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55 B.C. Olympiad 181.2


Consuls: Cn. Pompeius Cn.f. Magnus (II), M. Licinius P.f. Crassus (II)
Athenian archon: Aristoxenus

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {January -R} Pompeius and Crassus are elected as consuls, after an interregnum.
* Read Dio's account
+Plut:CatMin_42'1, :Crass_15'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.31'1-2.
2 The other elections are disrupted by violence, during which Pompeius is splattered with blood; Vatinius is elected as praetor, while Cato is rejected.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_4.6'4;L  Sen:Dial_2.1'3, 12.13'5, :Ben_5.17'2, :Ep_118'4; +Plut:CatMin_42'1-7, 50'3, +:Pomp_52'3, 53'3-4; Appian:BCiv_2'17;(↓)  +DioCass_39.32'1-3; AmmMarc_28.4'21; { CAH_9'397.}
3 SYR << Gabinius advances towards Mesopotamia, in order to attack the Parthians.
* Read Dio's account
Joseph:BJ_1'175, :AJ_14'98; Appian:Syr_51; DioCass_39.56'1-2; Movses_2'16; { CAH_9'271.}
4 Pompeius sends a letter authorising Gabinius to assist Ptolemy's return to Egypt by force.
* Read Dio's account
Lucan_8'448-449, '518-519, 9'1028-1029; Aelian:NA_12'6; +DioCass_39.55'3, 56'3, 42.2'4, 5'3; { CAH_9'272.}
5 ROM Cato is put in prison after opposing the measures of the tribune Trebonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_105; Sen:Dial_2.1'3; +Plut:CatMin_43'2-6; +DioCass_39.34'2-4.
6 The Lex Trebonia assigns the provinces of Spain and Syria to the current consuls.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_105; Vell_2.46'2, 48'1; +Plut:CatMin_43'1, '7, +:Pomp_52'4, :Crass_15'5-16'2, 35'2; Flor_2.13'12; +Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.33'1-35'5; Eutrop_6.18'1; Oros_6.13'1;L  { CAH_9'398; OCD_t.}
7 Caesar's command in Gaul is extended for a further five years.
* Read Dio's account
Caes:BGall_8.53'1; Cic:Phil_2'24; Vell_2.46'2; +Plut:CatMin_43'8-10, +:Pomp_52'4, :Crass_15'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.36'1-2; { OCD_c; according to Dio, this happened later on the same day as the Lex Trebonia.}
8 {11 February -R} The senate passes a decree against bribery.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:QFr_2.8'3; +DioCass_39.37'1.
8a Crassus passes the Lex Licinia de Sodaliciis, a law banning illegal associations in elections.
Cic:Planc_36-48, :Fam_8.2'1; Schol:Bob_150,L  +152, 160;L 
9 Document: Cic:QFr_2.8, a letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus, describing his meetings with Pompeius and Crassus.
10 EGY Gabinius invades Egypt, defeats Archelaus and reinstates Ptolemy as king.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_4.10'1, :Pis_48-50, :RabPost_19-21, 34, :Phil_2'48; Strab_12'558;(3.34)  ValMax_9.1e'6;L  Joseph:BJ_1'175, :AJ_14'98-99; Plut:Ant_3'4-4'6; Appian:Syr_51; Athen_5.206'c-d; +DioCass_39.55'1-3, 56'3-5, 58'1-3, 45.26'4; Schol:Bob_168;L  { CAH_9'272; Bennett.}
11 Ptolemy kills his daughter Berenice.
Strab_17'796;(1.11)  [Euseb]:Chron_167;(↓)  { CAH_9'320.}
12 Gabinius leaves behind Roman soldiers in Egypt.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.103'5, 110'6; DioCass_42.5'4; { CAH_9'390.}
13 The Roman banker Rabirius Postumus is put in charge of the financial affairs of Egypt, as dioecetes.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RabPost_22-40; BD_52A; Suet:Claud_16'2; { CAH_9'272.}
14 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_5.12, a letter from Cicero to L.Lucceius.
15 {April -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.6 & 4.9-10, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
16 {April -R} Cato leaves the theatre during the Floralia, to avoid seeing naked women on stage.
ValMax_2.10'8;L  Sen:Ep_97'8; Mart_1.epist; { When C.Messius was aedile (MRR_2'148).}
17 GER Two German tribes, the Usipetes and Tencteri, cross the Rhine and invade the territory of the Menapii.
* Read Caesar's account
~Caes:BGall_4.1'1-6'5; Plut:Caes_22'1; DioCass_39.47'1.
18 The Germans agree to withdraw under the terms of a truce with Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.7'1-11'6; DioCass_39.47'2.
19 ROM Cicero and some of the Syrians demand that Gabinius should be prosecuted for his invasion of Egypt.
+DioCass_39.59'1-60'1.
20 Piso returns from Macedonia to Rome.
Cic:Pis_53-55.
21 GER Some of the Germans break the truce; their elders visit Caesar to apologise and to ask for the renewal of the truce.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.12'1-13'6; Plut:Caes_22'2-3; Appian:Gall_18'1, '3-4;(16)  DioCass_39.47'3-48'1.
22 Caesar attacks the German camp by surprise, and slaughters everyone inside it, including the women and children.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.14'1-15'5; [Liv]:Per_105; Plut:CatMin_51'1, :Caes_22'5; Appian:Gall_1'12,(Epit.4)  18'1;(16)  ~DioCass_39.48'2; Oros_6.8'23.L 
23 ROM {26 June -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.11, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
24 PAL Gabinius defeats Alexander, the son of Aristobulus, in a battle near Mount Tabor.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'176-178, :AJ_14'100-102; { CAH_9'273.}
25 ROM The consuls propose a law to curtail spending on luxury, but the law is successfully opposed by Hortensius.
+DioCass_39.37'2-4.
26 GER Caesar constructs a bridge over the Rhine, and briefly crosses over to the east of the river.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.16'1-19'4; Diod_5.25'4; [Liv]:Per_105; Plut:Caes_22'6-23'1; Suet:Caes_25'2; Flor_1.45'15; Appian:Gall_1'12-13;(Epit.4)  ~DioCass_39.48'3-5; Eutrop_6.17'3; Hieron:Chron_1961; Oros_6.9'1;L  { CAH_9'400.}
27 SPA Metellus Nepos is unable to suppress a rebellion led by the Vaccaei.
+DioCass_39.54'1-2; { MRR_2'149.}
28 PER Orodes defeats Mithridates, and establishes himself as king of Parthia.
* Read Justin's account
Plut:Crass_21'7; Just_42.4'1-4; { OCD_o; OHIH_p172<54/3?>.}
29 BRI C.Volusenus sails across to Britain, to gather information about the island for Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.20'1-22'6; Diod_3.38'2-3; Quint_7.4'2; Suet:Caes_58'1.
30 ROM {August -R} Document: Cic:Pis, Cicero's speech condemning Piso's conduct in Macedonia.
Ascon_1-2,L  14;L  { OCD_c.}
31 {August -R} Pompeius holds magnificent games to celebrate the opening of his theatre and the dedication of the temple of Venus Victrix.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Off_2'57; +Ascon_1,L  16;L  ValMax_2.4'6;L  Sen:Dial_10.13'6-7; Plin:HN_7'34,L  '158,L  8'20-21,L  '53,L  '64,L  '70,L  36'41,L  '115;L  Plut:Brut_14'2, :Pomp_40'9, +52'5; Tert:DeSpect_10; +DioCass_39.38'1-6; ChronPasc_456'A; { CAH_9'400.}
31a T.Ampius Balbus fail to be elected as consul, despite the support of Pompeius.
Schol:Bob_156;L  { MRR_2'129.}
32 Document: Cic:Fam_7.1, a letter from Cicero to M.Marius.
33 BRI Julius Caesar lands in Britain, despite resistance from British forces as his army disembarks.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.23'1-27'7; Strab_4'199;(5.2)  ValMax_3.2'23b;L  Plut:Caes_16'5-7, 23'2-4; Tac:Dial_17'4-5; Suet:Caes_47'1; Flor_1.45'16-17; Appian:Gall_1'13,(Epit.4)  :BCiv_2'150; +DioCass_39.50'1-51'3; Julian:Caes_321'A; Oros_6.9'2;L  Nennius_19; Bede_1'2.
34 ARA Gabinius attacks the Nabataeans.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'178, :AJ_14'103; { CAH_9'273.}
35 BRI Caesar's ships are damaged by a high tide on the coast of Britain.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.28'1-29'4; Strab_4'200;(5.3)  Flor_1.45'17; +DioCass_39.52'1; Oros_6.9'2;L  Nennius_19; Bede_1'2.
36 The British gather fresh forces to attack Caesar, but he overcomes them in battle.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.30'1-35'3; Appian:Gall_19'1;(17)  +DioCass_39.52'1-3; Bede_1'2.
37 {September} Caesar leaves Britain, after demanding hostages.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BGall_4.36'1-4; Strab_4'200;(5.3)  +DioCass_39.52'3-53'2; Nennius_19; Bede_1'2; { Shortly before the autumn equinox.}
38 GAL Caesar makes a punitive raid against the Morini and Menapii.
+Caes:BGall_4.37'1-38'4.
39 ROM << Document: Lucr_, Lucretius' poem "De Rerum Natura".
Hieron:Chron_1923.
40 {October} The death of the poet Lucretius.
* Read Suetonius' account
#[Suet]:Verg_6; Hieron:Chron_1923; { OCD_l<55 or 51>; this is said to have been on the same day as Vergilius' fifteenth birthday.}
41 CIS Vergilius moves from Cremona to Mediolanum.
* Read Suetonius' account
+[Suet]:Verg_6-7; Hieron:Chron_1964.
42 ROM The senate decrees a public thanksgiving of twenty days for Caesar's victories, despite the opposition of Cato.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BGall_4.38'5; Plut:CatMin_51'1-5, :Caes_22'4, :Crass_37'3; Appian:Gall_18'2;(16)  { CAH_9'400.}
43 Document: Cic:DeOr_, Cicero's treatise on rhetoric, "De Oratore".
Cic:Att_4.13'2; { OCD_c.}
43a ?? Crassus is accused by Plotius of an improper relationship with the Vestal virgin Licinia.
Plut:Crass_1'2.
43b ?? Crassus and Hortensius are named as heirs of L.Minucius Basilus, but his will is alleged to have been forged.
Cic:Off_3'73-75; ValMax_9.4'1.L 
43c ?? A retort of Crassus, after being mocked by Domitius about the death of his pet fish.
Aelian:NA_8'4; Plut:Mor_89'A, 811'A, 976'A.
43d ?? Sarcastic comments of Cicero about Crassus.
Plut:Cic_25'2-4.
44 Crassus estimates his wealth before leaving Rome; the total is 7,100 talents.
Plut:Crass_2'2.
45 {November -R} Crassus musters an army despite the opposition of the tribunes, and leaves Rome for the east.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_4.13'2, :Fam_1.9'20, :Div_1'29-30; Caes:BGall_6.1'2; Vell_2.46'3; Lucan_3'126-127; Plin:HN_15'83;L  Plut:Cic_26'1, :Crass_16'3-6, +:Pomp_52'5; Flor_1.46'1-3; Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.39'1-7; { CAH_9'400.}
46 {November -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.13, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
47 Document: Cic:QFr_2.9, a letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus.
48 == Pompeius passes a law about the selection of juries.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Pis_94, :Phil_1'20; Ascon_17;L  { CAH_9'398.}
49 == The senators support a proposal made by Pompeius, as consul, about extortion.
Cic:RabPost_13.
50 == Helvius Mancia, in the trial of L.Libo before the censors, bitterly criticises Pompeius' earlier ruthlessness.
ValMax_6.2'8;L  { The censors for this year were M.Valerius Messalla and P.Servilius Vatia Isauricus (MMR_2'147).}
51 == Document: Catull_11 & 29 & 55 & 113, four poems by Catullus.
52 ?? Aristodemus of Nysa gives lessons on grammar to the sons of Pompeius.
Strab_14'650;(1.48)  { Pompeius' sons were born in about 79 and 67 B.C.}
53 << Cato gives his wife Marcia to his friend Hortensius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_11'515;(9.1)  Lucan_2'329-33, '339, '344-345; Quint_3.5'11, '13, 10.5'13; Plut:CatMin_25'1-13; Appian:BCiv_2'99;(↓)  Tert:Apol_39'12; { The date is uncertain, but it was probably after Cato's return from Cyprus.}
54 SAR == An alleged plot against Bostar by M.Scaurus, as propraetor in Sardinia.
Cic:Scaur_fr'h-i, 'o, 5-13; Ascon_18;L  { MRR_2'149.}
55 ARM << Artavasdes becomes king of Armenia, after the death of Tigranes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_11'532;(14.15)  Lucian:Macr_15; Movses_2'22-23.

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