49 B.C. Olympiad 182.4

Consuls: C. Claudius M.f. Marcellus, L. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Crus
Athenian archon: Demochares

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} M.Antonius forces the consuls to publish a letter from Caesar, which has been brought to Rome by Curio.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Fam_16.11'2; +Caes:BCiv_1.1'1-3'2; Cic:Phil_2'51-55; [Liv]:Per_109; Vell_2.49'4; Plut:Caes_30'3-6, :Pomp_59'3-4, :Ant_5'5-7; +Appian:BCiv_2'32; #DioCass_41.1'1-2'2, 45.27'1, 46.11'1; { CAH_9'422; at this point, the Roman calendar was about 7 weeks ahead of the seasons, and Caesar invaded Italy in November 50 B.C., according to the Julian calendar.}
2 {4 January -R} Cicero arrives at Rome.
#Cic:Fam_16.11'2; { CAH_9'422.}
3 Cicero tries in vain to arrange a reconciliation between Caesar and Pompeius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_16.12'2; :Att_15.3'1, :Phil_2'24; Vell_2.48'5; Plut:Cic_37'1, :Caes_31'1-2, :Pomp_59'5-6, :Ant_5'8.
4 {7 January -R} The senate passes the ultimate decree; M.Antonius, Q.Cassius, Curio and Caelius leave Rome, and go to join Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Fam_8.17'1, 16.11'2; #Caes:BCiv_1.3'6-5'5, 7'2-4; [Liv]:Per_109; Lucan_1'273-279; Plut:Caes_31'2-3, :Ant_5'9; Suet:Caes_31'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'33; +DioCass_41.3'1-2, 45.27'2; Oros_6.15'2;L  { CAH_9'422-423.}
5 The senate meets with Pompeius outside Rome, and authorises him to organise the defence of Italy.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.6'1-8; [Liv]:Per_109; Plut:Mor_810'C; +Appian:BCiv_2'34; +DioCass_41.3'3-4.
6 General comments on the resources and intentions of Caesar and Pompeius at the start of the civil war.
* Read Velleius' account
[Sall]:CaesOr_2'2-5; Vell_2.49'1-3; Lucan_1'120-182; Sen:Ep_95'67-71, 104'30-33; Flor_2.13'3-6.
7 ETR {10 January -R} Caesar crosses the river Rubicon, and advances to Ariminum.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.7'1-8'1; Vell_2.49'4; Lucan_1'183-391; Petron:Sat_122-123;(↓)  Plut:CatMin_52'1, :Caes_32'1-33'1, :Pomp_60'1-4, :Ant_5'10-6'3, :Mor_206'C; Suet:Caes_30'1-33'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'35; +DioCass_41.3'1-2; Eutrop_6.19'1-2; Oros_6.15'3;L  { CAH_9'424; OCD_r.}
8 ETR Caesar marches south through Umbria and Picenum.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_7.11'1, :Fam_16.12'2; +Caes:BCiv_1.11'4-13'5, 3.73'3; Lucan_1'392-468, 2'439-477; Suet:Caes_34'1; +DioCass_41.4'2, 44.44'1; Oros_6.15'4.L 
9 Labienus deserts Caesar and joins his opponents.
* Read Lucan's account
Cic:Att_7.11'1, 12'5, 13'1, :Fam_16.12'4; Lucan_5'346-347; Plut:Caes_34'5, :Pomp_64'5; +DioCass_41.4'2-4; { OCD_l.}
10 ROM {17 January -R} Pompeius and most of the senators leave Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_7.11'3-4, 8.3'3, #9.10'2; +Caes:BCiv_1.14'1-5; Lucan_1'469-523, 2'1-438; Petron:Sat_123-124;(↓)  Plut:CatMin_52'1-53'1, :Cic_37'1-3, :Caes_33'1-34'4, #56'5, :Pomp_60'5-61'7, 83'6-7, :Mor_204'D, 205'C; Suet:Caes_75'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'36; +DioCass_41.6'1-9'7; #Oros_6.16'8;L  { CAH_9'424.}
11 ETR Document: Cic:Fam_14.14 & 14.18, two letters from Cicero to Terentia.
12 ITA {23 January} L.Caesar carries messages between Caesar and Pompeius, but they fail to reach an agreement.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.8'2-11'3; Cic:Att_7.13a'2, #14'1, 16'1-2, 17'2, 18'2, 19'1, 8.12'2, :Fam_16.12'3; +DioCass_41.5'1-4; { L.Caesar met Caesar at Ariminum, and then travelled to Teanum on 23rd January to meet Pompeius.}
13 ROM Octavianus, the great-nephew of Caesar, is sent away from Rome to protect him from potential enemies.
14 {January -R} Document: Cic:Att_7.10-16, seven letters from Cicero to Atticus.
15 {January -R} Document: Cic:Fam_16.8 & 16.11-12, three letters from Cicero to Tiro.
16 Document: Cic:Fam_5.20 & 13.48, letters from Cicero to Mescinius Rufus and Sextilius Rufus.
17 ETR Domitius attempts to resist Caesar at Corfinium, but is forced to surrender.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_8.3'7, 7'1, 8'2, 11d'3-4, 12a'1, 12d'1, 14'3, 15a'3, 9.9c'1, 16'1-2; +Caes:BCiv_1.15'1-23'5; [Liv]:Per_109; Vell_2.80'1; Sen:Ben_3.24'1; Lucan_2'478-525; Plut:Caes_34'6-35'1; Suet:Caes_34'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'38; +DioCass_41.10'1-2, 11'1-3; Oros_6.15'4;L  { OCD_d.}
18 ITA Pompeius withdraws towards Brundisium.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_8.4'3, 8'2, 9a'2, 11d'3-4, 12a'4, 14'1, 9.10'8; +Caes:BCiv_1.24'1-5; Lucan_2'526-649; +Appian:BCiv_2'38-39; +DioCass_41.10'3-11'1.
19 AFR P.Attius Varus arrives from Italy, and takes control of Africa, acting as governor.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.31'2-3; Cic:Lig_2-6, :Phil_13'30; Quint_7.2'6, 11.1'78-80; Oros_6.15'7;L  { OCD_v.}
20 ETR {February -R} Document: Cic:Att_7.17-8.12, twenty-two letters from Cicero to Atticus.
21 ITA {4 March -R} The consuls leave Brundisium, and sail over to Greece.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_8.15'3, 9.6'1, #'3, 9'2; { CAH_9'424.}
22 {9 March -R} Caesar arrives at Brundisium, and attempts to obstruct the harbour in order to stop Pompeius leaving.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_9.12'1, 13'8, #13a'1, 14'1, :Fam_8.15'1; +Caes:BCiv_1.25'1-26'5; Vell_2.50'1; Lucan_2'650-679; Plut:Caes_35'1-2, :Pomp_62'2-4; Flor_2.13'19; +Appian:BCiv_2'40.
23 ETR Document: Cic:Fam_8.15, a letter from Caelius to Cicero.
24 ITA {17 March -R} Pompeius leaves Brundisium, and sails over to Greece.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_9.14'3, #15'6; +Caes:BCiv_1.27'1-30'1; [Liv]:Per_109; Lucan_2'680-3'45; Frontin:Str_1.5'5; Plut:Pomp_62'5-63'4; Suet:Caes_34'1-2; Flor_2.13'20; +Appian:BCiv_2'40; +DioCass_41.12'1-14'3; Oros_6.15'4;L  { CAH_9'425; OCD_p.}
25 Dire portents as Pompeius is forced to abandon Italy.
* Read Dio's account
Lucan_1'524-695; +Plin:HN_2'147,L  17'243-244;L  +DioCass_41.14'1-6.
26 ROM The death of M.Perperna, at the age of 98 years.
* Read Dio's account
ValMax_8.13'4;L  Plin:HN_7'156;L  +DioCass_41.14'5; { OCD_p.}
27 Document: [Sall]:CaesEp_, a letter from Sallustius to Caesar, which may not be genuine. { This letter, if genuine, probably belongs to the period just after the start of the civil war.}
28 ETR Document: Cic:Att_8.13-9.17, twenty-four letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Formiae.
29 {28 March -R} Caesar visits Cicero at Formiae, but fails to win his support.
#Cic:Att_9.18'12-4; { OCD_cic.}
30 ROM {1 April -R} Caesar summons a meeting of the senate outside Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_9.15'6, 17'1, 10.1'2, 3a'2, :Fam_4.1'1, 8.16'2; +Caes:BCiv_1.32'1-33'2; Vell_2.50'2; Sen:Ben_5.16'5; Lucan_3'71-112; Plut:Caes_35'3-5; Suet:Caes_34'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'41; +DioCass_41.15'1-16'4; ChronPasc_457'B.
31 Caesar seizes money from the public treasury, despite the opposition of the tribune L.Metellus.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_10.4'8, 8'6; +Caes:BCiv_1.33'3-4; Lucan_3'112-168; Plin:HN_19'40,L  33'56;L  Plut:Caes_35'6-11, :Pomp_62'1-2, :Mor_206'C; Flor_2.13'21; +Appian:BCiv_2'41; DioCass_41.17'1-4; Oros_6.15'5;L  { CAH_9'430.}
32 Caesar releases Aristobulus, a Jewish prince, and sends him to Syria.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'183, :AJ_14'123; +DioCass_41.18'1.
33 After making arrangements for his absence, Caesar leaves Rome to go to Spain.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_8.16'4; Plut:Ant_6'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'41; +DioCass_41.18'2-3.
34 CIS {16 April -R} Document: Cic:Att_10.8b, a letter from Caesar to Cicero.
35 Document: Cic:Fam_8.16, a letter from Caelius to Cicero.
36 NAR Caesar negotiates with the inhabitants of Massilia, after they refuse to receive him.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_10.10'4, 12a'3, :Phil_2'94, 8'19; +Caes:BCiv_1.34'1-35'5; Vell_2.50'3; Lucan_3'358-374; Suet:Ner_2'2.
37 ITA {April -R} Document: Cic:Att_9.19-10.7, ten letters from Cicero to Atticus.
38 {April -R} Document: Cic:Fam_4.1-2 & 5.19, letters from Cicero to Ser.Sulpicius and Mescinius Rufus.
39 {2/3 May -R} Document: Cic:Fam_2.16, a letter from Cicero to Caelius.
40 SIC Curio and Q.Valerius take control of Sicily and Sardinia, on behalf of Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_10.4'8-9, 12'2, 16'3; +Caes:BCiv_1.30'2-31'3; Lucan_3'46-70; Plut:CatMin_53'2-4; Flor_2.13'22; +Appian:BCiv_2'40;(↓)  +DioCass_41.18'1, 41'1; Oros_6.15'7;L  { Cato decided not to defend Sicily against Curio, and left Syracuse on 23rd April (Cic:Att_10.16'3).}
41 NAR Caesar attacks Massilia, but is unable to capture it quickly.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.36'1-5; [Liv]:Per_110; Lucan_3'375-455; Suet:Caes_34'2; Flor_2.13'23; +DioCass_41.19'1-4; Oros_6.15'6.L 
42 SPA Afranius and Petreius attack C.Fabius, the general of Caesar, near the river Sicoris.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.37'1-40'7; +DioCass_41.20'1-2.
43 ITA {May -R} Document: Cic:Att_10.8-18, twelve letters from Cicero to Atticus, written at Cumae.
44 {7 June -R} Cicero and others leave Italy to join Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_8.17'1, #14.7'1-3; :Marc_14-16, :Lig_7; Nepos:Att_7'1-2; Quint_12.1'16; Plut:Cic_38'1; :Brut_4'1-3, :Pomp_64'4-7; +DioCass_41.18'4-6; Macrob:Sat_2.3'7;L 
45 ASI {? 19 June -R} L.Lentulus issues a decree exempting the Jews of Asia Minor from military service.
46 SYR Aristobulus is killed by poisoning.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'184, '195, :AJ_14'124, '140.
47 SPA Caesar arrives in Spain, and confronts the army of Afranius in skirmishes near Ilerda.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.31'1-47'4; Lucan_4'1-47; Frontin:Str_1.5'9; Silius_3'359;L  +Appian:BCiv_2'42; +DioCass_41.20'3-5.
48 MAC Pompeius gathers reinforcements in Macedonia from many of the Roman provinces and allied kings.
* Read Caesar's account
Syll_762<t=B  Sherk_78>; Caes:BCiv_3.3'1-5'4; [Caes]:BAlex_67'1; Cic:Deiot_9-13, :Div_1'27, 2'45, '78-79, :Phil_11'34, 13'28-30; Liv_fr'32a;L  Vell_2.51'1; Lucan_3'169-297; Plut:CatMin_54'1-3, :Pomp_64'1-4; +Appian:BCiv_2'49; DioCass_44.44'1-2; { OCD_p.}
49 SPA Caesar's army is trapped for a few days, when a flood breaks the bridges over the rivers Sicoris and Cinga.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.48'1-55'2; Lucan_4'48-143; Plut:Caes_36'1-2; Flor_2.13'27; +Appian:BCiv_2'42, '150;(↓)  +DioCass_41.20'6-21'2.
50 NAR D.Brutus defeats the inhabitants of Massilia in a naval battle.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.56'1-58'5; [Liv]:Per_110; ValMax_3.2'22;L  Lucan_3'455-762; Plut:Caes_16'2; Suet:Caes_68'4; Flor_2.13'24-25; +DioCass_41.21'3-4.
51 SPA Caesar harries the army of Afranius and Petreius, as they attempt to retreat from Ilerda.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.59'1-80'5; Lucan_4'143-253; Frontin:Str_1.8'9, 2.5'38, 13'6; Suet:Caes_75'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'42-43; Polyaen_8.23'28; +DioCass_41.22'1-2.
52 {August -R} Afranius and Petreius surrender to Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_1.81'1-87'5, 3.83'2; Liv_fr'32c;L  [Liv]:Per_110; Strab_3'161;(4.10)  Vell_2.50'4; Lucan_4'254-401; Frontin:Str_2.1'11; Plut:Caes_36'2, 41'4, :Pomp_65'3; Flor_2.13'28; +Appian:BCiv_2'43; +DioCass_41.22'3-23'2; Eutrop_6.20'1; Oros_6.15'6;L  { CAH_9'431; OCD_p.}
53 AFR ++ Curio is an eloquent but immoral politician.
* Read Quintilian's account
ValMax_9.1'6;L  Quint_6.3'76; Hieron:Chron_1963.
54 Juba, king of Numidia, defeats and kills Curio near Utica.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_2.23'1-44'3; [Caes]:BAfr_97'3; [Liv]:Per_110; Vell_2.55'1; Lucan_4'581-824; Frontin:Str_2.5'40; Flor_2.13'34; +Appian:BCiv_2'44-46; +DioCass_41.41'1-42'7, 42.56'2, 43.30'3; Hieron:Chron_1963; Oros_6.15'9;L  { CAH_9'431; OCD_j.}
55 EGY Cleopatra is driven out of Egypt by her brother Ptolemy.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.103'2; Strab_17'796;(1.11)  [Liv]:Per_111; Plut:Caes_48'5; Appian:BCiv_2'84; { Hölbl_p232.}
56 ILL C.Antonius is forced to surrender to M.Octavius, one of Pompeius' officers, off the Dalmatian coast.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.67'5; Cic:Phil_13'30; [Liv]:Per_110; Lucan_4'402-581; Quint_3.8'23, '30-31; Suet:Caes_36'1; Flor_2.13'31-33; +Appian:BCiv_2'47; +DioCass_41.40'1-2, 42.11'1; Oros_6.15'8-9;L  { OCD_a.}
57 BAE Caesar accepts the surrender of M.Varro, and settles affairs in the rest of Spain.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Fam_9.13'1; +Caes:BCiv_2.17'1-21'5; [Liv]:Per_110; Flor_2.13'29; +DioCass_41.24'1-3; Oros_6.15'7.L 
58 ITA M.Antonius, acting as Caesar's deputy, visits many of the Italian towns.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_10.10'5, :Phil_2'55-58; Plut:Ant_6'5-7.
59 NAR Massilia surrenders to Caesar after a long siege.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BCiv_2.1'1-16'3, 22'1-6; Vitr_10.16'11-12; [Liv]:Per_110; Strab_4'180;(1.5)  Flor_2.13'25; +DioCass_41.25'1-3; Oros_6.15'7;L  { OCD_m.}
60 GRE Appius Claudius consults the oracle at Delphi about the outcome of the civil war.
* Read Lucan's account
Cic:Tusc_1'37;L  ValMax_1.8'10;L  ~Lucan_5'1-236; Oros_6.15'11;L 
61 MAC Cato strongly advocates delaying military action, and Pompeius does not trust him with a senior command.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:CatMin_53'5-54'6, :Pomp_65'1-2.
62 Cicero makes some inappropriate jokes, while staying in the camp of Pompeius.
Cic:Phil_2'37-40; Quint_6.3'111; Plut:Cic_38'2-4, :Mor_205'D; Macrob:Sat_2.3'8.L 
63 CIS Caesar suppresses a mutiny in his army at Placentia.
* Read Dio's account
Lucan_5'237-373; Frontin:Str_4.5'2; Suet:Caes_36'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'47; +DioCass_41.26'1-35'5.
64 ROM Caesar is appointed dictator, and oversees the election of magistrates for the following year.
* Read Dio's account
Caes:BCiv_3.1'1; FastCap_p76; Lucan_5'374-402; Plut:Caes_37'1-2; Flor_2.13'21; +Appian:BCiv_2'48; +DioCass_41.36'1-4; Eutrop_6.20'1; { CAH_9'431; OCD_c.}
65 Julius Caesar is considered by later writers to be the first Roman emperor.
* Read ChroniconPaschale's account
Joseph:BJ_1'218, :AJ_14'270; Theophil:Aut_3'27<q" Chryseros>; ClemAl:Strom_1'21;(↓↓)  [Euseb]:Chron_129,(↓)  213; Eutrop_1.12'2; +Hieron:Chron_1968; ExcBarb_47B; ChronPasc_456'C-457'A; Suda_D'1112, K'1199; { Chroniclers dated the "reign" of Caesar either from his first dictatorship, or from the battle of Pharsalus.}
66 SYR {October ?} The starting point of the Era of Antioch.
Sherk:AH_174'17; Hieron:Chron_1969, 2220, 2295; ChronPasc_457'C-461'A, 737'C, 816'A; { The era was probably introduced in 48 B.C., but backdated to the start of the local calendar year.}
67 ROM Caesar introduces measures to ease the debt problems caused by the onset of civil war.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.1'2-5; Cic:Off_2'84; Plut:Caes_37'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'48; +DioCass_41.37'1-38'3.
68 {December -R} Omens as Caesar leaves Rome.
* Read Dio's account
+Caes:BCiv_3.2'1; #Appian:BCiv_2'48;(↓)  +DioCass_41.39'1-4, 43'1.
69 SYR Alexander, the son of Aristobulus, is executed by Scipio, but his brothers are protected by Ptolemaeus the son of Mennaeus.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'185-186, '195, :AJ_14'125-126, '140, '142; { MRR_2'177.}
70 MAC Pompeius sends his troops into winter quarters in Thessaly and Macedonia.
71 ITA {December -R} Bad weather prevents Caesar from crossing over the Adriatic Sea.
72 ROM == The marriage of Lucretius Vespillo and Turia.
CIL_6.1527; { See W. Warde Fowler, Social Life at Rome in the age of Cicero, p.160.}
73 SIC == The floruit of the historian Diodorus Siculus.

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