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Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum: 39.1290


DECREE OF CAESAR CONFIRMING INVIOLABILITY OF A TEMPLE AT SARDIS


Greek text:   SEG_39.1290
Provenance:   Sardis , Lydia
Date:   44 B.C.
Tags:     inviolability
Format:   see key to translations

This decree, composed two weeks before the death of Julius Caesar, was probably forwarded in a letter to the city of Sardis by M. Antonius, but the letter was later erased from the inscription in a local act of damnatio memoriae. The translation is taken from G. Petzl, "Sardis: Greek and Latin Inscriptions", part 2, no. 305 ( PDF ). The context of the city's claim to inviolability is discussed by K.J. Rigsby, "Asylia", no. 214 ( archive.org ).



Sacred and inviolable boundary of the Sardian Artemis, which Gaius Caesar, imperator and pontifex maximus, consul for the fifth time, dictator for life, defined and expanded in Rome. Ambassadors by their own means were Lysimachos, son by adoption of Menophilos, natural son of Menophantos, and Demetrios, son by adoption of Menandros, natural son of Demetrios, 10 also called Nathes.

{ In the erased portion of the inscription (ll. 1130) there are only isolated letters visible, but the name Antonios can be read in line 11. }

30 . . . document written on a wooden tablet.

Gaius Caesar, imperator and pontifex maximus, dictator for life, has, on March 4, taken the following decision: As there is agreement that the community of Sardis has observed continuous friendship toward the Roman People and . . . retained their loyalty toward the interests of the People and the Senate [as has been demonstrated by the ambassadors] Lysimachos, son by adoption of Menophilos, natural son of Menophantos, and Demetrios 40 also called Nathes, son by adoption of Menandros, natural son of Demetrios . . . many in . . . which has been achieved for the leadership of the Romans. As reward for all this it is decided to concede to them what they had brought about: The sanctuary of the Sardian Artemis shall be inviolable by the same right as is the sanctuary of the Ephesian Artemis and the temple of Athena Nikephoros, which is recognised as refuge, . . . which are in the city (?), 50 . . . in Kolo[e ?] is within . . . the boundaries of the [territory of?] Sardis, which . . . shall be for Zeus Megistos . . . is like in . . . conceded to Apollon(?) . . . is located on Mt. Tmolos . . . and sacred Nymphaion . . . 60 Sardian . . . by the same rights by which . . . the publicani . . . pay (?) per year . . . they were indebted to the . . . conceded (?) to Sardians . . . of the . . . of the Sardians . . . and liberated from the fasces . . . [magistrates or] promagistrates, who will be . . . It has been resolved that [all that, which] 70 . . . dedicated, donated, conceded . . . be defended; and that nothing be done or permitted to take place contrary to what Gaius Caesar, imperator and pontifex maximus, dictator for life, has conceded, donated, dedicated and stipulated.


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