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44 B.C. Olympiad 184.1


Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (V), M.Antonius M.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Leucius
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene (II)

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The events of this year have been split into two parts.


    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} M.Antonius speaks in the senate against the appointment of Dolabella as suffect consul.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Phil_2'79-81, '83, '99; Plut:Ant_11'2.
2 AFR << Caesar plans to found a Roman colony on the site of Carthage.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_17'833;(3.15)  Plin:HN_5'25;L  Plut:Caes_57'8; Appian:Pun_136; Paus_2.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; { CAH_9'446; Caesar probably did not do much more than propose the colony before he died.}
3 PEL << Caesar founds a Roman colony on the site of Corinth.
* Read Dio's account
Diod_32.27'1, '3; Strab_8'379,(6.21)  '381-382,(6.23)  17'833;(3.15)  Mela_2'48; Plin:HN_4'10;L  Plut:Caes_57'8; Paus_2.1'2, 3'1, '7, 5.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; Julian:Ep_28.409'D; { OCD_c.}
4 NAR << Other colonies founded by Caesar, at Forum Julii, Heracleia Pontica, Ilium, Novum Comum, Sinope and in Sicily.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_5'213,(1.6)  6'272,(2.4)  12'542,(3.6)  '546,(3.11)  13'593,(1.26)  '594-595;(1.27)  Plin:HN_3'35;L  Mela_2'77.
5 BAE Document: ARS_114 & CIL_add.2, 'Lex Ursonensis' - the charter of the colony of Urso in Spain. { CAH_9'445; probably compiled before the death of Caesar, but published later by Antonius.}
6 SPA Caesar sends Asinius Pollio to command his forces against Sextus Pompeius in Spain.
Appian:BCiv_4'84; { OCD_p.}
7 ROM Caesar extends the pomerium of the city of Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_13.20'1, 35'1; Gell_13.14'4; +DioCass_43.50'1, 44.49'2.
8 Caesar recalls C.Antonius and other exiles.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_10'455;(2.13)  +Appian:BCiv_2'107;(↓)  +DioCass_43.50'1-2.
9 Caesar restores the statues of Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
Vell_2.61'3; Plut:Caes_57'6, :Cic_40'4, :Mor_91'A, 205'E; Suet:Caes_75'4; Polyaen_8.23'3; +DioCass_43.49'1-2.
10 The month of Quintilis is rename July, in honour of Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.1'1; Plut:Num_19'6; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.5'2, 45.7'2; Censor:DN_22'16; Hieron:Chron_1973; Macrob:Sat_1.12'34.L 
11 The senate grants further extravagant honours to Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_2'110; NicDam_130'67; Plut:Caes_57'2-4; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.3'1-7'3.
12 Caesar fails to stand for a delegation from the senate.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'78-79; Plut:Caes_60'4-8; Appian:BCiv_2'107; Suet:Caes_78'1; +DioCass_44.8'1-4; Eutrop_6.25'1.
13 {26 January} Some of the crowd acclaim Caesar as king during a procession from the Alban Mount, but he rejects the title.
* Read Plutarch's account
#FastTr_p108; Plut:Caes_60'1-3; Suet:Caes_79'2; +DioCass_44.9'1, 10'1; { CAH_9'463.}
14 Caesar deposes the tribunes Marullus and Flavus, after they remove a diadem from his statue on the rostra.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'31; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'69-70; Vell_2.68'4-5; ValMax_5.7'2;L  Plut:Brut_9'8, 12'4, :Caes_61'8-10; Suet:Caes_79'1, 80'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'108, 4'93; +DioCass_44.9'2-10'4; { CAH_9'464.}
15 {January} Document: Cic:Fam_7.30 & 13.50, letters from Cicero to Curius and Acilius.
16 Caesar rejects suggestions that he should have a bodyguard.
* Read Plutarch's account
NicDam_130'80; Vell_2.57'1; Plut:Caes_57'7-8; Suet:Caes_86'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; +DioCass_44.7'4.
17 {9 February} Caesar and the senate pass a decree confirming their friendly relations with the Jews.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:AJ_14'211-212, #'222.
18 Caesar is appointed dictator for life (dictator perpetuus).
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_116; Joseph:AJ_14'211; Plut:Caes_57'1; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106; Gell_19.8'3; +DioCass_44.8'4, 46.17'5; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10;L  Zonar_7'13;(p109)  { CAH_9'463; OCD_c.}
19 {15 February} Antonius offers a diadem to Caesar at the festival of Lupercalia, but the crowd voice strong disapproval.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_2'84-87, 3'12, 5'38, 13'17; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'71-75; Vell_2.56'4; Plut:Caes_61'1-7, :Ant_12'1-4; Suet:Caes_79'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; DioCass_44.11'1-3, 45.30'1-32'4, 34'1-2, 46.5'1-3, 17'1-8, 19'1-8; +Cassiod:Chr_710; { CAH_9'464; OCD_l.}
20 Caesar allows Marullus and Flavus to return from exile, at the request of the praetor Cinna.
NicDam_130'76.
21 Caesar appoints the magistrates for the next two years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'24; NicDam_130'77; Plut:Caes_58'1; +DioCass_43.51'3-9; Eutrop_6.25'1.
22 Caesar appoints Octavianus to become magister equitum, when Lepidus leaves Rome.
* Read Dio's account
FastCap_p78; Plin:HN_7'147;L  +Appian:BCiv_3'9; +DioCass_43.51'7; { CAH_9'466; OCD_c.}
23 C.Cassius persuades M.Brutus to join him in a conspiracy against Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_2'26; Sen:Ben_2.20'1-3; Plut:Brut_7'6-10'7, 29'7, 54'3, 56'11, 57'3-6, :Caes_62'1-10, :Mor_206'E; Suet:Caes_80'1-3; Flor_2.13'92-93; +Appian:BCiv_2'111-113; +DioCass_44.11'4-13'1, 14'2, 45.41'1-2.
24 Brutus and Cassius bring together many other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_2'27; Vell_2.56'3; NicDam_130'59-66, '80-81; Sen:Ep_83'12; Plut:Cic_42'1; :Brut_11'1-12'7, :Ant_13'1-2; Suet:Caes_80'4, :Gal_3'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'113-114;(↓)  +DioCass_44.14'3-15'4; Eutrop_6.25'1; August:DeCiv_3'30.(↓) 
25 {February} Document: Cic:Fam_7.31, a letter from Cicero to Curius.
26 Antonius blocks Dolabella's election as consul.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:Phil_2'82-84; FastCap_p78; { OCD_d.}
27 Porcia stabs herself to prove her loyalty to her husband Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_3.2'15;L  Plut:Brut_13'1-11; Polyaen_8.32'1; +DioCass_44.13'1-14'1.
28 GRE << The end of a period of 14 successive leaders of the Epicurean school of philosophy at Athens.
~Suda_E'2404; { According to N.W.De Witt, Epicurus and his Philosophy pp.331-2, the school continued in a diminished form until at least the 2nd century A.D.}
28a EGY {8 Phamenoth -E = 9 March} Document: OGIS_184, an obeisance to Isis performed by the strategus Ptolemaeus.
29 ROM Rumours about Caesar's future plans, including a long expedition to the east.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Div_2'110, :Phil_5'7; NicDam_130'68; Strab_7'298;(3.5)  Plut:Caes_58'4-10; Suet:Caes_44'3, 79'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'110; +DioCass_43.51'1-2.
30 Omens foretell the death of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Div_1'119, 2'36-37; Ovid:Met_15'761-798; Liv_fr'47;L  Vell_2.57'2-3; Plin:HN_2'98;L  Plut:Caes_63'1-4; Suet:Caes_81'1-3; +DioCass_44.17'1-3; Obseq_67; Hieron:Chron_1973.
31 ?? Stratagems employed by Caesar during his wars.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_65'1-67'2; Polyaen_8.23'17-22.
32 ?? Various sayings of Caesar, including a comment on the dictatorship of Sulla.
* Read Polyaenus' account
Quint_6.3'38, '91; Frontin:Str_4.7'1; Suet:Caes_77'1, 78'2; Polyaen_8.23'32-33; [Vict]:Epit_1'14.L 
33 ++ L. Caecilius, Cratippus, Pompeius Trogus, Q.Sextius and Theopompus are associates of Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_14'656;(2.15)  Sen:Ep_98'13; Plut:Cic_24'5-6; Just_43.5'12; Macrob:Sat_2.6'5.L 
34 ++ General comments on the brilliant and ambitious character of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Off_1'26, 3'82-85, :Fam_11.28'2, :Phil_2'116-117; Ovid:Met_15'746-759; Sen:Ep_94'65, :Ben_5.16'5, :Dial_5.30'4; Plin:HN_7'91-94,L  28'21;L  Plut:Brut_55'2, :Caes_3'2-3, 15'1-17'11; Suet:Caes_45'1-75'5; Appian:BCiv_2'149-154, 4'91-92; Julian:Caes_321'B-C, 331'C-332'B.
35 {14 March} While dining at the house of Lepidus, Caesar remarks that the best kind of death is a sudden one.
* Read Suetonius' account
Plut:Caes_63'7, :Mor_206'F; #Suet:Caes_87'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'115.
36 {15 March} Julius Caesar is murdered in the senate-house by Brutus, Cassius and the other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Div_2'23, :Phil_2'28-29, '88-89, 13'22, :AdBrut_23'4;(1.15)  [Liv]:Per_116; Ovid:Met_15'799-851, :Fast_3'697-707; NicDam_130'66, '82-97; Vell_2.58'1-2, 87'3; ValMax_1.6'13,L  7'2,L  4.5'6,L  8.11'2;L  Sen:Dial_5.30'4-5; Plut:Brut_14'1-18'8, :Caes_63'5-6, 63'8-67'6, :Ant_13'2-14'1; Joseph:BJ_1'218; Suet:Caes_81'4-82'4; Flor_2.13'94-95, 17'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'115-120, '149, '153, 3'34, 4'8;(↓)  +DioCass_44.16'1-21'4, 22'2, 46.22'3-4, 47.49'4; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10,L  83'6;L  Hieron:Chron_1973; Oros_6.17'1-2;L  { CAH_9'468.}
37 {16 March} M.Brutus makes a speech in defence of the conspirators, who send envoys to negotiate with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.1a'2; NicDam_130'49, '98-105; Plut:Brut_18'9-14, :Caes_67'4-7, :Ant_14'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'121-125, 3'2,(↓)  '7, '54; +DioCass_44.21'3-22'2; { CAH_9'469.}
38 {17 March} The senate votes for an amnesty, and Brutus and Cassius make a show of reconciliation with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, 14'2; :Phil_1'1-2, '31-32, 2'89-90; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'50, '106; Vell_2.58'2-4; Plut:Cic_42'2, :Brut_19'1-3, :Caes_67'8-9, :Ant_14'2-4; Suet:Tib_4'1; Flor_2.17'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_2'126-142, 3'15, '34-35, 4'94; +DioCass_44.22'3-34'7; { For a perceptive account of the rest of this year, see Syme_p97-162.}
39 {18 March} The senate authorises the publication of the full details of Caesar's will.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.59'1; Plut:Brut_19'4-5; Suet:Caes_83'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'136, '143; +DioCass_44.35'1-3.
40 {20 March} Caesar's funeral is followed by violent disturbances in the city of Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Phil_2'90-91; [Liv]:Per_116; Vell_2.59'1; ValMax_9.9'1;L  Quint_6.1'31; Plut:Cic_42'4, :Brut_20'1-11, :Caes_68'1-6; :Ant_14'3-4; Suet:Caes_84'1-85'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'142-148, 3'15,(↓)  '19, '35; +DioCass_44.35'1-50'4, 45.23'4; Oros_6.17'3;L  { CAH_9'470.}
41 ETR {20 March} The birth of Lucius, the elder brother of the poet Ovidius.
#Ovid:Tr_4.10'9-14; { exactly a year before the birth of Ovid (OCD_o).}
42 ROM C.Casca makes a public statement, denying that he took part in Caesar's murder.
+DioCass_44.52'1-3.
43 {? 22 March} Document: Cic:Fam_11.1, a letter from D.Brutus to M.Brutus and Cassius.
44 ILL Octavianus decides to return from Apollonia to Italy.
* Read Nicolaus' account
NicDam_130'38-48; Vell_2.59'5; Plut:Brut_22'1-3; +Appian:BCiv_3'9-10; +DioCass_45.3'1; { OCD_augustus.}
45 ITA Octavianus arrives at Brundisium, and takes on the name of Caesar.
* Read Nicolaus' account
[Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'51-57; Vell_2.60'1-2; Plut:Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_7'2; +Appian:BCiv_3'11; +DioCass_45.3'2-4'3; Obseq_68; [Vict]:Epit_1'2;L  Oros_6.18'1.L 
46 ROM Antonius implements, and allegedly falsifies, written proposals left by Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.12'1, 13'6, 16.16b'8-9, :Fam_12.1'1, :Phil_1'16-26, 2'35, '93-97, '100, 3'30, 5'11-12; Vell_2.60'4; Plut:Ant_15'1-3; Suet:Aug_35'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'5; +DioCass_44.53'1-5, 45.23'5-24'1, 47'3-4, 46.23'1-4; { CAH_9'473.}
47 Antonius seizes all of Caesar's money from the temple of Ops.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'5, 18'1, :Phil_2'35, '93, 3'30; [Cic]:AdOct_3.L 
48 {? March} Document: Cic:Fam_6.16, a letter from Pompeius Bithynicus to Cicero.
49 Brutus and Cassius leave the city of Rome, but stay in Latium.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_1'6; Plut:Brut_21'1-2, :Caes_68'7; Suet:Aug_10'1; { CAH_9'470.}
50 The provinces are redistributed: Syria is assigned to Dolabella, Macedonia to Antonius, Crete to Brutus, and Cyrenaica to Cassius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.4'4, 9'3, 15.5'2, :Phil_2'31; +Appian:BCiv_3'7-8, '16, '36, '55, 4'57;(↓)  { CAH_9'471.}
51 ETR Octavianus travels across Italy to Tarracina in Latium.
Appian:BCiv_3'12.
52 ROM Antonius passes a law to ban the creation of dictators.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'3-4, '32, 2'91, '115, 5'10; [Cic]:AdOct_3;L  { CAH_9'473.}
54 Lepidus is appointed to be pontifex maximus, in place of Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_117; Vell_2.63'1; +DioCass_44.53'6-7; { CAH_9'471; OCD_l.}
55 Octavianus arrives in Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.5'3; Vell_2.59'6; Plut:Cic_43'6, :Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_8'2, 95'1; Plin:HN_2'98;L  +Appian:BCiv_3'13-14; +DioCass_45.4'4-5'2; Obseq_68; Oros_6.20'5.L 
56 Octavianus meets Antonius, but fails to gain his support.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'107; Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'1-4, :Mor_206'F-207'A; Flor_2.15'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_3'14-21; +DioCass_45.5'3-4.
57 {11 April} The senate formally ratifies its previous decree in favour of the Jews.
#Joseph:AJ_14'217-222.
58 Amatius (or Herophilus), the "false Marius", is put to death by Antonius, after setting up an altar to Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.6'1, 8'1, :Phil_1'5; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_128'31-35; ValMax_9.15'1;L  +Appian:BCiv_3'2-4, '16, '36, '57; +DioCass_44.51'1-3; { CAH_9'470.}
59 Document: Cic:Div_, Cicero's treatise "De Divinatione".
Cic:Div_2'6; { OCD_c.}
60 EGY Cleopatra leaves Rome and returns to Egypt.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.8'1, 20'2, 15.15'2; { CAH_9'471; Hölbl_p239.}
60a Antonius gives control of the island of Cyprus to Cleopatra and Arsinoē.
Strab_14'685;(6.6)  DioCass_42.35'5-6; { It is uncertain exactly when Cleopatra gained control of Cyprus: see Bennett.}
61 SPA Sex.Pompeius defeats Asinius Pollio.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_15.20'3, 22'1, 16.4'1-2; Vell_2.73'2; +DioCass_45.10'1-4.
62 CIS Decimus Brutus takes command of the army in his province of Cisalpine Gaul.
Cic:Att_14.13'2.
63 ROM Antonius recalls Sex.Cloelius and other exiles.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.13'6, 13a'2, 13b'3, 14'2, 19'2, :Phil_1'3, 2'9-10, '98-99, 3'30.
64 Dolabella pulls down an altar and column, which had been erected in honour of Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.15'1, 16'2, 17a'3, '8, 19'5, :Fam_11.2'2, 12.1'1, :Phil_1'5, '30, '107.
65 Atticus refuses to donate to a fund in support of Brutus and Cassius.
Nepos:Att_8'1-4.
66 {April} Document: Cic:Att_14.1-14, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
67 ITA Antonius visits Campania, and allocates land to veterans.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_2'43, '100-107, 3'22, 8'25-26, 11'12; DioCass_45.30'2, 46.8'2; { CAH_9'473.}
68 ROM {3 May} Document: Cic:Fam_9.14 & 12.1, letters from Cicero to Dolabella and Cassius.
69 Octavianus raises money and pays 300 sesterces to every Roman citizen, according to the terms of Caesar's will.
* Read Plutarch's account
Aug:ResGest_15; Plut:Ant_16'2.
70 Many lawsuits are brought before the consuls for recovery of property from Octavianus, as the heir of Caesar.
Appian:BCiv_3'22.

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