L  14'2-15,L  15'8,L  16'39;L  ChronPasc_461'A-B; { CAH_9'460; OCD_cal.}
72 {October -R} Document: Cic:Fam_4.11 & 6.6, letters from Cicero to Marcellus and Caecina.
73 Document: Cic:Fam_13.68 & 13.77, letters from Cicero to Servilius and Sulpicius.
74 BAE C.Didius defeats Varus, an officer of Pompeius, in a naval battle near Carteia.
* Read Florus' account
Flor_2.13'75-77; DioCass_43.31'2-4.
75 SYR Sextus Caesar is defeated and killed by Caecilius Bassus.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_114; Strab_16'752;(2.10)  Joseph:BJ_1'216, :AJ_14'268; Appian:BCiv_3'77, 4'58;(↓)  +DioCass_47.26'4-7.
76 ROM {November -R} Document: Cic:Lig_, Cicero's speech in defence of Q.Ligarius.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_6.14'1-3, :Att_13.19'2, 20'2, 44'3; Seneca:Contr_10.3'3,L  :Suas_6'13;L  Plut:Cic_39'5-6; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'46; { OCD_c<46/5>.}
77 Document: Cic:OptGen_,L  Cicero's treatise "De Optimo Genere Oratorum". { ~OCD_c.}
78 Document: [Sall]:CaesOr_, a speech of advice to Caesar, attributed to Sallustius. { OCD_s<46, or 48>.}
79 {Intercal. -R = October} Document: Cic:Att_12.8 & Cic:Fam_9.15, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Paetus. { Caesar inserted two intercalary months after November; so that November in this year was roughly equivalent to September in the Julian calendar, and the first intercalary month was equivalent to October.}
80 BOS Document: Sherk_82,B  an inscription in honour of C.Julius Satyrus, an envoy from Chersonesus to Caesar at Rome.
81 ROM Caesar is re-elected as consul, in elections that are supervised by Lepidus.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_12.8'1; +DioCass_43.33'1.
82 {November} Caesar leaves Rome for Spain, to fight against the sons of Pompeius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_7.23'4, 13.16'3, 15.20'2, 21'1; [Caes]:BHisp_2'1-3; NicDam_127'21; Suet:Caes_56'5; Appian:BCiv_2'103; +DioCass_43.28'2; Oros_6.16'6;L  { CAH_9'437; Caesar completed the journey from Rome to Corduba in 27 days.}
83 ITA {November} Document: Cic:Fam_7.4. a letter from Cicero to M.Marius, written at Cumae.
84 Document: Cic:Fam_9.23 & 9.26, two letters from Cicero to Paetus.
85 ETR {November} Document: Cic:Att_12.1 & 12.9-11, letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Astura and Arpinum.
86 CIL Caesar orders Q.Cornificius to take command in Syria, against the rebel forces of Bassus.
Cic:Fam_12.19'1-3; { OCD_corn.}
87 BAE {December} Caesar joins his army near Corduba.
* Read Caesar's account
[Caes]:BHisp_4'1-5'7; Strab_3'160;(4.9)  Appian:BCiv_2'103, '116,(↓)  '153; +DioCass_43.32'1-3, '6-7; Oros_6.16'6.L 
88 Vibius is sent by Caesar to relieve Ulia, which is being besieged by Cn.Pompeius.
* Read Caesar's account
~[Caes]:BHisp_3'1-9; DioCass_43.32'3-6.
89 ROM Cicero marries Publilia, a wealthy young girl.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_4.14'7; Quint_6.3'75; Plut:Cic_41'3-4; DioCass_46.18'3; { ~OCD_c.}
90 {December} Document: Cic:Fam_15.18 & 15.20-21, letters from Cicero to Cassius and Trebonius.
91 Document: Cic:Fam_4.10 & 6.7-9, letters from Cicero to Marcellus, Caecina and Furfanus.
92 Document: Cic:Fam_7.23 & 7.26, two letters from Cicero to Gallus.
93 Document: Cic:Fam_13.66, a letter from Cicero to P.Servilius.
94 == M.Antonius marries Fulvia.
~Plut:Ant_10'4-6; { OCD_a.}
95 == Document: Cic:Fam_13.10-14 & 13.17-28, letters from Cicero to M.Brutus and Servius Sulpicius.
96 == Document: Cic:Fam_13.45-46 & 13.79, letters from Cicero to Appuleius and Allienus.
96a == Document: [Verg]:Cat_14, a poem addressed to Venus, mentioning the intention of Vergilius to write a poem about Aeneias. { Tenney Frank, Vergil, pp.67-72.}
97 CIS == M.Brutus governs Cisalpine Gaul, which has been entrusted to him by Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_6.6'10, :Orat_34;L  Plut:Brut_6'10-12; Appian:BCiv_2'111,(↓)  3'98; { MRR_2'202.}
98 AEG == Document: Sherk_83B  (Syll_764), a letter from Caesar to the city of Mytilene.
99 SYR ++ Nicolaus of Damascus is given a thorough education by his father Antipater.
Suda_A'2705<q" NicDam_131>, N'393<q" NicDam_132>; { ~OCD_n.}

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