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323 B.C. Olympiad 114.2


Consuls: C. Sulpicius Longus (II), Q. Aulius Cerretanus
Athenian archon: Cephisodorus

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 PER << Alexander defeats the Cossaeans.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_17.111'4-112'1; Strab_11'524;(13.6)  Plut:Alex_72'4; Polyaen_4.3'31; Arrian:Anab_7.15'1-3; { CAH_6'842.}
2 GRE << Alexander demands that the Greek states should grant him divine honours.
* Read Aelian's account
Dinarch:Or_1'94; Hyper_5'7, '31-32; Polyb_12.12b'3; Plut:Mor_187'E, 219'E, 804'B, 842'D; Arrian:Anab_7.23'2; DiogLaert_6'63; Aelian:VH_2'19, 5'12, 9'37; Athen_6.251'b; { CAH_6'874-5; OCD_a.}
3 ROM {5 March -R} The triumph of Papirius, over the Samnites.
* Read Livy's account
#FastTr_p95; Liv_8.37'1; [Vict]:VirIll_31'4.L 
4 GRE Demosthenes is found guilting of taking some of the money brought by Harpalus, and goes into exile.
* Read Dinarchus' account
Dinarch:Or_1'1-114, 2'1-26, 3'1-22; Hyper_5'1-40; Dem:Epist_2'1, '17; Diod_17.108'8; !DionHal:Amm_1'12,(↓↓)  :Din_10;(↓)  Plut:Phoc_22'4, :Dem_26'1-6, :Mor_846'C, 848'F, 850'D; Paus_1.8'2; Suda_D'456; { CAH_6'858; OCD_d.}
5 AEG Some Samians exiles return to their island, but are arrested and sent as prisoners to Athens.
IG_12.6.1.42'A; { CAH_6'858.}
6 MES Foreign embassies meet Alexander in Babylonia.
* Read Diodorus' account
+Arrian:Anab_7.15'4-6, 19'1-2; +Diod_17.113'1-4; Just_12.13'1-2; Oros_3.21'2-3,L  '8,L  6.21'19-20.L 
7 Alexander enters Babylon, despite the warnings of the Chaldaeans.
* Read Arrian's account
BabylChron_2; +Diod_17.112'1-6, 19.55'8; Seneca:Suas_4'1-5;L  Plut:Alex_73'1-74'1; Appian:BCiv_2'153; +Arrian:Anab_7.16'5-8, 17'4-18'6; Just_12.13'3-5; Oros_3.20'2-3;L  { CAH_6'843.}
8 Alexander restores the Esagila, the great temple in Babylon.
* Read Arrian's account
BabylChron_4; Strab_16'738;(1.5)  Joseph:Ap_1'192; +Arrian:Anab_7.17'1-4.
9 CYR << Thibron attacks Cyrene and forces the city to come to terms.
* Read Diodorus' account
Diod_18.19'3-5; Strab_17'837;(3.21)  { Anson_ix; after the death of Harpalus, which happened late in 324 B.C.}
10 LYC << The Pisidians kill Balacrus, their governor.
Diod_18.22'1; { This probably happened shortly before the death of Alexander.}
11 ITA The Romans agree a year's truce with the Samnites.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_8.37'1-2, 9.1'3.
12 MES Alexander explores and repairs the Pallacopas canal near the river Euphrates.
* Read Arrian's account
+Diod_17.116'5-7; Strab_16'741;(1.11)  Appian:BCiv_2'153;(↓)  +Arrian:Anab_7.21'1-22'5.
13 Peucestas brings 20,000 Persian soldiers to Babylon.
!Diod_17.110'1-3; +Arrian:Anab_7.23'1-5.
14 Alexander orders extravagant funeral rites for Hephaestion, including divine honours.
* Read Diodorus' account
+Diod_17.114'1-116'1; Plut:Alex_72'3-5; Arrian:Anab_7.14'7, +23'6-8; Lucian:Cal_17; Just_12.12'12.
15 Omens foreshadow the death of Alexander.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Diod_17.116'1-4; Plut:Alex_73'6-9; Arrian:Anab_7.24'1-3; PsCallisth_3'30.
16 Seleucus receives omens of his future royal power.
* Read Arrian's account
Appian:Syr_56; +Arrian:Anab_7.22'5; Suda_S'202.
17 ASI ?? A dolphin falls in love with a boy called Dionysius, near Iasus in Caria.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Plin:HN_9'27;L  Plut:Mor_984'E-F; Athen_13.606'c; Aelian:VH_6'15; { Pliny says that a similar story was told about another boy, called Hermias.}
18 GRE ?? The philosopher Xenocrates refuses a gift of money from Alexander.
* Read Diogenes' account
Cic:Tusc_5'91;L  Plut:Mor_181'E, :Fr_99; DiogLaert_4'8; Suda_X'42.
19 PEL ?? Philonides, the courier of Alexander, runs from Sicyon to Elis in 9 hours.
* Read Pausanias' account
Syll_303; Plin:HN_2'181,L  7'84;L  Paus_6.16'5.
20 ASI ?? Alexander attempts to dig a canal through the peninsula of Mimas, near Erythrae.
Plin:HN_5'116;L  Paus_2.1'5.
21 GRE ?? Crates, an engineer working for Alexander, attempts to clear the subterranean channels of Lake Copais.
Strab_9'407.(2.18) 
22 MES ?? Roxane is cured of an illness by a doctor called Dracon.
Suda_D'1497.
23 ?? Alexander experiments with the effects of naphtha.
Strab_16'743;(1.15)  Plut:Alex_35'5-9.
23a ++ The magician Osthanes accompanies Alexander on his expeditions.
Plin:HN_30'11.L 
24 ++ Alexander uses two official artists, the sculptor Lysippus and the painter Apelles.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_5.12'7; ValMax_8.11e'2;L  Plin:HN_35'85-86,L  '106,L  37'8;L  Plut:Mor_335'A-B, 360'D; Fronto:Ep_2'p58-60; Aelian:VH_2'3.
25 ++ The piper Timotheus arouses Alexander's martial spirit with his music.
* Read Dio's account
Sen:Dial_4.2'6; Plut:Mor_335'A; DioChrys:Or_1'1-7; Suda_A'1122, O'573; { a similar story is told about several different musicians.}
26 ?? Cities are founded by Alexander throughout his empire.
* Read ChroniconPaschale's account
Polyb_10.27'3; Plin:HN_6'96-97,L  '119,L  '138;L  Plut:Mor_328'E; PsCallisth_3'35; ExcBarb_34B; ChronPasc_420'B; StephByz_p70-72.
27 ?? Various stratagems applied by Alexander.
* Read Polyaenus' account
Frontin:Str_1.3'1, 11'4, 2.11'6; Polyaen_4.3'2, '13-14, '28; Aelian:VH_10'4.
28 ?? Sayings of Alexander, addressed to Anaxarchus, Antigenes, Antipatridas, Olympias, Onesicritus, Perillus and others.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_8.14e'2;L  Sen:Ep_53'10; Plut:Mor_65'F,(25)  85'C, 179'D-181'E, 717'F,(8.1)  760'C-D,(16)  818'B-C; Polyaen_4.3'1; Lucian:HistC_40; Athen_6.250'f-251'a; AmmMarc_14.11'22,L  25.4'15;L 
29 ?? Sayings addressed to Alexander, by Agis, Anaxarchus, Antiphanes, Dioxippus, Philiscus and others.
Cic:Rep_3'24;L  Sen:Ep_91'17; Plut:Mor_60'B-C, 737'A; Athen_6.251'a, 13.555'a; Aelian:VH_14'11; DiogLaert_9'58, '60; August:DeCiv_4'4.
30 ?? Other anecdotes about Alexander.
Hor:Epist_2.1'232-234; ValMax_7.3e'1;L  Sen:Ben_1.13'1-3; Plin:HN_6'198,L  8'44,L  9'27;L  Plut:Mor_58'E, 826'C-D, 1096'B; Polyaen_4.3'32; Athen_1.17'f, 7.276'f-277'a; Aelian:NA_10'40.
31 The final plans of Alexander for further conquests.
* Read Arrian's account
+Diod_18.4'1-6, 19.12'5; Strab_16'741,(1.11)  '785;(4.27)  Curt_10.1'17-19; Lucan_10'36-40; Plut:Mor_326'A-C; +Arrian:Anab_7.1'1-4, 16'1-4, 19'3-20'10; Oros_3.15'10;L  { CAH_6'843; OCD_a.}
32 AEG << Alexander composes a testament and deposits it on the island of Rhodes.
* Read AlexanderRomance's account
Diod_20.81'3; PsCallisth_3'32;(↓)  ExcBarb_33A-34A.
33 MES Alexander shows anger towards Cassander and Iollas, the sons of Antipater.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Alex_74'1-6, :Mor_180'F; PsCallisth_3'31.(↓) 
34 Alexander falls ill after a banquet at the house of Medius.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Diod_17.117'1-2; Sen:Ep_83'23; Plut:Alex_75'1-6, :Mor_124'C; Athen_10.434'a-b; +Arrian:Anab_7.24'4-25'1; Just_12.13'6-10; PsCallisth_3'31.(↓) 
35 According to rumours, Antipater persuades his sons to poison Alexander.
* Read Curtius' account
+Diod_17.117'5-118'2; Vitr_8.3'16; ValMax_1.7e'2;L  Curt_10.10'14-19; Plin:HN_30'149;L  Plut:Alex_77'2-5, :Mor_849'F; Paus_8.18'6; +Arrian:Anab_7.27'1-3; Just_12.4'1-9; PsCallisth_3'31.
36 The progress of Alexander's illness is recorded in his Journal ("Ephemerides").
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Alex_76'1-77'1; Arrian:Anab_7.25'1, 26'1.
37 The Macedonian soldiers go to see Alexander, while he lies dying.
* Read Arrian's account
ValMax_5.1e'1;L  Lucian:Alex_16; +Arrian:Anab_7.25'2-26'1; PsCallisth_3'32.(↓↓) 
38 {29 Aiaru -B = 29 Daesius - M = 11 June} The death of Alexander.
* Read Justin's account
#AstrDiar_322B.obv'8; MarmPar_B'8; Nepos_18.2'1-2; +Diod_17.117'3-5, 18.1'3-4; Curt_10.5'1-16; #Plut:Alex_75'6, 76'9; Arrian:Anab_7.26'2-3, 28'1; Censor:DN_21'9;L  Just_12.15'1-16'1; [Euseb]:Chron_127; FGrH_155.1'1-2; PsCallisth_3'32,(↓↓)  '35; { CAH_6'845; Errington_p13.}
39 ++ General remarks on the character and achievements of Alexander the Great.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_8.10'7-11, 9.34'2-3; Liv_9.16'19-19'17; Curt_10.5'26-37; Sen:Ep_94'62-63; Lucan_10'20-52; Silius_13'763-775;L  Plut:Alex_4'1-7, 8'1-5; :Mor_65'C-D, 326'D-345'B, 623'D-624'A; Appian:BCiv_2'149-151; Arrian:Anab_7.28'2-30'3; Lucian:DMort_12'1-7, 14'1-6; Athen_10.434'c, 12.537'd-540'a, 13.603'a-c; Aelian:VH_3'23, 9'3, 12'16; DioCass_78.7'1-4; Just_9.8'11-21, 12.16'9-11; Julian:Or_8.250'D-251'B, :Caes_321'B-C, 330'B-D; Suda_A'1121.
40 GRE ?? Sayings of Diogenes, illustrating his Cynic philosophy.
* Read Diogenes' account
Teles_12, 41; Cic:Tusc_1'104,L  5'92;L  Sen:Dial_9.8'7; :Ep_90'14; Plut:Fab_10'1, :Mor_2'A, 5'C, 21'E-F,(4)  74'C,(36)  78'D,(6)  452'D, 477'C, 632'E, 995'C-D, 1044'B, 1102'F; Lucian:PrIm_17; Gell_18.13'7-8; Tert:Apol_39'14; ClemAl:Strom_7'4;(↓)  Aelian:VH_3'29, 4'27, 9'19, '28, '34, 10'11, 12'56, '58, 13'26; DiogLaert_6'27-73, '104; Julian:Or_6.197'C.
41 ?? Other anecdotes about Diogenes.
Plut:Mor_233'A; DiogLaert_5'18-19; August:DeCiv_14'20.
42 The death of Diogenes the Cynic.
* Read Diogenes' account
Plut:Mor_107'E, +717'C; Lucian:Vit_10; Censor:DN_15'2;L  Aelian:VH_8'14; DiogLaert_6'31-32,(D.6)  +'76-79;(D.11)  Julian:Or_6.181'A; +Suda_D'1143, Ph'362; { OCD_d=324/1; traditionally supposed to have happened on the same day as the death of Alexander.}
43 ++ General remarks on the ascetic life of Diogenes.
* Read Diogenes' account
Sen:Ben_5.4'3-4; Lucian:DMort_1'1-4, 11'1-4, 24'3, 27'1-9; :Nec_18, :Vit_7-11; DiogLaert_6'74-76;(D.9-10)  Julian:Or_6.194'D-195'B, 202'C, 203'A-B, 7.211'B-D; AnthPal_7.65-68; Suda_Z'207.
44 MES Sisygambis, the mother of Dareius, starves herself to death.
* Read Curtius' account
+Diod_17.118'3; Curt_10.5'17-25; Plut:Mor_343'B; Just_13.1'1-6.
45 After violent disputes, the Macedonians agree to appoint Perdiccas to be regent, with Craterus and Antipater in supporting roles.
* Read Justin's account
Nepos_18.2'1; +Diod_18.2'1-4; Curt_10.6'1-9'21; Plut:Eum_3'1-2, :Alex_77'7-8; Appian:Syr_52; Paus_1.6'2; Arrian:Fr_1'1-4; Just_13.1'7-4'8; Phot:Bibl_82<q" Dexipp_8'1>; PsCallisth_3'32;(↓)  FGrH_155.1'1-2; { CAH_7.1'26-7; Errington_p15.}
46 Philippus Arrhidaeus becomes king of the Macedonians.
Diod_19.11'5; +AstrCan_3; Just_9.8'2; [Euseb]:Chron_159,(↓)  169,(↓)  229,(↓)  241, 245;(↓)  Hieron:Chron_1693; ExcBarb_44A; Malal_196; { OCD_p.}
47 The Macedonians discuss plans for the funeral of Alexander.
* Read Curtius' account
Diod_18.28'2; Curt_10.10'9-13; Quint_8.5'24; Lucian:DMort_13'1-5; Aelian:VH_12'64, 13'30.
48 The Macedonians appoint satraps to govern the provinces of their empire.
* Read Diodorus' account
Nepos_18.2'2-3; +Diod_18.3'1-5; Curt_10.10'1-8; Plut:Eum_3'3-5; Paus_1.9'5; Arrian:Fr_1'5-8; Just_13.4'9-25, 15.3'15; Phot:Bibl_82<q" Dexipp_8'2-7>; PsCallisth_3'33;(↓↓)  FGrH_155.1'2-3; [Euseb]:Chron_247-249;(↓)  Oros_3.23'7-13;L  ExcBarb_33A-34A; { CAH_7.1'27-8.}
49 GRE Demades, Dionysius, Phocion, Theocritus and others react to the news of the sudden death of Alexander.
* Read Plutarch's account
Poseidon_39; Memn_4'2; Plut:Phoc_22'5-6; :Galb_1'4, :Mor_181'F, 188'D, 459'E; ClemAl:Protr_10'77-78.
50 PEL Leosthenes gathers a large group of mercenaries at Taenarum.
* Read Diodorus' account
Hyper_6'10-11; +Diod_17.111'3-4, 18.9'1-5; Paus_1.25'5, 8.52'5; { OCD_l.}
51 ITA << Agathocles goes to Croton and Tarentum, but is forced to leave both cities.
Diod_19.4'1; { ~CAH_7.1'387.}
52 GRE Epicurus goes from Samos to Athens to be trained as an ephebe.
Strab_14'638;(1.18)  DiogLaert_10'1; { When he was 18 years old; he was born in 341 BC.}
53 EGY Ptolemy establishes himself as satrap of Egypt - counted as the beginning of his reign.
* Read Diodorus' account
SelPap_1.1'1, 82'1; +MarmPar_B'8; +Diod_18.14'1-2; Joseph:AJ_12'11; FGrH_255'9; [Euseb]:Chron_161, 171, 205;(↓)  Hieron:Chron_1693, 1985; ExcBarb_36B; Malal_196-197; ChronPasc_421'A; { see the detailed discussion of the exact date by Chris Bennett.}
54 MES Roxane murders Stateira, who had been her rival as wife of Alexander.
Plut:Alex_77'6.
55 ITA The Romans send armies against the Samnites and Apulians, but no battle is fought.
+Liv_8.37'3-6.
56 GRE Athens decides to start a war against Macedonia.
* Read Diodorus' account
+Diod_18.10'1-5; Plut:Phoc_23'1-4, :Mor_188'D; +Hieron:Chron_1694.
57 {11 Hecatombaeon -G = July/Aug.} Document: IG_2³.375, an Athenian decree concerning a delegation to the Nemean Games.
58 The Athenians gain the support of other Greek states as they prepare for war.
* Read Diodorus' account
@  (?) Dem:Epist_1-4; +Diod_18.11'1-5; Plut:Dem_26'7-27'1, :Mor_220'F; Paus_1.25'4, 4.28'3, 5.4'9, 7.6'5-6; Just_13.5'8; Oros_3.23'14-15.L 
59 PEL Demosthenes persuades some Peloponnesian cities to join in the war against Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Dem_27'2-4, :Cic_53'2, :Mor_846'D; Just_13.5'9-10; Oros_3.23'15.L 
60 Demosthenes saves the sons of Lycurgus from imprisonment.
* Read Demosthenes' account
Dem:Epist_3'1-28; Hyper:Fr_23; Plut:Mor_842'E; { OCD_l; Demosthenes wrote in their defence while he was in exile.}
61 Document: Dem:Epist_1-4, letters allegedly written by Demosthenes while in exile.
62 GRE The Athenians recall Demosthenes from exile.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Dem_27'4-6, :Mor_846'D; Appian:BCiv_2'16;(↓)  Paus_1.8'2; Just_13.5'11; Suda_D'456; { CAH_7.1'31=323/2.}
63 ?? Aristotle gives the name Theophrastus, "divine speech", to his pupil Tyrtamus.
Strab_13'618;(2.4)  DiogLaert_5'38.
64 Aristotle leaves Athens and goes to Chalcis; Theophrastus becomes head of the Peripatetic school.
* Read Diogenes' account
DionHal:Amm_1'5; Sen:Dial_8.8'2; Plut:Mor_850'C; Gell_13.5'1-11; ClemAl:Strom_1'14;(↓)  Aelian:VH_3'36; DiogLaert_5'5-6,(A.7)  +'10,(A.7)  '36; Suda_A'3927, P'2575; { CAH_6'631; OCD_a.}
65 MES Roxane gives birth to a son, who is called Alexander IV.
Arrian:Fr_1'9; +[Euseb]:Chron_231; { Errington_p15; OCD_a.}
66 MAC The Greek army defeats Antipater, and he retreats to Lamia.
* Read Hypereides' account
Dem:Epist_6; Hyper_6'11-18; MarmPar_B'9; +Diod_18.12'1-13'3; Plut:Phoc_23'5-7, :Tim_6'5; Paus_1.1'3, 29'13, 10.3'4; Polyaen_4.4'2-3; Arrian:Fr_1'9; Just_13.5'8; { CAH_7.1'31; Errington_p16.}
67 AFR The Carthaginians execute Hamilcar, their envoy to Alexander.
Just_21.6'7; Oros_4.6'22.L 
68 ROM == The Romans reject a proposal by M.Flavius to inflict severe punishments on the Tusculans.
+Liv_8.37'3-6.

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