40 B.C. Olympiad 185.1

Consuls: Cn. Domitius M.f. Calvinus (II) , C. Asinius Cn.f. Pollio
Athenian archon: Philostratus
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Ariston of Thurii

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January} The Roman calendar is adjusted to avoid a market day occurring on the first day of the year.
2 EGY Antonius spends the winter with Cleopatra in Egypt.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Ant_28'1-29'7; Appian:BCiv_5'11; +DioCass_48.27'1-2; { CAH_10'12; Hölbl_p241.}
3 CIS Asinius Pollio refuses to respond to some insults written by Octavianus.
Macrob:Sat_2.4'21;L  { For the context, see Syme_p211.}
4 ETR {March} Octavianus captures Perusia.
* Read Appian's account
Prop_1.21'1-10, 22'3-5; [Liv]:Per_126; Vell_2.74'4; Sen:Clem_1'11; Tac:Hist_1'50; Suet:Aug_14'1, #15'1, 96'2; Flor_2.16'3; Appian:BCiv_5'35-49; DioCass_48.14'1-6; Eutrop_7.3'4; { CAH_10'16.}
5 SYR Q.Labienus and the Parthians invade Syria and defeat the army of Saxa, the Roman governor.
* Read Dio's account
Hor:Od_3.6'9-12; [Liv]:Per_127; Joseph:BJ_1'248-249, :AJ_14'330; Plut:Ant_28'1; Flor_2.19'3-5; Appian:BCiv_5'10; Ampel_31'4; +DioCass_48.24'3-26'1; Just_42.4'7; Festus:Brev_18'1; { CAH_10'995; OCD_l.}
6 ITA Many supporters of Antonius flee from Italy.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.76'2; Plut:Ant_30'1, 32'1; Appian:BCiv_5'50; +DioCass_48.15'1-2; Oros_6.18'18.
7 Tiberius Nero and his wife Livia escape from Campania to Sicily.
* Read Velleius' account
Vell_2.75'1-3, 76'1-2; Tac:Ann_5'1, 6'51; Suet:Tib_4'2, 6'1, '3; +DioCass_48.15'3-4, 44'1, 54.7'2.
8 ROM Octavianus marries Scribonia, the aunt of the wife of Sextus Pompeius.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Aug_62'1-2; Appian:BCiv_5'53; +DioCass_48.16'1-3; { CAH_10'17; OCD_scr.}
9 GRE Antonius sails from Egypt to Asia Minor, and then to Greece, where he meets Fulvia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Ant_30'3-4; Appian:BCiv_5'52; +DioCass_48.27'3-4; { CAH_10'12.}
10 Tiberius Nero goes from Sicily to Greece, and joins Antonius.
Suet:Tib_4'3, 6'2.
11 Octavianus seizes control of Gaul, after the death of the governor Calenus.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:BCiv_5'51, '60; +DioCass_48.20'3; { CAH_10'16; OCD_c.}
12 AFR << Titus Sextius, the governor appointed by Antonius, defeats Fango in Africa.
* Read Dio's account
@  (?) CIL_10.6104 ; (?) Strab_17'829;(3.9)  Appian:BCiv_5'26; +DioCass_48.22'1-23'4; { OCD_s; MRR_2'250.}
13 PAL The Parthians, led by Pacorus, invade Judaea and set up Antigonus as king.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'250-268, :AJ_14'330-364, '404, '465, '469, 15'323, +20'245-246; Tac:Hist_5'9; +DioCass_48.26'2; Movses_2'19; { Josephus says that Antigonus reigned for 3 years and 3 months.}
14 ITA {July} Sextus Pompeius makes a raid on the coast of Italy, while Agrippa is busy at the Ludi Apollinares.
* Read Dio's account
Flor_2.18'2; +DioCass_48.20'1-2; Oros_6.18'19.
14a ?? Domitius kills Menodorus of Tralles, accusing him of causing disaffection in the fleet.
Strab_14'649;(1.42)  { There is no mention of Antonius, so this seems to have happened before Domitius joined Antonius.}
15 EPI Domitius joins Antonius with his fleet.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.76'2-3; Tac:Ann_4'44; Appian:BCiv_5'55; { CAH_10'17.}
16 ITA Antonius sails to Italy, and attempts to capture Brundisium.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.76'3; Appian:BCiv_5'56-58; +DioCass_48.27'5-28'2.
17 GRE Fulvia, the wife of Antonius, dies at Sicyon.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_127<x>; Appian:BCiv_5'59;(↓)  +DioCass_48.28'2-3.
18 ROM ?? Lepidus opposes the recall of Q.Lucretius Vespillo, who was named in the proscriptions.
19 ?? An anecdote about Lepidus, who is kept awake by the singing of birds.
20 AFR Octavianus allows Lepidus to take control of the African provinces.
* Read Dio's account
Appian:BCiv_5'12, '53;(↓)  +DioCass_48.20'4, 23'5; { MRR_2'248.}
21 ASI Labienus overruns Roman territory as far as Asia Minor.
* Read Dio's account
THI_7, 9'9-10; Sherk_91.B'1-7;B  IAph_8.30'5-7, 31'4-7, 32'3; Strab_12'574,(8.9)  14'659-660;(2.24)  Tac:Ann_3'62; Plut:Ant_30'2; Appian:BCiv_5'65, :Syr_51;(↓)  +DioCass_48.26'3-5.
22 PAL Antigonus kills Phasael, the brother of Herodes, and mutilates Hyrcanus.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'269-273, '433, :AJ_14'365-369, 15'13, '181, 17'257, 20'248; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'7; !Hieron:Chron_1983.
23 ITA {? September} Antonius is reconciled with Octavianus at Brundisium, and agrees to marry his sister Octavia.
* Read Appian's account
@  (?) CIL_10.5159; [Liv]:Per_127; Vell_2.76'3, 86'3; Plut:Ant_30'6-31'4; Tac:Ann_1'10; Appian:BCiv_5'59-65; +DioCass_48.28'4-30'3, 37'2-3, 50.26'1; { CAH_10'17; OCD_a.}
24 EGY Herodes escapes to Alexandria.
Joseph:BJ_1'274-279, :AJ_14'370-376; { OCD_h.}
25 SAR Menas, an admiral of Sextus Pompeius, makes more raids on Italy, and occupies Sardinia.
* Read Dio's account
Appian:BCiv_5'56; +DioCass_48.30'4-31'1, 49.18'2-3; { OCD_m.}
26 ROM Work commences on a new aqueduct at Rome, the Aqua Julia.
+DioCass_48.32'3; { It appears that the aqueduct was not completed until 33 B.C.}
27 {October} The consuls celebrate a festival, to commemorate the defeat of Caesar's assassins.
28 Antonius and Octavianus go to Rome, where they are awarded ovations.
* Read Appian's account
+FastTr_p109; Aug:ResGest_4; Plut:Ant_31'5; Suet:Aug_22'1; Appian:BCiv_5'60.
29 Sextus Pompeius causes famine at Rome by his control of the sea, and the people riot against the triumvirs.
Appian:BCiv_5'67-68; +DioCass_48.31'4-6; { CAH_10'19.}
30 The triumvirs appoint new magistrates, including Balbus as suffect consul.
Vell_2.51'3; +DioCass_48.32'1-3.
31 Salvidienus Rufus is killed, after being accused of plotting against Octavianus.
* Read Appian's account
[Liv]:Per_127; Vell_2.76'4; Suet:Aug_66'1-2; Appian:BCiv_5'66; +DioCass_48.33'1-3; { CAH_10'19.}
32 Herodes goes to Rome, where Antonius and Octavianus formally recognise him as king of Judaea.
* Read Josephus' account
Strab_16'765;(2.46)  Joseph:BJ_1'280-285, '388, '665, :AJ_14'377-389, '446, 17'191; Euseb:HistEc_1.6'7; Hieron:Chron_1983; Movses_2'19; ChronPasc_464'D-465'A; { CAH_10'20; his was sometimes reckoned as the start of Herodes' reign.}
33 == The birth of a baby, said by Vergilius to usher in a new era of peace and prosperity.
Verg:Ecl_4'4-63; (?) Hor:Epod_16'41-66; { CAH_10'19; Syme_p218-220; there are many different theories about the identity of the baby.}
34 == The enactment of the Lex Falcidia, a law on inheritance.
Gaius:Inst_2'227, '254; +DioCass_48.33'5; !Hieron:Chron_1975; Justin:Dig_31.1.87'4, 33.1.4'12-13, 35.2'1-96, 35.3'1-9, 36.1.17'9, 36.1.57'2-3; Suda_Phi'53.
35 << Document: Sall:Jug_, the account by Sallustius of the war against Jugurtha. { OCD_s; his Catilinae Coniuratio was probably written shortly before this.}
36 ?? Sextius, a Roman philosopher, almost drowns himself in the river Tiber out of despair.
Sen:Dial_5'36; Plut:Mor_77'D-E.(5) 
37 AEG ?? Theophanes of Mytilene is awarded divine honours after his death.
Syll_753; Tac:Ann_6'18.
37a ASI << Document: Syll_766, a statue of the citharode Anaxenor at Magnesia.
38 GLT ?? Deiotarus is eager to have sons, but then kills most of them.
Plut:Mor_258'D,(21)  1049'c.(32) 
39 GLT << The death of Deiotarus, king of Galatia.
Strab_12'547,(3.13)  '567;(5.1-2)  ~DioCass_48.33'5; { CAH_10'995; OCD_d.}
40 SYR ?? Document: OGIS_383, the Law of Antiochus I of Commagene on Mount Nemrud.

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