53 B.C. Olympiad 181.4

Consuls: Cn. Domitius M.f. Calvinus, M. Valerius Messalla Rufus
Athenian archon: Diodorus

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM << Gabinius is convicted of extortion.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_4.2'4; !Appian:BCiv_2'24; ~DioCass_39.55'5-6, 63'1-5, 46.8'1; { CAH_p402; OCD_g.}
2 CIS Caesar raises three new legions, one of which is sent to him by Pompeius.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_6.1'1-4, 8.54'2; Plut:Caes_25'1-2; Suet:Caes_24'2; Oros_6.10'13.
3 ROM {January/February -R} Document: Cic:Fam_7.11 & 7.12, two letters from Cicero to Trebatius.
4 The tribune Licinius (? Coelius) causes riots by proposing that Pompeius should be appointed dictator.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:QFr_3.6'4, 3.7'3, :Fam_8.4'3; Plut:Pomp_54'3-5; +Obseq_63; { MRR_2'155.}
5 CIL M.Brutus goes to Cilicia, after declining an invitation to serve as Caesar's quaestor in Gaul.
[Vict]:VirIll_82'3;L  { OCD_b; MRR_2'155-156.}
6 PAL << Crassus seizes treasure from temples, including the temple at Jerusalem.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'179, :AJ_14'105-111, :Ap_2'82; Plut:Crass_17'5-6; August:DeCiv_18'45;(↓↓)  Oros_6.13'1; Movses_2'17.
7 ROM {4 March -R} Document: Cic:Fam_7.13, a letter from Cicero to Trebatius.
8 SYR Crassus scornfully rejects complaints from the Parthian king about the invasion of Mesopotamia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Crass_18'1-2; Flor_1.46'4-5; ~DioCass_40.16'1-3, 30'3; Festus:Brev_17'1; Oros_6.13'2.
9 ETR {8 April -R} Document: Cic:Fam_7.14, a letter from Cicero to Trebatius, written near the Pomptine Marshes.
10 ITA {April -R} Document: Cic:Fam_16.10 & 16.13-15, letters from Cicero to Tiro, written at Cumae.
11 ROM Omens at Rome, including sweating statues and howling dogs.
* Read Dio's account
+DioCass_40.17'12-; +Obseq_63.
12 SYR Crassus is urged by Artavasdes to advance through Armenia, but instead he marches towards Mesopotamia.
Plut:Crass_18'2-19'3; { ~CAH_9'402.}
13 Crassus ignores adverse omens as he crosses the river Euphrates.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_106; Plut:Crass_19'3-6; ValMax_1.6'11; Flor_1.46'3; +DioCass_40.17'3-19'4; Festus:Brev_17'1; Obseq_64; Schol:Bob_92.
14 GAL Caesar forces the Nervii and Senones to submit.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_6.2'1-4'6; Oros_6.10'14-15.
15 ROM ++ Curio is called Barbuleius, because of his resemblance to an actor of that name.
ValMax_9.14'5; Plin:HN_7'55; { Cicero refers to the death of Curio in a letter to his son, Cic:Fam_2.2.}
16 Document: Cic:Fam_2.1-3, letters from Cicero to the younger Curio.
17 Clodius decides to postpone his attempt to be elected praetor, because of the delay in the elections.
Cic:Mil_24; { CAH_9'405.}
18 GAL {May/June -R} Document: Cic:Fam_16.16, a letter to Cicero from his brother Quintus.
19 MES Crassus and his army are deliberately led in the wrong direction by their guide, Abgarus or Ariamnes.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Crass_20'1-22'6; Flor_1.46'6-7; +DioCass_40.20'1-4; Festus:Brev_17'1.
20 ++ P.Crassus is an accomplished orator and dancer.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_13.16'1, :Brut_281-282; Macrob:Sat_3.14'15.L 
21 {9 June -R} Surenas, the Parthian general, attacks Crassus at Carrhae; the Romans are defeated with heavy losses, and P.Crassus is killed.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Div_2'22; Ovid:Fast_5'583-586, #6'465-468; Vell_2.46'4; ValMax_1.6'11; Plin:HN_6'47; Plut:Luc_36'5-7, :Pomp_55'1, :Crass_23'1-27'8; Flor_1.46'8, '10; Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_40.21'1-25'5, 49.21'2; Just_42.4'4; Festus:Brev_17'2; Eutrop_6.18'1, 7.5'1; !Hieron:Chron_1962; Oros_6.13'3; { CAH_9'402-403; OCD_ca.}
22 ?? A saying of Crassus to one of his soldiers.
23 ++ General comments on the wealth and influence of Crassus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Brut_233, :Tusc_5'116, :Off_1'25, :Phil_14'17; Plin:HN_33'134; Plut:Crass_2'1-3'4, 7'2-9, 34'1-35'4, :Mor_280'F-281'A.
24 Crassus agrees to meet the Parthians for negotiations, but they seize and kill him.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_106; Strab_16'747;(1.24)  Lucan_1'103-111, 8'431-439; Plut:Pomp_53'8-10, :Crass_28'1-33'4, 38'2; Flor_1.46'9-10; Polyaen_7.41'1; Athen_6.252'd-e; +DioCass_40.26'1-27'4; Festus:Brev_17'2-3; Oros_6.13'4; { OCD_cr.}
25 ROM {June -R} Document: Cic:Fam_2.4-5 & 7.14-15, letters from Cicero to Curio and Trebatius.
26 GAL Labienus defeats the Treveri.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_6.5'1-8'8; [Liv]:Per_107; Frontin:Str_2.5'20; +DioCass_40.31'2-6; Oros_6.10'16.
26a ASI << Document: THI_2, recording a gift of 34 elephant tusks sent by Ptolemy XII to the temple of Didyma.
27 ROM {July -R} Elections for the current year's magistrates are finally held at Rome, after a long delay.
* Read Dio's account
Plut:Pomp_54'5; +DioCass_40.17'2; Obseq_63; { CAH_9'405.}
28 Document: Cic:Fam_2.6, a letter from Cicero to Curio, supporting Milo as a candidate for the next year's consulship.
29 GER Caesar crosses the Rhine for a second time, but he decides not to attack the Suebi, who have retreated into forests.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_6.9'1-10'5, 29'1-4; [Liv]:Per_107; +DioCass_40.32'1-2.
30 SYR C.Cassius, the quaestor of Crassus, takes control of Syria after reaching there with the remnants of Crassus' army.
* Read Plutarch's account
Vell_2.46'4; Joseph:BJ_1'180, :AJ_14'119; Plut:Brut_43'7-8, :Crass_19'4; Appian:BCiv_4'59; DioCass_40.28'2; Festus:Brev_17'4; [Vict]:VirIll_83'1;L  Eutrop_6.18'2; Oros_6.13'5.
31 MES The Parthians reconquer Mesopotamia.
32 GAL Caesar ravages the territory of the Eburones, but fails to capture Ambiorix.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_6.29'4-34'9; [Liv]:Per_107; +DioCass_40.32'3; Oros_6.10'17-20.
33 The Sugambri, a German tribe, make a surprise attack on the camp of Q.Cicero.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_6.35'1-43'6; +DioCass_40.32'4-5; { OCD_c.}
34 ?? M.Scaurus demolishes a house which belonged to Cn.Octavius, in order to build an extension to his own house.
35 Clodius buys a house from Scaurus.
~Ascon_32;(↓)  Plin:HN_36'103; { A few months before Clodius' death.}
36 The consuls are unable to hold elections for the following year, because of violent clashes between the candidates.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Mil_25-26, 34, 40-44, :Phil_2'49; Ascon_30, +48;L  Plut:CatMin_37'1-2; Appian:BCiv_2'19-20;(↓)  DioCass_40.46'1-3; Schol:Bob_172; { CAH_9'404-405.}
37 Cicero speaks in the senate, to rebut Clodius' claim that Milo's debts should debar him from standing for consul.
Plin:HN_36'104; ~Schol:Bob_169-174.
38 Clodius is forced to run off for protection when he is violently assaulted by M.Antonius, a candidate for quaestor.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_2'21, '49; Schol:Bob_123;L  { MRR_2'160.}
39 CIS Caesar returns to Cisalpine Gaul for the winter.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_6.44'1-3, 7.1'4; +DioCass_40.32'5; Oros_6.10'21.
40 ROM == The senate orders the destruction of the temples of Sarapis and Isis in Rome.
41 << Clodius, the son and heir of Aesopus, swallows pearls dissolved in vinegar.
Hor:Sat_2.3'239-242; Plin:HN_9'122,L  10'142.L 

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