44 B.C. Olympiad 184.1

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (V), M.Antonius M.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Leucius
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene (II)

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The events of this year have been split into two parts.

    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} M.Antonius speaks in the senate against the appointment of Dolabella as suffect consul.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Phil_2'79-81, '83, '99; Plut:Ant_11'2.
2 AFR << Caesar plans to found a Roman colony on the site of Carthage.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_17'833;(3.15)  Plin:HN_5'25;L  Plut:Caes_57'8; Appian:Pun_136; Paus_2.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; { CAH_9'446; Caesar probably did not do much more than propose the colony before he died.}
3 PEL << Caesar founds a Roman colony on the site of Corinth.
* Read Dio's account
Diod_32.27'1, '3; Strab_8'379,(6.21)  '381-382,(6.23)  17'833;(3.15)  Mela_2'48; Plin:HN_4'10;L  Plut:Caes_57'8; Paus_2.1'2, 3'1, '7, 5.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; Julian:Ep_28.409'D; { OCD_c.}
4 NAR << Other colonies founded by Caesar, at Forum Julii, Heracleia Pontica, Ilium, Novum Comum, Sinope and in Sicily.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_5'213,(1.6)  6'272,(2.4)  12'542,(3.6)  '546,(3.11)  13'593,(1.26)  '594-595;(1.27)  Plin:HN_3'35;L  Mela_2'77.
5 BAE Document: ARS_114 & CIL_add.2, 'Lex Ursonensis' - the charter of the colony of Urso in Spain. { CAH_9'445; probably compiled before the death of Caesar, but published later by Antonius.}
6 SPA Caesar sends Asinius Pollio to command his forces against Sextus Pompeius in Spain.
Appian:BCiv_4'84; { OCD_p.}
7 ROM Caesar extends the pomerium of the city of Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_13.20'1, 35'1; Gell_13.14'4; +DioCass_43.50'1, 44.49'2.
8 Caesar recalls C.Antonius and other exiles.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_10'455;(2.13)  +Appian:BCiv_2'107;(↓)  +DioCass_43.50'1-2.
9 Caesar restores the statues of Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
Vell_2.61'3; Plut:Caes_57'6, :Cic_40'4, :Mor_91'A, 205'E; Suet:Caes_75'4; Polyaen_8.23'3; +DioCass_43.49'1-2.
10 The month of Quintilis is rename July, in honour of Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.1'1; Plut:Num_19'6; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.5'2, 45.7'2; Censor:DN_22'16; Hieron:Chron_1973; Macrob:Sat_1.12'34.L 
11 The senate grants further extravagant honours to Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_2'110; NicDam_130'67; Plut:Caes_57'2-4; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.3'1-7'3.
12 Caesar fails to stand for a delegation from the senate.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'78-79; Plut:Caes_60'4-8; Appian:BCiv_2'107; Suet:Caes_78'1; +DioCass_44.8'1-4; Eutrop_6.25'1.
13 {26 January} Some of the crowd acclaim Caesar as king during a procession from the Alban Mount, but he rejects the title.
* Read Plutarch's account
#FastTr_p108; Plut:Caes_60'1-3; Suet:Caes_79'2; +DioCass_44.9'1, 10'1; { CAH_9'463.}
14 Caesar deposes the tribunes Marullus and Flavus, after they remove a diadem from his statue on the rostra.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'31; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'69-70; Vell_2.68'4-5; ValMax_5.7'2;L  Plut:Brut_9'8, 12'4, :Caes_61'8-10; Suet:Caes_79'1, 80'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'108, 4'93; +DioCass_44.9'2-10'4; { CAH_9'464.}
15 {January} Document: Cic:Fam_7.30 & 13.50, letters from Cicero to Curius and Acilius.
16 Caesar rejects suggestions that he should have a bodyguard.
* Read Plutarch's account
NicDam_130'80; Vell_2.57'1; Plut:Caes_57'7-8; Suet:Caes_86'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; +DioCass_44.7'4.
17 {9 February} Caesar and the senate pass a decree confirming their friendly relations with the Jews.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:AJ_14'211-212, #'222.
18 Caesar is appointed dictator for life (dictator perpetuus).
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_116; Joseph:AJ_14'211; Plut:Caes_57'1; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106; Gell_19.8'3; +DioCass_44.8'4, 46.17'5; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10;L  Zonar_7'13;(p109)  { CAH_9'463; OCD_c.}
19 {15 February} Antonius offers a diadem to Caesar at the festival of Lupercalia, but the crowd voice strong disapproval.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_2'84-87, 3'12, 5'38, 13'17; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'71-75; Vell_2.56'4; Plut:Caes_61'1-7, :Ant_12'1-4; Suet:Caes_79'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; DioCass_44.11'1-3, 45.30'1-32'4, 34'1-2, 46.5'1-3, 17'1-8, 19'1-8; +Cassiod:Chr_710; { CAH_9'464; OCD_l.}
20 Caesar allows Marullus and Flavus to return from exile, at the request of the praetor Cinna.
21 Caesar appoints the magistrates for the next two years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'24; NicDam_130'77; Plut:Caes_58'1; +DioCass_43.51'3-9; Eutrop_6.25'1.
22 Caesar appoints Octavianus to become magister equitum, when Lepidus leaves Rome.
* Read Dio's account
FastCap_p78; Plin:HN_7'147;L  +Appian:BCiv_3'9; +DioCass_43.51'7; { CAH_9'466; OCD_c.}
23 C.Cassius persuades M.Brutus to join him in a conspiracy against Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_2'26; Sen:Ben_2.20'1-3; Plut:Brut_7'6-10'7, 29'7, 54'3, 56'11, 57'3-6, :Caes_62'1-10, :Mor_206'E; Suet:Caes_80'1-3; Flor_2.13'92-93; +Appian:BCiv_2'111-113; +DioCass_44.11'4-13'1, 14'2, 45.41'1-2.
24 Brutus and Cassius bring together many other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_2'27; Vell_2.56'3; NicDam_130'59-66, '80-81; Sen:Ep_83'12; Plut:Cic_42'1; :Brut_11'1-12'7, :Ant_13'1-2; Suet:Caes_80'4, :Gal_3'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'113-114;(↓)  +DioCass_44.14'3-15'4; Eutrop_6.25'1; August:DeCiv_3'30.(↓) 
25 {February} Document: Cic:Fam_7.31, a letter from Cicero to Curius.
26 Antonius blocks Dolabella's election as consul.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:Phil_2'82-84; FastCap_p78; { OCD_d.}
27 Porcia stabs herself to prove her loyalty to her husband Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_3.2'15;L  Plut:Brut_13'1-11; Polyaen_8.32'1; +DioCass_44.13'1-14'1.
28 GRE << The end of a period of 14 successive leaders of the Epicurean school of philosophy at Athens.
~Suda_E'2404; { According to N.W.De Witt, Epicurus and his Philosophy pp.331-2, the school continued in a diminished form until at least the 2nd century A.D.}
28a EGY {8 Phamenoth -E = 9 March} Document: OGIS_184, an obeisance to Isis performed by the strategus Ptolemaeus.
29 ROM Rumours about Caesar's future plans, including a long expedition to the east.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Div_2'110, :Phil_5'7; NicDam_130'68; Strab_7'298;(3.5)  Plut:Caes_58'4-10; Suet:Caes_44'3, 79'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'110; +DioCass_43.51'1-2.
30 Omens foretell the death of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Div_1'119, 2'36-37; Ovid:Met_15'761-798; Liv_fr'47;L  Vell_2.57'2-3; Plin:HN_2'98;L  Plut:Caes_63'1-4; Suet:Caes_81'1-3; +DioCass_44.17'1-3; Obseq_67; Hieron:Chron_1973.
31 ?? Stratagems employed by Caesar during his wars.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_65'1-67'2; Polyaen_8.23'17-22.
32 ?? Various sayings of Caesar, including a comment on the dictatorship of Sulla.
* Read Polyaenus' account
Quint_6.3'38, '91; Frontin:Str_4.7'1; Suet:Caes_77'1, 78'2; Polyaen_8.23'32-33; [Vict]:Epit_1'14.L 
33 ++ L. Caecilius, Cratippus, Pompeius Trogus, Q.Sextius and Theopompus are associates of Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_14'656;(2.15)  Sen:Ep_98'13; Plut:Cic_24'5-6; Just_43.5'12; Macrob:Sat_2.6'5.L 
34 ++ General comments on the brilliant and ambitious character of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Off_1'26, 3'82-85, :Fam_11.28'2, :Phil_2'116-117; Ovid:Met_15'746-759; Sen:Ep_94'65, :Ben_5.16'5, :Dial_5.30'4; Plin:HN_7'91-94,L  28'21;L  Plut:Brut_55'2, :Caes_3'2-3, 15'1-17'11; Suet:Caes_45'1-75'5; Appian:BCiv_2'149-154, 4'91-92; Julian:Caes_321'B-C, 331'C-332'B.
35 {14 March} While dining at the house of Lepidus, Caesar remarks that the best kind of death is a sudden one.
* Read Suetonius' account
Plut:Caes_63'7, :Mor_206'F; #Suet:Caes_87'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'115.
36 {15 March} Julius Caesar is murdered in the senate-house by Brutus, Cassius and the other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Div_2'23, :Phil_2'28-29, '88-89, 13'22, :AdBrut_23'4;(1.15)  [Liv]:Per_116; Ovid:Met_15'799-851, :Fast_3'697-707; NicDam_130'66, '82-97; Vell_2.58'1-2, 87'3; ValMax_1.6'13,L  7'2,L  4.5'6,L  8.11'2;L  Sen:Dial_5.30'4-5; Plut:Brut_14'1-18'8, :Caes_63'5-6, 63'8-67'6, :Ant_13'2-14'1; Joseph:BJ_1'218; Suet:Caes_81'4-82'4; Flor_2.13'94-95, 17'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'115-120, '149, '153, 3'34, 4'8;(↓)  +DioCass_44.16'1-21'4, 22'2, 46.22'3-4, 47.49'4; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10,L  83'6;L  Hieron:Chron_1973; Oros_6.17'1-2;L  { CAH_9'468.}
37 {16 March} M.Brutus makes a speech in defence of the conspirators, who send envoys to negotiate with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.1a'2; NicDam_130'49, '98-105; Plut:Brut_18'9-14, :Caes_67'4-7, :Ant_14'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'121-125, 3'2,(↓)  '7, '54; +DioCass_44.21'3-22'2; { CAH_9'469.}
38 {17 March} The senate votes for an amnesty, and Brutus and Cassius make a show of reconciliation with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, 14'2; :Phil_1'1-2, '31-32, 2'89-90; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'50, '106; Vell_2.58'2-4; Plut:Cic_42'2, :Brut_19'1-3, :Caes_67'8-9, :Ant_14'2-4; Suet:Tib_4'1; Flor_2.17'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_2'126-142, 3'15, '34-35, 4'94; +DioCass_44.22'3-34'7; { For a perceptive account of the rest of this year, see Syme_p97-162.}
39 {18 March} The senate authorises the publication of the full details of Caesar's will.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.59'1; Plut:Brut_19'4-5; Suet:Caes_83'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'136, '143; +DioCass_44.35'1-3.
40 {20 March} Caesar's funeral is followed by violent disturbances in the city of Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Phil_2'90-91; [Liv]:Per_116; Vell_2.59'1; ValMax_9.9'1;L  Quint_6.1'31; Plut:Cic_42'4, :Brut_20'1-11, :Caes_68'1-6; :Ant_14'3-4; Suet:Caes_84'1-85'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'142-148, 3'15,(↓)  '19, '35; +DioCass_44.35'1-50'4, 45.23'4; Oros_6.17'3;L  { CAH_9'470.}
41 ETR {20 March} The birth of Lucius, the elder brother of the poet Ovidius.
#Ovid:Tr_4.10'9-14; { exactly a year before the birth of Ovid (OCD_o).}
42 ROM C.Casca makes a public statement, denying that he took part in Caesar's murder.
43 {? 22 March} Document: Cic:Fam_11.1, a letter from D.Brutus to M.Brutus and Cassius.
44 ILL Octavianus decides to return from Apollonia to Italy.
* Read Nicolaus' account
NicDam_130'38-48; Vell_2.59'5; Plut:Brut_22'1-3; +Appian:BCiv_3'9-10; +DioCass_45.3'1; { OCD_augustus.}
45 ITA Octavianus arrives at Brundisium, and takes on the name of Caesar.
* Read Nicolaus' account
[Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'51-57; Vell_2.60'1-2; Plut:Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_7'2; +Appian:BCiv_3'11; +DioCass_45.3'2-4'3; Obseq_68; [Vict]:Epit_1'2;L  Oros_6.18'1.L 
46 ROM Antonius implements, and allegedly falsifies, written proposals left by Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.12'1, 13'6, 16.16b'8-9, :Fam_12.1'1, :Phil_1'16-26, 2'35, '93-97, '100, 3'30, 5'11-12; Vell_2.60'4; Plut:Ant_15'1-3; Suet:Aug_35'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'5; +DioCass_44.53'1-5, 45.23'5-24'1, 47'3-4, 46.23'1-4; { CAH_9'473.}
47 Antonius seizes all of Caesar's money from the temple of Ops.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'5, 18'1, :Phil_2'35, '93, 3'30; [Cic]:AdOct_3.L 
48 {? March} Document: Cic:Fam_6.16, a letter from Pompeius Bithynicus to Cicero.
49 Brutus and Cassius leave the city of Rome, but stay in Latium.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_1'6; Plut:Brut_21'1-2, :Caes_68'7; Suet:Aug_10'1; { CAH_9'470.}
50 The provinces are redistributed: Syria is assigned to Dolabella, Macedonia to Antonius, Crete to Brutus, and Cyrenaica to Cassius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.4'4, 9'3, 15.5'2, :Phil_2'31; +Appian:BCiv_3'7-8, '16, '36, '55, 4'57;(↓)  { CAH_9'471.}
51 ETR Octavianus travels across Italy to Tarracina in Latium.
52 ROM Antonius passes a law to ban the creation of dictators.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'3-4, '32, 2'91, '115, 5'10; [Cic]:AdOct_3;L  { CAH_9'473.}
54 Lepidus is appointed to be pontifex maximus, in place of Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_117; Vell_2.63'1; +DioCass_44.53'6-7; { CAH_9'471; OCD_l.}
55 Octavianus arrives in Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.5'3; Vell_2.59'6; Plut:Cic_43'6, :Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_8'2, 95'1; Plin:HN_2'98;L  +Appian:BCiv_3'13-14; +DioCass_45.4'4-5'2; Obseq_68; Oros_6.20'5.L 
56 Octavianus meets Antonius, but fails to gain his support.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'107; Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'1-4, :Mor_206'F-207'A; Flor_2.15'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_3'14-21; +DioCass_45.5'3-4.
57 {11 April} The senate formally ratifies its previous decree in favour of the Jews.
58 Amatius (or Herophilus), the "false Marius", is put to death by Antonius, after setting up an altar to Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.6'1, 8'1, :Phil_1'5; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_128'31-35; ValMax_9.15'1;L  +Appian:BCiv_3'2-4, '16, '36, '57; +DioCass_44.51'1-3; { CAH_9'470.}
59 Document: Cic:Div_, Cicero's treatise "De Divinatione".
Cic:Div_2'6; { OCD_c.}
60 EGY Cleopatra leaves Rome and returns to Egypt.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.8'1, 20'2, 15.15'2; { CAH_9'471; Hölbl_p239.}
60a Antonius gives control of the island of Cyprus to Cleopatra and Arsinoē.
Strab_14'685;(6.6)  DioCass_42.35'5-6; { It is uncertain exactly when Cleopatra gained control of Cyprus: see Bennett.}
61 SPA Sex.Pompeius defeats Asinius Pollio.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_15.20'3, 22'1, 16.4'1-2; Vell_2.73'2; +DioCass_45.10'1-4.
62 CIS Decimus Brutus takes command of the army in his province of Cisalpine Gaul.
63 ROM Antonius recalls Sex.Cloelius and other exiles.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.13'6, 13a'2, 13b'3, 14'2, 19'2, :Phil_1'3, 2'9-10, '98-99, 3'30.
64 Dolabella pulls down an altar and column, which had been erected in honour of Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.15'1, 16'2, 17a'3, '8, 19'5, :Fam_11.2'2, 12.1'1, :Phil_1'5, '30, '107.
65 Atticus refuses to donate to a fund in support of Brutus and Cassius.
66 {April} Document: Cic:Att_14.1-14, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
67 ITA Antonius visits Campania, and allocates land to veterans.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_2'43, '100-107, 3'22, 8'25-26, 11'12; DioCass_45.30'2, 46.8'2; { CAH_9'473.}
68 ROM {3 May} Document: Cic:Fam_9.14 & 12.1, letters from Cicero to Dolabella and Cassius.
69 Octavianus raises money and pays 300 sesterces to every Roman citizen, according to the terms of Caesar's will.
* Read Plutarch's account
Aug:ResGest_15; Plut:Ant_16'2.
70 Many lawsuits are brought before the consuls for recovery of property from Octavianus, as the heir of Caesar.

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