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44 B.C. Olympiad 184.1


Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (V), M.Antonius M.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Leucius
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene (II)

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The events of this year have been split into two parts.


    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

71 The death of Servilius Isauricus, at the age of 90 years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_16.23'2; +DioCass_45.16'1-2; Suda_A'3213<q" Aelian:Fr_110>; { OCD_s.}
72 {May} Document: Cic:Fam_11.2, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
73 {May} Document: Cic:Att_14.15-15.8 & Cic:Fam_12.16, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from Trebonius to Cicero.
74 Document: Cic:Fam_6.16 & 16.23, letters from Cicero to Bithynicus and Tiro.
75 {1 June} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then cancels it.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'4, '6, 22'2, :Fam_11.2'3, #:Phil_1'6, 2'100, #'108-109.
76 {2 June} The comitia pass a law, which transfers command of the province of Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, for a period of 5 years.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_1'19, 2'109, 5'7; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'120-122; Vell_2.60'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'27-30; +DioCass_45.9'2-3, 22'3, 25'1-2, 46.23'4-5; { CAH_9'474.}
77 M.Antonius passes an agrarian law, which appoints seven commissioners, led by his brother Lucius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_5'7-9, '20-21, 6'12-15, 7'16-17, 12'20, '23, 13'37; DioCass_45.9'1; { CAH_9'474.}
78 The consuls are authorised to make a decision about land at Buthrotum.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.12'1, 14'2-3, 19'1, 16.16a'4-6, 16b'8, 16c'11, 16d'14, 16f'18.
79 ETR {7 June} Cicero meets Brutus and Cassius at Antium, after they are offered an appointment as corn commissioners.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.9'1, 10'1, #11'1-4, 12'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'6, '35,(↓)  4'57; { CAH_9'475.}
80 Cicero declines the offer of an appointment to serve on the staff of Dolabella in Syria.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.8'1, 11'4, 20'1; Plut:Cic_43'2.
81 {June} Document: Cic:Att_15.9-25 & Cic:Fam_7.21-22, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
82 {July} Document: Cic:Fam_11.29, a letter from Cicero to Oppius.
83 {11 July} Cicero decides to travel to Greece.
#Cic:Att_16.2'4, :Phil_1'6-7.
84 ROM {13 July} C.Antonius presides over the Ludi Apollinares, on behalf of M.Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.10'1, 11'2, 26'1, 16.2'3, 4'1, 5'1, :Phil_1'36, 2'31, 10'7-8; Plut:Brut_21'3-6; +Appian:BCiv_3'23-24; DioCass_47.20'2; { CAH_9'475.}
85 Document: Cic:Att_16.16a-16f, letters from Cicero to Plancus, Capito and Cupiennius about the Buthrotum affair.
86 Brutus and Cassius issue a manifesto, stating that they wish to be excused from further public duties.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1, :Fam_11.3'3, :Phil_1'8.
87 Document: Cic:Top_, the "Topica", a rhetorical treatise by Cicero.
Cic:Top_1-4, :Fam_7.19'1; { OCD_c.}
88 EGY {27 Epeiph -E = 26 July} Document: POxy_1629, a contract between Theon and Apollonius Arbichis at Oxyrhynchus. { this document is dated to the reign of Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV.}
89 ROM Octavianus holds the Ludi Victoriae Caesaris, during which a comet appears, and is interpreted as Julius Caesar going up to heaven.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.2'3, :Fam_11.27'7, 28'6; Prop_3.18'33-34; Ovid:Met_15'848-850; Aug:Fr_12'7; NicDam_130'108-114; Plin:HN_2'93-94;L  Suet:Caes_88'1, :Aug_10'1; +DioCass_45.6'4-7'1; Obseq_68; { CAH_9'475.}
90 {July} Document: Cic:Att_15.26-16.6 & Cic:Fam_7.19-20, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
91 MOE ?? Burebistas increases the power of the Dacians, by conquering neighbouring tribes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_7'303,(3.11)  '304,(3.12)  '313;(5.2)  Trog:Prol_32; { OCD_b.}
92 NUM Sittius is defeated and killed by Arabio.
Appian:BCiv_4'54; { OCD_s.}
93 SPA Lepidus agrees the terms of a truce with Sex.Pompeius, which is ratified by the senate.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'39-41, 13'8-10; +Appian:BCiv_3'4, '36, '57, 4'84, '94, '96; +DioCass_45.9'4, 10'4<Lepidus>, 48.17'1; { OCD_p.}
94 ILL The Illyrians defeat Baebius, an officer of Vatinius.
~Appian:Ill_13; { MRR_2'220.}
95 SYR Bassus defeats Murcus, the general sent against him by Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Joseph:BJ_1'217, :AJ_14'270; Appian:BCiv_3'77,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'220.}
96 ROM {1 August} Piso criticises Antonius at a meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, '7, :Fam_12.2'1, #:Phil_1'10, '14-15, 5'19; { CAH_9'476.}
96a SIC {1 August} Cicero arrives at Syracuse.
#Cic:Phil_1'7.
97 ROM {4 August} Document: Cic:Fam_11.3, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
98 ITA Cicero decides to return home, after being driven back by contrary winds to Leucopetra, near Rhegium.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1-2, :Fam_10.1'1, 11.29'1, 12.25'3, :Phil_1'7-9; Plut:Cic_43'3; DioCass_46.3'2.
99 {17 August} M.Brutus meets Cicero at Velia.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, :Phil_1'9, :AdBrut_18'4,(1.10)  23'5.(1.15) 
100 {19 August} Document: Cic:Att_16.7, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
101 GRE Cicero orders his son to stop meeting the rhetorician Gorgias.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_16.21'1-6; Plut:Cic_24'6.
102 EGY Cleopatra kills her young brother, Ptolemy XIV.
Joseph:AJ_15'89, :Ap_2'58; [Euseb]:Chron_167-169;(↓)  { OCD_p; for the date, see the notes on Ptolemy XIV by Bennett .}
103 ROM {1 September} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but Cicero decides not to attend.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'11-13, #5'19; Plut:Cic_43'4-5; { CAH_9'477.}
104 {2 September} Cicero makes a speech (the "First Philippic") at another meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'1-38, 2'6-7, #5'19, :Fam_12.2'1, 20'1, 25'3-4; { OCD_c.}
105 EGY {2 September} Caesarion, the son of Cleopatra, is offically recognised as joint king of Egypt.
DioCass_47.31'5; { See the notes on Ptolemy XV by Bennett .}
106 ROM Octavianus visits Cicero and wins some support from him.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Cic_44'1, 45'1-2, :Brut_22'4-6, :Ant_16'3; +DioCass_45.15'3-4; [Vict]:VirIll_81'5.L 
107 ITA Brutus and Cassius leave Italy, without revealing their real destinations.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_12.2'3, :Phil_10'8, 11'28; Nepos:Att_8'5-6; NicDam_130'135; Plut:Brut_23'1-24'1; Flor_2.17'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'24; { CAH_9'476: OCD_b.}
108 MAC Antonius is given command of the army in Macedonia, and summons it back to Brundisium.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:BCiv_3'24-25, '37; DioCass_45.20'4, 25'1, 46.24'1-2, 25'1-3.
109 ROM Cicero offends Antonius by speaking in defence of Sicca.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.11'1, :Phil_2'3.
110 {19 September} At a meeting of the senate, Antonius rebukes Cicero in a strongly worded speech.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_10.2'1, #12.2'1, :Phil_2'1, '3, '7, '11, '17-20, '23, '28, '31, '76, #5'17-20; { CAH_9'477.}
111 Antonius prevents Octavianus from standing for election as tribune.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'31; +DioCass_45.6'1-3; { CAH_9'472.}
112 The soldiers in Rome bring about a reconciliation between Antonius and Octavianus.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'115-119; Plut:Ant_16'6; +Appian:BCiv_3'32-39; +DioCass_45.7'3-8'2.
113 {? 25 September} Document: Cic:Fam_12.2, a letter from Cicero to Cassius.
114 Octavianus is accused of plotting to murder Antonius.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'5, :Fam_12.23'2; NicDam_130'123-128; Plut:Ant_16'7-8; Suet:Aug_10'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'39; +DioCass_45.8'3-4; { CAH_9'477.}
115 Document: Cic:Fam_11.2 & 11.6, letters of Cicero to and from D.Brutus.
116 {September} Document: Cic:Fam_10.1-2 & 12.20-22, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Cornificius.
117 {9 October} Antonius leaves Rome to join the legions at Brundisium.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_15.13'2, :Fam_12.23'2, :Phil_5'22.
118 Dolabella leaves Italy in order to take over the province of Asia.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.13'5, :AdBrut_19'1;(1.11)  +Appian:BCiv_3'24; +DioCass_45.15'2, 47.21'3, 29'1; { CAH_9'477.}
119 {October} Document: Cic:Fam_12.3 & 12.23, letters from Cicero to Cassius and Cornificius.
120 Document: Cic:Fam_11.27-28, letters of Cicero to and from Matius.
121 Document: Cic:Att_15.13 & Cic:Fam_16.25, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from M.Cicero Junior to Tiro.
122 GRE Brutus arrives in Athens and begins to gather money and supporters.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_1.5'7;L  Plut:Brut_24'1-7; DioCass_47.20'4.
123 SYR Marcius Crispus, the governor of Bithynia, intervenes in Syria and besieges Bassus.
Appian:BCiv_3'77-78,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'219.}
124 ROM Document: Cic:Amic_, Cicero's treatise "De Amicitia" (On Friendship). { CAH_9'477; Cicero wrote this treatise in between "De Divinatione" and "De Officiis".}
125 Antonius condemns Cn.Seius to death.
Gell_3.9'1-4; { before or at the same time as Dolabella left Italy.}
126 Octavianus brings a large number of veterans to Rome, but they refuse to fight against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'1-2, 11'6, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3, 4'3-4, 5'3, '23, '43-46; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'130-138; Aug:ResGest_1; Vell_2.61'1-2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'40-42, '58; +DioCass_45.12'1-6, 38'3, 55.24'8; { CAH_9'478.}
127 {November} Document: Cic:Att_16.8-15 & Cic:Fam_16.24, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Tiro.
128 Document: Cic:Off_, Cicero's treatise "De Officiis" (On Duties).
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'4, 14'3; { OCD_c.}
129 ITA Two legions desert from Antonius to Octavianus, while marching from Brundisium to Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'2, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3-7, '10, 4'4-6, 5'4, '22-23, '42, '52, 12'12, 13'18; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'129, '139; Vell_2.61'2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'43-45, '52,(↓)  '56, '67;(↓)  +DioCass_45.13'1-4, 35'3, 38'5; { CAH_9'478.}
130 ROM {24 November} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then postpones it.
#Cic:Phil_3'19-20, 5'23, 13'19.
131 {28 November} Antonius holds a hurried meeting of the senate, before going to meet his troops.
#Cic:Phil_3'20-25; { CAH_9'478.}
132 Antonius formally leaves Rome, and sets off for Cisalpine Gaul.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_3'1-2, '11, '24, '31, 5'24, 13'20; +Appian:BCiv_3'46; +DioCass_45.13'5, 20'4.
133 GER Plancus founds a Roman colony at Raurica, on the river Rhine.
CIL_10.6087; { Probably after an expedition against the Rhaeti - see MRR_2'230.}
134 MAC Brutus seizes control of Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_10'24-26, 11'27; Vell_2.62'2-3; Plut:Brut_25'1-3; :Mor_694'C; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  :BCiv_5'6; DioCass_47.20'4-21'5; { CAH_9'481.}
135 CIL >> Cassius persuades the inhabitants of Cilicia, including Tarsus, to support him.
DioCass_47.26'1-2.
136 ETR Document: Cic:Phil_2, Cicero's "Second Philippic", a passionate invective against Antonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.13'1, 16.11'1-2, :Phil_2'110; Juvenal_10'120-126; { CAH_9'477.}
137 ROM {9 December} Cicero returns to Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.15'6, #:Fam_11.5'1; { CAH_9'479.}
138 Document: Cic:Fam_10.3, a letter from Cicero to Plancus.
139 Octavianus offers to use his legions to fight on behalf of the senate against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.61'3; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'47-48, '75, '87; +DioCass_45.14'1-15'3.
140 Omens precede the outbreak of civil war between Antonius, Octavianus and their enemies.
* Read Vergilius' account
Verg:Georg_1'466-488; Plin:HN_2'99;L  Obseq_68.
141 CIS Decimus Brutus refuses to surrender Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, and prepares for war.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_11.6'2, 7'3, :Phil_3'8-12, '37, 4'7, 6'8-9, 7'24; { OCD_b.}
142 ROM {20 December} Document: Cic:Phil_3 & 4, two speeches of Cicero, to the Roman senate and people.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_11.6'2-3, 12.22a'3, 25'2, :Phil_5'2-3, '28-30, 6'1-2, 10'23, 14'20; { CAH_9'479.}
143 {December} Document: Cic:Fam_11.5-7 & 12.22a, letters from Cicero to Decimus Brutus and Cornificius.
144 CIS M.Antonius enters Cisalpine Gaul, and starts to besiege Decimus Brutus at Mutina.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'24-25, 13'20; [Liv]:Per_117; Flor_2.15'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'49; Oros_6.18'3;L  { CAH_9'479.}
145 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_10.4 & 16.26-27, letters from Plancus to Cicero and from Q.Cicero to Tiro.
146 ++ As a student, the geographer Strabo is taught by Aristodemus, Tyrannion and Xenarchus.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_12'548,(3.16)  14'650,(1.48)  '670,(5.4)  16'757;(2.24)  { Strabo probably received much of his education at Rome, which he first visited in 44 B.C.}

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