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40 B.C. Olympiad 185.1


Consuls: Cn. Domitius M.f. Calvinus (II) , C. Asinius Cn.f. Pollio
Athenian archon: Philostratus
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Ariston of Thurii

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January} The Roman calendar is adjusted to avoid a market day occurring on the first day of the year.
+DioCass_48.33'4.
2 EGY Antonius spends the winter with Cleopatra in Egypt.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Ant_28'1-29'7; Appian:BCiv_5'11; +DioCass_48.27'1-2; { CAH_10'12; Hölbl_p241.}
3 CIS Asinius Pollio refuses to respond to some insults written by Octavianus.
Macrob:Sat_2.4'21;L  { For the context, see Syme_p211.}
4 ETR {March} Octavianus captures Perusia.
* Read Appian's account
Prop_1.21'1-10, 22'3-5; [Liv]:Per_126; Vell_2.74'4; Sen:Clem_1'11; Tac:Hist_1'50; Suet:Aug_14'1, #15'1, 96'2; Flor_2.16'3; Appian:BCiv_5'35-49; DioCass_48.14'1-6; Eutrop_7.3'4; { CAH_10'16.}
5 SYR Q.Labienus and the Parthians invade Syria and defeat the army of Saxa, the Roman governor.
* Read Dio's account
Hor:Od_3.6'9-12; [Liv]:Per_127; Joseph:BJ_1'248-249, :AJ_14'330; Plut:Ant_28'1; Flor_2.19'3-5; Appian:BCiv_5'10; Ampel_31'4;L  +DioCass_48.24'3-26'1; Just_42.4'7; Festus:Brev_18'1; { CAH_10'995; OCD_l.}
6 ITA Many supporters of Antonius flee from Italy.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.76'2; Plut:Ant_30'1, 32'1; Appian:BCiv_5'50; +DioCass_48.15'1-2; Oros_6.18'18.L 
7 Tiberius Nero and his wife Livia escape from Campania to Sicily.
* Read Velleius' account
Vell_2.75'1-3, 76'1-2; Tac:Ann_5'1, 6'51; Suet:Tib_4'2, 6'1, '3; +DioCass_48.15'3-4, 44'1, 54.7'2.
8 ROM Octavianus marries Scribonia, the aunt of the wife of Sextus Pompeius.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Aug_62'1-2; Appian:BCiv_5'53; +DioCass_48.16'1-3; { CAH_10'17; OCD_scr.}
9 GRE Antonius sails from Egypt to Asia Minor, and then to Greece, where he meets Fulvia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Ant_30'3-4; Appian:BCiv_5'52; +DioCass_48.27'3-4; { CAH_10'12.}
10 Tiberius Nero goes from Sicily to Greece, and joins Antonius.
Suet:Tib_4'3, 6'2.
11 Octavianus seizes control of Gaul, after the death of the governor Calenus.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:BCiv_5'51, '60; +DioCass_48.20'3; { CAH_10'16; OCD_c.}
12 AFR << Titus Sextius, the governor appointed by Antonius, defeats Fango in Africa.
* Read Dio's account
@  (?) CIL_10.6104 ; (?) Strab_17'829;(3.9)  Appian:BCiv_5'26; +DioCass_48.22'1-23'4; { OCD_s; MRR_2'250.}
13 PAL The Parthians, led by Pacorus, invade Judaea and set up Antigonus as king.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'250-268, :AJ_14'330-364, '404, '465, '469, 15'323, +20'245-246; Tac:Hist_5'9; +DioCass_48.26'2; Movses_2'19; { Josephus says that Antigonus reigned for 3 years and 3 months.}
14 ITA {July} Sextus Pompeius makes a raid on the coast of Italy, while Agrippa is busy at the Ludi Apollinares.
* Read Dio's account
Flor_2.18'2; +DioCass_48.20'1-2; Oros_6.18'19.L 
14a ?? Domitius kills Menodorus of Tralles, accusing him of causing disaffection in the fleet.
Strab_14'649;(1.42)  { There is no mention of Antonius, so this seems to have happened before Domitius joined Antonius.}
15 EPI Domitius joins Antonius with his fleet.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.76'2-3; Tac:Ann_4'44; Appian:BCiv_5'55; { CAH_10'17.}
16 ITA Antonius sails to Italy, and attempts to capture Brundisium.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.76'3; Appian:BCiv_5'56-58; +DioCass_48.27'5-28'2.
17 GRE Fulvia, the wife of Antonius, dies at Sicyon.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_127<x>; Appian:BCiv_5'59;(↓)  +DioCass_48.28'2-3.
18 ROM ?? Lepidus opposes the recall of Q.Lucretius Vespillo, who was named in the proscriptions.
CIL_6.1527'11.
19 ?? An anecdote about Lepidus, who is kept awake by the singing of birds.
Plin:HN_35'121.L 
20 AFR Octavianus allows Lepidus to take control of the African provinces.
* Read Dio's account
Appian:BCiv_5'12, '53;(↓)  +DioCass_48.20'4, 23'5; { MRR_2'248.}
21 ASI Labienus overruns Roman territory as far as Asia Minor.
* Read Dio's account
Inscr_9; Sherk_91.B'1-7;B  IAph_8.30'5-7, 31'4-7, 32'3; Strab_12'574,(8.9)  14'659-660;(2.24)  Tac:Ann_3'62; Plut:Ant_30'2; Appian:BCiv_5'65, :Syr_51;(↓)  +DioCass_48.26'3-5.
22 PAL Antigonus kills Phasael, the brother of Herodes, and mutilates Hyrcanus.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'269-273, '433, :AJ_14'365-369, 15'13, '181, 17'257, 20'248; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'7; !Hieron:Chron_1983.
23 ITA {? September} Antonius is reconciled with Octavianus at Brundisium, and agrees to marry his sister Octavia.
* Read Appian's account
@  (?) CIL_10.5159; [Liv]:Per_127; Vell_2.76'3, 86'3; Plut:Ant_30'6-31'4; Tac:Ann_1'10; Appian:BCiv_5'59-65; +DioCass_48.28'4-30'3, 37'2-3, 50.26'1; { CAH_10'17; OCD_a.}
24 EGY Herodes escapes to Alexandria.
Joseph:BJ_1'274-279, :AJ_14'370-376; { OCD_h.}
25 SAR Menas, an admiral of Sextus Pompeius, makes more raids on Italy, and occupies Sardinia.
* Read Dio's account
Appian:BCiv_5'56; +DioCass_48.30'4-31'1, 49.18'2-3; { OCD_m.}
26 ROM Work commences on a new aqueduct at Rome, the Aqua Julia.
+DioCass_48.32'3; { It appears that the aqueduct was not completed until 33 B.C.}
27 {October} The consuls celebrate a festival, to commemorate the defeat of Caesar's assassins.
+DioCass_48.32'4.
28 Antonius and Octavianus go to Rome, where they are awarded ovations.
* Read Appian's account
+FastTr_p109; Aug:ResGest_4; Plut:Ant_31'5; Suet:Aug_22'1; Appian:BCiv_5'60.
29 Sextus Pompeius causes famine at Rome by his control of the sea, and the people riot against the triumvirs.
Appian:BCiv_5'67-68; +DioCass_48.31'4-6; { CAH_10'19.}
30 The triumvirs appoint new magistrates, including Balbus as suffect consul.
Vell_2.51'3; +DioCass_48.32'1-3.
31 Salvidienus Rufus is killed, after being accused of plotting against Octavianus.
* Read Appian's account
[Liv]:Per_127; Vell_2.76'4; Suet:Aug_66'1-2; Appian:BCiv_5'66; +DioCass_48.33'1-3; { CAH_10'19.}
32 Herodes goes to Rome, where Antonius and Octavianus formally recognise him as king of Judaea.
* Read Josephus' account
Strab_16'765;(2.46)  Joseph:BJ_1'280-285, '388, '665, :AJ_14'377-389, '446, 17'191; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'7; Hieron:Chron_1983; Movses_2'19; ChronPasc_464'D-465'A; { CAH_10'20; his was sometimes reckoned as the start of Herodes' reign.}
33 == The birth of a baby, said by Vergilius to usher in a new era of peace and prosperity.
Verg:Ecl_4'4-63; (?) Hor:Epod_16'41-66; { CAH_10'19; Syme_p218-220; there are many different theories about the identity of the baby.}
34 GLT << The death of Deiotarus, king of Galatia.
Strab_12'547,(3.13)  '567;(5.1-2)  { CAH_10'995; OCD_d.}
35 SYR ?? Document: OGIS_383, the Law of Antiochus I of Commagene on Mount Nemrud.

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