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43 B.C. Olympiad 184.2


Consuls: C. Vibius C.f. Pansa Caetronianus , A. Hirtius A.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Polycharmus

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The events of this year have been split into two parts.


    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January} The senate meets to discuss the threat of war against Antonius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_5'1-53, 6'1, 10'3, :AdBrut_3'4;(2.3)  +Appian:BCiv_3'50; +DioCass_45.17'1, 45.17'9-46.29'1; { CAH_9'480.}
2 The senate awards special honours to Octavianus, who is given the rank of propraetor.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_11'20; [Cic]:AdOct_4;L  Aug:ResGest_1; [Liv]:Per_118; Vell_2.62'1; +Plut:Cic_45'3; Tac:Ann_1'10; Suet:Aug_10'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'51; +DioCass_46.29'2-6.
3 {4 January} The senate votes to send three envoys to convey their decisions to Antonius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_6'1-19, 7'13-14, 9'8-9, 13'20, 14'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'51-61.(↓) 
4 {7 January} Octavianus takes up the fasces for the first time.
#EhrJon:Fast_Jan7.
5 Dire omens portend the onset of civil war.
* Read Dio's account
Plin:HN_2'96;L  +DioCass_45.17'2-9, 33'1-6; +Obseq_69; (?) ChronPasc_468'B.
6 ILL << M.Brutus seizes the territory and army of P.Vatinius, the proconsul of Illyricum.
* Read Velleius' account
Cic:Phil_10'13; [Liv]:Per_118; Vell_2.69'3-4; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  :BCiv_4'75; DioCass_47.21'6; { MRR_2'220.}
7 ASI Dolabella kills Trebonius at Smyrna.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_11'1, '5, '7-9, 13'22-23, 14'8; :Fam_12.12'1, 15'4, :AdBrut_3'1;(2.3)  [Liv]:Per_119; Strab_14'646;(1.37)  Vell_2.69'1; Appian:BCiv_3'26, '61,(↓)  4'58; DioCass_47.29'2-6; Oros_6.18'6;L  { CAH_9'481; OCD_t.}
8 {24 January} Dolabella excuses the Jews in Asia from military service.
#Joseph:AJ_14'223-228.
9 ROM The death of Decimus Laberius, the writer of mimes.
+Hieron:Chron_1974; { OCD_l; 10 months after the death of Caear.}
10 Document: Cic:Phil_7, a speech of Cicero encouraging the senate to remain vigilant against Antonius.
@  (?) Cic:Phil_12'16.
11 Cicero practices declamation with Hirtius and Pansa.
Seneca:Contr_1.pr'11;L  Suet:Rhet_1.
12 CIS Antonius rejects the terms brought by the senate's envoys, and offers his own proposals.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_9'2, '6-7, '15, 12'11, 13'21, :Fam_11.8'1, 12.5'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'61-63; +DioCass_46.30'1-4, 35'3.
13 Document: Cic:Fam_10.5 & 11.8, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Decimus Brutus.
14 ROM {January} Document: Cic:Fam_9.24 & 12.24, letters from Cicero to Paetus and Cornificius.
15 {2-4 February} Document: Cic:Fam_10.28 & Cic:EpFr_4'16, letters from Cicero to Trebonius and Octavianus.
16 ++ Servius Sulpicius is an eminent Roman lawyer and orator.
* Read Quintilian's account
Quint_10.5'4; Gell_7.5'1; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'43-44.
17 The senate votes for emergency measures against Antonius after their envoys return; Sulpicius dies during the journey back.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_8'1-33; [Liv]:Per_118; Plut:Ant_17'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'63, '64, 4'58; +DioCass_46.31'1-32'4; Eutrop_7.1'1; Oros_6.18'3;L  { CAH_9480; OCD_s.}
18 Servius Sulpicius is given a public funeral.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_9'1-17; Hieron:Chron_1973; Justin:Dig_1.2.2'43.
19 Document: Cic:Phil_10, a speech of Cicero about the successes of M.Brutus in Macedonia.
20 {February} Document: Cic:Fam_12.4-5, two letters from Cicero to Cassius.
21 Taxes are reintroduced at Rome, for the first time in over 120 years.
+Plut:Aem_38'1; { Plutarch says that the taxes were intended to fund the war at Mutina.}
22 EGY {15 Mecheir -E = 14 February} Document: Inscr_201, the epitaph of the musician Kheredankh, daughter of Psherenptah.
23 ROM {23 February} Cicero is afraid to travel outside Rome on the day of the Terminalia.
#Cic:Phil_12'24.
24 ASI Dolabella avoids condemning a woman of Smyrna, who is accused of murdering her husband.
* Read Gellius' account
ValMax_8.1am'2;L  Gell_12.7'1-8; AmmMarc_29.2'19;.
25 SYR {March} C.Cassius wins over all the legions in Syria, together with four legions from Egypt.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_11'30-35, :Fam_12.11'1, 12'1-3, 14'6, :AdBrut_3'3;(2.3)  Strab_16'753;(2.10)  [Liv]:Per_120; Vell_2.69'2; Joseph:BJ_1'218-219, :AJ_14'271-272; +Appian:BCiv_3'78, 4'58-59, 5'8; DioCass_47.28'1-5; { OCD_c.}
26 CIS Pontius Aquila defeats Plancus Bursa, an officer of Antonius, at Pollentia.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_11'14, 13'27; +DioCass_46.38'3-4.
27 ROM The senate votes to send a second embassy to Antonius.
Cic:Phil_12'1-7; { CAH_9'482.}
28 {March} Document: Cic:Phil_11 & 12, two further speeches by Cicero, concerning war against Dolabella and the embassy to Antonius.
Cic:Phil_13'39, :Fam_12.7'1, :AdBrut_4'2;(2.4)  Oros_6.18'6.L 
29 GAL Plancus and Lepidus found a Roman colony at Lugdunum.
* Read Dio's account
CIL_10.6087; Sen:Ep_91'14; Tac:Hist_1'65; +DioCass_46.50'1-6; { OCD_lug.}
30 MAC Brutus defeats and captures C.Antonius near Apollonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_10'6, '9-13, 11'26, :AdBrut_3'4;(2.3)  [Liv]:Per_118; Vell_2.69'3; Plut:Brut_25'3-26'8; +Appian:BCiv_3'79, 4'75; DioCass_47.21'7-22'1; { OCD_a.}
31 SPA {16 March} Document: Cic:Fam_10.31, a letter from Pollio to Cicero, sent from Corduba.
32 ROM {20 March} Document: Cic:Phil_13, a speech of Cicero in reply to an open letter from Antonius.
Cic:Fam_10.6'1; { CAH_9'482.}
33 {20 March} Document: Cic:Fam_10.6 & 10.27, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Lepidus.
34 ETR {20 March} The poet P.Ovidius Naso is born at Sulmo.
* Read Ovid's account
Ovid:Ib_1, #:Tr_4.10'3-4, '95-96; Hieron:Chron_1975; { OCD_o.}
35 CIS Hirtius and Octavianus approach Mutina, but do not come into conflict with Antonius.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_14'4-5; [Cic]:AdOct_7;L  Plin:HN_10'110;L  Frontin:Str_3.13'7-8, 14'3-4; Flor_2.15'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_3'64-65; +DioCass_46.35'2-36'5.
36 ETR Ventidius gathers an army of veterans to come in support of Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.33'4, 34'1, 11.10'3, 13'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'66; Gell_15.4'3; { OCD_v.}
37 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_12.6-7 & 12.11, letters of Cicero to and from Cassius.
38 Document: Cic:Fam_10.7-8 & 10.10, letters of Cicero to and from Plancus.
39 {March} Document: Cic:Fam_12.25 & 12.28, two letters from Cicero to Cornificius.
40 << Document: [Caes]:BAlex_ & [Caes]:BAfr_, the accounts of Caesar's wars in Alexandria and Africa.
Suet:Caes_56'1; { The Alexandrian War may have been written by Hirtius; the African War is almost certainly by a different writer.}
41 CIS L.Antonius captures and sacks the city of Parma.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_14'8-9, :Fam_10.33'4, 11.13b'1.
42 {14 April} The battle of Forum Gallorum: M.Antonius defeats Pansa, but is then defeated by Hirtius.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_10.30'1-5, 33'3-4, :AdBrut_9'1-2,(1.3)  :Phil_14'26-28, '36-38; #EhrJon:Fast_Apr14; #Ovid:Fast_4'627-628; [Liv]:Per_119; Frontin:Str_2.5'39; Suet:Aug_10'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_3'66-70;(↓)  +DioCass_46.37'1-38'2; Oros_6.18'4;L  { CAH_9'483; OCD_p.}
43 {16 April} Octavianus is hailed as imperator for the first time; reckoned by some as the beginning of his reign.
* Read Ovid's account
[Cic]:AdOct_4; #EhrJon:Fast_Apr16; #Ovid:Fast_4'673-676; Theophil:Aut_3'27<q" Chryseros>; ClemAl:Strom_1'21;(↓↓)  Euseb:HistEc_1.5'2; [Euseb]:Chron_71, 129;(↓)  [Vict]:Epit_1'30; +Hieron:Chron_1974; Oros_1.1'6;L  ChronPasc_465'C.
44 ROM Document: Cic:AdBrut_1-5, (2.1)  letters of Cicero to and from M.Brutus.
45 {20 April} Document: Cic:Phil_14, a speech of Cicero, proposing a supplication to mark the victory over Antonius.
46 Atticus helps Fulvia, the wife of Antonius, during the fighting around Mutina.
Nepos:Att_9'1-7.
47 CIS Octavianus practices declamation during the fighting around Mutina.
Suet:Aug_84'1, :Rhet_1.
48 {21 April} In a battle near Mutina, Hirtius defeats Antonius again but is killed during the fighting.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.33'4, 11.14'3, :AdBrut_10'1,(1.3a)  18'2,(1.10)  23'8;(1.15)  Vell_2.61'4; +Plut:Cic_45'4; Tac:Ann_1'10; Suet:Aug_10'3-11'1; Flor_2.15'4-5; +Appian:BCiv_3'71; Oros_6.18'5;L  { CAH_9'483; OCD_h.}
49 The consul Pansa dies of wounds received in the battle of Forum Gallorum.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.33'4, 11.13'2, :AdBrut_10'1,(1.3a)  14'3;(1.6)  [Liv]:Per_119; Vell_2.61'4; Plut:Ant_17'2; Tac:Ann_1'10; Suet:Aug_11'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'75-76; +DioCass_46.39'1; +Obseq_69; Oros_6.18'4.L 
50 Antonius retreats from Mutina.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.11'2, 14'1, 33'4, 11.10'3-4, 11'1, 12'1-2, 13'2-3, :AdBrut_18'2;(1.10)  Vell_2.61'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'72-73; [Vict]:VirIll_85'2;L  Eutrop_7.2'1; { OCD_a.}
51 ROM The senate awards great honours to D.Brutus, following the victory at Mutina, and lesser honours to Octavianus.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_11.14'1, 20'1, :AdBrut_12'2-3,(1.4a)  23'7-9,(1.15)  25'2;(1.17)  [Liv]:Per_119; Vell_2.62'1-6; Plut:Brut_27'2; Suet:Aug_12'1; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  +:BCiv_3'4; +DioCass_46.39'2-41'5.
52 Hirtius and Pansa are given public funerals.
Cic:AdBrut_23'8;(1.15)  ValMax_5.2'10.L 
53 The senate recognises Sextus Pompeius as commander of the naval forces.
* Read Velleius' account
Vell_2.73'1-2; Appian:BCiv_4'84; DioCass_46.40'3; { CAH_9'484; MRR_2'230.}
54 {April} Document: Cic:Fam_10.9 & 10.11-12, letters of Cicero to and from Plancus.
55 Document: Cic:Fam_11.9 & 11.13b, letters from Decimus Brutus to Cicero.
56 Document: Cic:Fam_12.26-27 & 12.29, letters from Cicero to Cornificius.
57 {April} Document: Cic:AdBrut_8-10, (1.2a)  letters from Cicero to M.Brutus.
58 PAL Cassius exacts money from the Jews.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'220-222, :AJ_14'272-276, '304, '304, '304; Hieron:Chron_1973.
59 SYR {7 May} Document: Cic:Fam_12.12, a letter from Cassius to Cicero.
60 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_11.10-13, letters of Cicero to and from Decimus Brutus.
61 Document: Cic:AdBrut_11-13, (1.4) letters of Cicero to and from M.Brutus.
62 CIS Antonius continues to march towards Lepidus, and reaches Forum Julii.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_10.15'3, 17'1, 33'4, 34'1; Plut:Ant_17'3-6; Frontin:Str_1.7'5; Macrob:Sat_2.2'7.L 
63 LYC Lentulus Spinther forces the fleet of Dolabella to retreat from Lycia.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_12.13'3, 14'1-2, 15'2-6.
64 PAL Malichus murders Antipater.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'223-228, :AJ_14'277-284, 15'47; Euseb:HistEc_1.7'12; { OCD_a.}
65 CIS Octavianus enters into communication with Antonius and Lepidus.
Appian:BCiv_3'80-82.
66 ROM Document: Cic:EpFr_4'1-6'5, letters between Cicero and Octavianus.
67 Document: Cic:Fam_11.11.18-20 & 11.23, letters between Cicero and Decimus Brutus.
68 {29 May} Document: Cic:Fam_12.14-15, letters from Lentulus Spinther to Cicero and the Roman senate.
69 CIS {29 May} Antonius arrives at the camp of Lepidus, and they combine their forces.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Fam_10.23'2-3, #35'1-2, 12.10'3, :AdBrut_20'1;(1.12)  [Liv]:Per_119; Vell_2.63'1-3, 64'4; Plut:Ant_18'1-8; Suet:Aug_12'1; Flor_2.16'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'83-84; +DioCass_46.38'5-7, 51'1-52'4; Eutrop_7.2'1; { CAH_9'484; OCD_l.}
70 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_10.13-21a, letters of Cicero to and from Plancus.

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