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Plutarch: Lives of the Ten Orators

Pages 832 - 844

These lives are unlikely to have been written by Plutarch himself, but nevertheless they contain much unique and valuable information about the ten Athenian orators, most of whom lived in the 4th century B.C. The names of the orators are:
  Antiphon - Andocides - Lysias - Isocrates - Isaeus - Aeschines - Lycurgus - Deemosthenes - Hyppereides - Deiinarchus

Translated by H.N. Fowler (1936). The page numbers in the Greek text are shown in red. Click on the G symbols to go to the Greek text of each Life.   Click on ** to go to the translator's footnotes.

The lives sometimes date events by the name of the archon, the chief Athenian magistrate, who entered office in the middle of the summer; the equivalent years B.C. are shown in green.


 I.   ANTIPHON   G  

 [832] Antiphon was the son of Sophilus, and his deme was Rhamnus.  He was a pupil of his father (for his father was a sophist, and it is said that Alcibiades as a boy attended his school), and having acquired power in speaking - as some think, through his own natural ability - he entered upon a public career. And he set up a school and had his disagreement with Socrates on the subject of words, not in a contentious spirit, but for the sake of argument, as Xenophon has narrated in his Memoirs { Mem. i. 6 }. And he wrote some speeches for citizens who wanted them for their suits in the law-courts, being the first who practised this profession, as some say.  At any rate no legal oration is extant of any of those who lived before his time, nor of his contemporaries either, because the custom of speech-writing had not yet arisen ; there is none by Themistocles, Aristeides, or Pericles, although the times afforded them many opportunities and also occasions when such speeches were needed. And it was not for lack of ability that they refrained from such speech-writing, as is evident from what is said by the historians about each of the above-mentioned orators. Yet all those whom we are able to record as having practised this kind of speeches, going back to the earliest occurrence,  will be found to have followed Antiphon when he was already old ; I mean such as Alcibiades, Critias, Lysias, and Archinus. He was also the first to publish rules of the art of oratory, being of sharp intellect, and for this reason he was nicknamed Nestor.   

 And Caecilius, in the treatise he compiled about him, conjectures from the terms in which Antiphon is praised in the work of the historian Thucydides that he was the latter's teacher **. In his speeches he is accurate and persuasive, clever in invention, ingenious in handling perplexing cases ; he attacks unexpectedly, and he addresses his arguments to both the laws and the emotions, aiming especially at propriety.  He was born at the time of the Persian Wars and of the sophist Gorgias, who was somewhat older than he ; and his life extended until the destruction of the democracy by the Four Hundred **, in causing which he seems himself to have had a part, at one time by being trierarch of two ships, at another by being general ** and gaining many victories in battle and winning important alliances for the Four Hundred, by arming the men of military age, by manning sixty triremes, and by being on every occasion their envoy to Lacedaemon at the time when Eetioneia ** had been fortified. [833] And after the overthrow of the Four Hundred he was indicted along with Archeptolemus, one of the Four Hundred, was found guilty, subjected to the punishments prescribed for traitors, thrown out unburied, and inscribed along with his descendants in the list of the disfranchised. But some tell us that he was put to death by the Thirty, as Lysias says in his speech in defence of Antiphon's daughter ; for he had a daughter whom Callaeschrus claimed in marriage by legal process. And that he was put to death by the Thirty is told also by Theopompus in the fifteenth book of his Philippics ** ;  but that must have been another Antiphon, the son of Lysidonides, whom Cratinus also, in his play The Flask, mentions as a rascal ; for how could a man who had died previously and had been put to death by the Four Hundred be living again in the time of the Thirty ? But there is also another story of his death : that he sailed as envoy to Syracuse when the tyranny of Dionysius the First was at its height, and at a convivial gathering the question arose what bronze was the best ; then when most of the guests disagreed, he said that bronze was the best from which the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton were made ; and when Dionysius heard this, suspecting that the remark was intended to encourage an attack upon himself, he ordered that Antiphon be put to death.  But others say that he was angry because Antiphon made fun of his tragedies.   

 There are current sixty orations ascribed to this orator, twenty-five of which Caecilius says are spurious. He is ridiculed as a lover of money by Platon in his Peisander **. And he is said to have written tragedies both by himself and in collaboration with the tyrant Dionysius. But while he was still busy with poetry, he invented a method of curing distress, just as physicians have a treatment for those who are ill ; and at Corinth, fitting up a room near the agora, he wrote on the door that he could cure by words those who were in distress ;  and by asking questions and finding out the causes of their condition he consoled those in trouble. But thinking this art was unworthy of him he turned to oratory. There are some who ascribe also to Antiphon the book On Poets by Glaucus of Rhegium **. His most admired orations are the one concerning Herodes, that against Erasistratus about the peacocks, that on the Indictment, which he wrote in his own defence, and that against the general Demosthenes for moving an illegal measure. He wrote also a speech against the general Hippocrates and caused him to be convicted by default.   

Caecilius has appended a decree passed in the archonship of Theopompus **, the year in which the Four Hundred were overthrown,  according to which the senate voted the trial of Antiphon :   

 Voted by the senate on the twenty-first day of the prytany. Demonicus of Alopece was secretary, Philostratus of Pallenē was president. Andron moved in regard to the men whom the generals denounce for acting to the detriment of the State of the Athenians while serving as envoys to Lacedaemon and for sailing from the camp in a ship of the enemy and for having passed by land through Deceleia,  namely Archeptolemus, Onomacles, and Antiphon, that they be arrested and brought before the court for trial. And the generals, with those members of the senate whom they shall co-opt to the number of ten, are directed to produce them in court, that they may be present at the trial. And the Thesmothetae ** shall summon them to-morrow, and when the summonses have been returned to the court, they shall propose that the chosen prosecutors and the generals and others, if anyone so desire, shall accuse them of treason; and whomsoever the court may convict, he shall be treated in accordance with the law which has been passed relating to traitors.   

 [834] Under this enactment the judgement is written :   

 Archeptolemus, son of Hippodamus, of Agryle, and Antiphon, son of Sophilus, of Rhamnus, both being present, were found guilty of treason. The sentence passed upon them was that they be handed over to the Eleven for execution, that their belongings be confiscated and ten per cent thereof be given to the Goddess, that their houses be torn down and boundary-stones be set up on their sites with the inscription "Land of Archeptolemus and Antiphon the two traitors"; and that the two demarchs make a declaration of their property; and that it be forbidden to bury Archeptolemus and Antiphon at Athens or in any place ruled by the Athenians ; and that Archeptolemus and Antiphon be attainted, and also their descendants legitimate and illegitimate ; and that if anyone shall adopt  any descendant of Archeptolemus or Antiphon, he who so adopts shall be attainted ; and that this be inscribed on a bronze tablet, which shall be set up where the decrees relating to Phrynichus are placed.   

 II.   ANDOCIDES   G

Andocides was the son of Leogoras, son of that Andocides who once made peace between the Lacedaemonians and the Athenians **; he was as regards his deme a Cydathenian or a Thorian, and was descended from nobles, and even, according to Hellanicus **, from Hermes ;  for the race of heralds traces its origin to him. On this account, too, he was once chosen along with Glaucon to go with twenty ships to aid the Corcyraeans who were embroiled with the Corinthians. ** And after this he was accused of impiety as being one of those who mutilated the Hermae ** and as profaning the mysteries of Demeter  [because at an earlier time he was dissipated and in a nocturnal revel had broken one of the images of the god, and when he was indicted refused to surrender the slave whom his accusers were looking for, so that he gained a bad name and was suspected and accused in the second suit also, which was brought shortly after the expedition went to Sicily, when the Corinthians sent in men from Leontini and Egesta and, as the Athenians hesitated about aiding them privately, they mutilated the Hermae about the agora, as Cratippus says, and profaned the mysteries besides]. At his trial on these charges he was acquitted on condition that he should inform against the wrongdoers. He exerted himself greatly  and discovered those who were guilty of the sacrilege, among whom he informed against his own father. And he brought about the conviction and death of all the others, but saved his father, although he had already been put in prison, by promising that he would be of great service to the city. And he kept his promise ; for Leogoras caused the conviction of many men who were embezzling public funds and committing other misdeeds. And for these reasons he was acquitted of the charge.   

 But Andocides, since his reputation in public life was not good, took to merchandising and became a friend of the Cypriote kings and many other men of note, at which time he abducted a girl of Athenian birth, daughter of Aristeides and his own niece, without the knowledge of her family, and sent her as a gift to the King of Cyprus.  Then, when he was to be brought to trial for this, he stole her back again from Cyprus and was caught and put in prison by the king ; but he ran away and came back to Athens at the time when the Four Hundred were in control of affairs. He was put in prison by them, but escaped, and again, when the oligarchy was overthrown, he . . . was banished from the city after the Thirty had taken over the government. He spent the period of his exile in Elis, [835] but when Thrasybulus and his band returned **, he also returned to the city. He was sent to Lacedaemon to negotiate a peace, but was suspected of wrongdoing ** and banished. He gives information about all this in the speeches which he wrote ; for some of them he composed in his defence in the matter of the mysteries, and others when he was asking to be allowed to return home. There is also extant his speech On the Indictment, also the Defence against Phaeax and the speech On the Peace. He flourished at the same time as Socrates the philosopher ; the date of his birth was the seventy-eighth Olympiad, when Theogenides was archon ** at Athens, so that he was about ten years older ** than Lysias. The Hermes called the Hermes of Andocides is named after him. It is a dedication of the tribe Aegeis  and is called Hermes of Andocides because Andocides lived near it. He himself supplied the chorus for his tribe ** when it was competing in a dithyrambic contest, and he gained the victory, for which he set up a tripod on a high spot opposite the limestone Silenus. He is simple and free from artifice in his orations, plain and employing no figures of speech. 

 III.   LYSIAS   G  

  Lysias was the son of Cephalus, grandson of Lysanias, and great-grandson of Cephalus. His father was by birth a Syracusan but moved to Athens because he wished to live in that city and also because Pericles, son of Xanthippus, persuaded him to do so, as he was a personal friend of Pericles and they were connected by ties of hospitality, and he was a man of great wealth. But some say that he moved because he was banished from Syracuse when Gelon was tyrant. Lysias was born at Athens in the archonship of the Philocles {459-458 B.C.} who succeeded Phrasicles **, in the second year of the eightieth Olympiad, and at first he was a schoolmate of the most prominent Athenians ; but when the city sent the colony to Sybaris,  which was afterwards renamed Thurii, he went out with his eldest brother Polemarchus (for he had two others, Euthydemus and Brachyllus), their father being already dead, to share in the allotment of land **. This was in the archonship of Praxiteles {444-443 B.C.}, and he was then fifteen years old. He remained there, was instructed by the Syracusans Teisias and Nicias, acquired a house, had a share of the allotment, and was a citizen for thirty-three years, until Cleocritus was archon at Athens **. But in the next year, when Callias was archon **, in the ninety-second Olympiad,  when the misfortunes in Sicily ** had happened to the Athenians and unrest had arisen among the allies in general and especially those who dwelt in Italy, he was accused of favouring Athens and, with three hundred others, was banished. Arriving at Athens in the archonship of the Callias who succeeded Cleocritus, when the Four Hundred already had possession of the city, he remained there. But when the Battle of Aegospotami had taken place and the Thirty had taken possession of the city, he was banished after having been there seven years. He was deprived of his property and lost his brother Polemarchus,  but he himself escaped from the house in which he was kept to be executed (for it had two doors) ** and lived at Megara. But when the men at Phyle set about their return to Athens, he was seen to be more helpful than anyone else, since he supplied two thousand drachmas and two hundred shields and, when sent with Hermas, hired three hundred mercenaries and persuaded Thrasydaeus of Elis, who had become his guest-friend, to give two talents. For these services Thrasybulus, after the restoration of the exiles to the city and in the period of anarchy ** before Eucleides, proposed a grant of citizenship for him, and the popular assembly ratified the grant, but when Archinus had him up for illegality because it had not been previously voted by the senate **, [836] the enactment was declared void. And after losing his citizenship in this way, he lived the rest of his life at Athens with all the rights of citizenship except the vote and eligibility to office, and died there at the age of eighty-three years or, as some say, seventy-six or, as others say, over eighty ; and he lived to see Demosthenes as a youth. They say he was born in the archonship of Philocles.   

 Four hundred and twenty-five orations attributed to him are current. Of these Dionysius and Caecilius and their school say that two hundred and thirty-three are genuine, and he is said to have lost his case with only two of them. There is also his speech in support of the enactment against which Archinus brought suit and deprived him of citizenship,  and another against the Thirty. He was very persuasive and concise and produced most of his speeches for private clients. There are also Textbooks of Rhetoric prepared by him, and Public Addresses, Letters and Eulogies, Funeral Speeches, Love Speeches, and a Defence of Socrates addressed to the judges **. In the matter of his diction he appears to be easy, although in fact he is hard to imitate **. Demosthenes in his speech against Neaera { lix. 21 } says that he was in love with Metaneira, a fellow-slave with Neaera ; but later he married the daughter of his brother Brachyllus. Plato also mentions him in the Phaedrus { 279A }  as an able speaker and older than Isocrates. Moreover Philiscus, a pupil of Isocrates and comrade of Lysias, composed an elegiac poem to him, from which it is plain that he was earlier in years, which is indicated also by what Plato said. The verses are as follows :   
   Now, O Calliopē's daughter endowed with great eloquence Phrontis, 
   Show if thy wisdom is aught, if thou hast anything new.
   Him who is altered and changed to another form, him who in other 
   Orders and manners of life hath a new body assumed.
   Thou must bring forth some herald of virtue to celebrate : Lysis ** 
   Gone to the dead and the gloom, there an immortal to dwell ; 
   One who will show unto all the love of my soul for my comrade, 
    Show, too, the worth of the dead unto the whole of mankind. **

 He also wrote two speeches for Iphicrates, one against Harmodius, the other for use in accusing Timotheus ** of treason, with both of which he won his case ; but when Iphicrates accepted the responsibility for the actions of Timotheus, assuming at the rendering of accounts the accusation for treason, he defended himself with the speech by Lysias ; and he himself was acquitted, but Timotheus was very heavily fined. And at the Olympic festival also he read a very great oration urging that the Greeks make peace with one another and overthrow Dionysius. ** 

    IV.   ISOCRATES   G

Isocrates was the son of Theodorus of Erchia, a citizen of the middle class, an owner of slaves who made flutes, through whom he became prosperous, so that he paid for a public chorus ** and gave his children an education **(for he had other sons, Telesippus and Diomnestus, and also a daughter), and hence he is ridiculed on account of the flutes by Aristophanes and Strattis.  Isocrates was born in the eighty-sixth Olympiad, in the archonship of Lysimachus of Myrrhinus {436-435 B.C.}, being twenty-two years younger than Lysias and seven years older than Plato **. In his boyhood he was as well educated as any Athenian, for he attended the lectures of Prodicus of Ceos, Gorgias of Leontini, Teisias of Syracuse, and the orator Theramenes ; and when the last-named was in danger of being arrested by the Thirty and had fled for safety to the altar of Hestia Boulaea **, everyone else was terrified, but Isocrates alone arose to speak in his aid ; and at first he was silent for a long time, [837] then afterwards he was urged to be silent by Theramenes himself, who said that his misfortune would be more painful if any of his friends should share it. And it is said that certain rhetorical teachings of Theramenes - those which go under the name of Boton - were of use to Isocrates when he was falsely accused in the courts. But when he became a man he kept away from political affairs, since he had a weak voice and a timid disposition ** and had lost his inherited property in the war against the Lacedaemonians. It is evident that he composed speeches for others, but he delivered only one, that on the Exchange of Property. He set up a school  and turned to philosophy and to writing out the results of his thinking, and he composed his Festival Oration ** and some others of an advisory nature, some of which he delivered himself and some of which he prepared for others to deliver, hoping that in this way he might lead the Greeks to think as they ought. But when he failed of his purpose he gave up that sort of thing and became the head of a school, at first, as some say, at Chios, where he had nine pupils. That was the time when, as he saw the tuition fees counted out, he burst into tears and said, "Now I recognise that I have sold myself to these people." He would carry on conversation with all who desired it and was the first to make a distinction between contentious speeches and those of a political character, to which latter he devoted himself.  And he also instituted at Chios public offices and the same constitution which existed in his native city. He made more money than any other sophist, so that he was even a trierarch.  

 His pupils numbered about one hundred, including among many others Timotheus, son of Conon, with whom he visited many cities ; and he composed the letters which Timotheus sent to the Athenians, on account of which Timotheus presented him with a talentout of the sum remaining after the relief of Samos {365 B.C.}. Pupils of his were also Theopompus ** of Chios, Ephorus of Cyme, Asclepiades who compiled the arguments of tragedies, and Theodectes of Phaselis, who afterwards wrote tragedies and whose monument stood as you go to the Bean-market along the Sacred Way which leads to Eleusis ;  it is now in ruins. There, too, were set up statues of the famous poets along with his ; of these only the poet Homer exists now. And Leodamas the Athenian and Lacritus the Athenian law-maker and, as some say, Hypereides and Isaeus were his pupils. And they say that while he was still teaching oratory Demosthenes came to him eager to learn and said that he could not pay the thousand drachmas which he asked as tuition fee, but would give two hundred for one fifth of the instruction ; whereupon Isocrates replied :  "We do not cut our instruction into bits, Demosthenes, but just as people sell fine fish whole, so, if you wish to be my pupil, I will sell you my course whole."   

 He died in the archonship of Chaerondas {338-337 B.C.}, after hearing in the palaestra of Hippocrates the news of the Battle of Chaeroneia **; and he removed himself from life by abstaining from food for four days. Just before the end he declaimed the opening lines of three dramas of Euripides :   
  Danaus of fifty daughters fair the sire, **
  Pelops the Tantalid to Pisa came, { Iph.Taur. 1 }
  Once Sidon's city Cadmus having left. **  

  He died at the age of ninety-eight or, as some say, one hundred years, for he could not endure the sight of Greece enslaved four times **. A year (or, as some say, four years) before his end he wrote the Panathenaic Oration ; and for the composition of the Festival Oration he took ten (but some say fifteen) years. This, they say, he derived from the speeches of Gorgias of Leontini and Lysias. The speech on the Exchange of Property ** he wrote at the age of eighty-two years, and those against Philip shortly before his death. [838] When he was an old man he adopted Aphareus, the youngest of the three sons of Plathane, daughter of the orator Hippias. He acquired ample wealth, for he not only collected money from his pupils, but he also received from Nicocles, king of Cyprus, who was the son of Evagoras, twenty talents for the oration written in his honour. On account of his wealth he was envied and was proposed three times as trierarch. Twice he alleged illness and was exempted by petitions presented by his son, but the third time he undertook the duty and spent no small sum. To a father who said that he gave his son only a slave as companion he said, "Go your ways, then, for you will have two slaves instead of one."  He took part also in the competition offered by Artemisia in honour of Maussolus **, but his Eulogy is not extant. He wrote also a Eulogy of Helen and a speech called the Areopagitic. He departed this life some say on the ninth day of his abstention from food, others on the fourth day at the time of the funeral of those who fell at Chaeroneia. His son Aphareus also wrote speeches. Isocrates was buried with his family near Cynosarges on the left side of the hill - he himself, his father Theodorus, and his mother ; and her sister Anaco, the orator's aunt, and his adopted son Aphareus,  and his cousin Socrates, son of Anaco Isocrates' mother's sister, and his brother Theodorus who had the same name as his father, and his grandsons, the sons of his adopted son Aphareus, Aphareus and his father Theodorus, and the latter's wife Plathane, mother of the adopted son Aphareus. And over them there were six tablets which do not now exist. On the monument of Isocrates himself was a column thirty cubits high, on which was a siren seven cubits high as a symbol ; but this exists no longer. There was also a tablet near by  with poets and his instructors on it, among whom was Gorgias gazing into an astrological sphere and Isocrates standing beside him. There is also a bronze statue of him, dedicated by Timotheus, son of Conon, at Eleusis in front of the vestibule. It bears this inscription :   
   Here to the goddesses twain Timotheus giveth this statue 
   Tribute to friend and to sage, image of Isocrates. 
   It is a work of Leochares.   

 Sixty orations are current under his name, of which twenty-five are genuine according to Dionysius, twenty-eight according to Caecilius, and the rest are spurious. He was averse to public declamation, so much so that once, when three persons came to hear him,  he retained two but let the third go, telling him to come the next day, since now the lecture-room had a full audience. And he used to say to his pupils that he himself gave instruction for ten minas, but would give ten thousand to anyone who would teach him self-confidence and a pleasant voice. And when he was asked how he, not being a good speaker himself, could make others so, he replied that whetstones cannot themselves cut, but make iron fit to do so.  Some say that he also wrote textbooks of oratory, others that in his teaching he made use of practice, not of method. He never demanded a fee from a fellow-citizen. When his pupils went to meetings of the assembly, he told them to report to him what was said there. He was greatly grieved by the death of Socrates, and the next day he appeared in black clothing. And again, when someone asked him "What is oratory ? " he said, "the art of making small things great and great things small." And once when he was a guest at a banquet in the house of Nicocreon, despot of Cyprus, and some of those present urged him to discourse, he said, "for subjects in which I am competent this is not the time ; in the subjects for which this is the time I am not competent." ** When he saw the tragic poet Sophocles amorously following a boy, he said, "Sophocles, we must not only keep our hands to ourselves, [839] but our eyes as well." ** And when Ephorus of Cyme had left his school without learning anything and had been sent back by his father with a second tuition-fee, he called him in fun Diphorus (Twice-bringer) ; he took, however, great pains with him and even suggested to him the subject of his work **. He showed himself also prone to sexual indulgence ; he used an additional mattress beside him on his bed and kept his pillow wet with saffron. And when he was young he did not marry,  but in his old age he kept a mistress named Lagisce, by whom he had a daughter who died unmarried at twelve years of age. Then he married the daughter of the orator Hippias, Plathane, who had three sons, one of whom, Aphareus, as has been said above, he adopted. This Aphareus dedicated a bronze statue of him near the Olympieium on a column with the inscription :   
   Aphareus set up this statue his father Isocrates' image, 
   Sacred to Zeus, to exalt gods and his ancestors' worth. **   

  And it is said that he rode a horse in a race when he was still a boy ; for a bronze figure of him as a boy riding a horse is set up on the acropolis in the ball-ground of the Arrhephoroi **, as some have said. In all his life but two lawsuits were brought against him : first when Megacleides challenged him to an exchange of property **. He did not appear in court in this suit, because he was ill, but sent his son Aphareus and won his case. The second suit was when Lysimachus challenged him to exchange property in connexion with the trierarchy ; and this case he lost and performed the trierarchy. There was also a painted portrait of him in the Pompeium **. Aphareus wrote speeches, both juridical and deliberative, but not many. He also composed about thirty-seven tragedies, but the authorship of two of them is contested.  Beginning in the archonship of Lysistratus {369-368 B.C.} he presented in the twenty-eight years to the archonship of Sosigenes {342-341 B.C.} six series of dramas at the City Dionysia and won the prize twice, Dionysius as his manager **, and, other poets managing, he presented two other series at the Lenaean festival **. There were statues of the mother of Isocrates and Theodorus and of her sister Anaco set up on the acropolis ; of these the statue of the mother is now placed, with a changed inscription **, near that of Hygieia, but the statue of Anaco is gone. She had two sons, Alexander by Coenus, and Sosicles by Lysias.   

 V.   ISAEUS   G

  Isaeus was a Chalcidian by birth, but came to Athens and went to school [to Isocrates. He resembled] Lysias ** in his melodious diction and in his skilful arrangement and treatment of the subject matter in his speeches, so that unless a person were thoroughly familiar with their particular styles, he could not easily tell to which of the two orators many of the speeches belong. He was in his prime after the Peloponnesian War, as may be inferred from his speeches, and lived until the reign of Philip.  He taught Demosthenes **, not at his school, but privately, for ten thousand drachmas, whereby he acquired great distinction. And he himself composed for Demosthenes the speeches against his guardians, as some said. He has left behind him sixty-four speeches, fifty of which are genuine, and some rules of rhetoric of his own. He was also the first to give artistic form to his speech ** and to turn his attention to the urbane style of the orator ; in which Demosthenes has closely imitated him. Theopompus the comic playwright mentions him ** in the Theseus

 [840]   VI.   AESCHINES   G

Aeschines was the son of Atrometus **, who was exiled in the time of the Thirty and helped to restore the democracy, and of Glaucothea. He belonged to the deme of the Cothocidae and was not of distinguished family or great wealth. When he was young and physically strong he worked hard in the gymnasia ; and afterwards, since he had a clear voice, he practised tragedy ; and according to Demosthenes ** he was for a long time under-secretary and regularly played as a third-rate actor with Aristodemus at the Dionysiac festivals **, repeating the old tragedies ** in his spare time.  And while still a child he helped his father to teach letters, and as a young man he served in the patrol of the frontiers. After studying with Isocrates and Plato, as some say, but with Leodamas according to Caecilius **, he was prominent in public life in the party opposed to that of Demosthenes, and was sent on many embassies, among them the one to Philip concerning the peace **. For this he was accused by Demosthenes of having destroyed the Phocian nation and moreover of having stirred up war between the Amphissians, who were building the harbour when he was chosen as delegate to the Amphictyonic Council, and the Amphictyons ; as a result of which the Amphictyons turned to Philip for protection,  and he, assisted by Aeschines, took matters in hand and conquered Phocis. But through the aid of Eubulus, son of Spintharus, of the deme of Probalinthus, who had influence with the people, he was acquitted by thirty votes ; but some say that though the orators composed their speeches, yet the suit never came to trial because the Battle of Chaeroneia intervened **. At a later time, when Philip was dead and Alexander was crossing over to Asia, he brought a suit against Ctesiphon for illegal conduct in proposing the honours for Demosthenes ; and when he did not receive one-fifth of the votes cast, he went into exile at Rhodes, not being willing to pay a fine of a thousand drachmas for his defeat **.  But some say that he was further punished by disfranchisement and did not leave the city of his own accord, and that he went to Alexander at Ephesus. During the confusion following Alexander's death he sailed to Rhodes, set up a school there, and taught. He read to the Rhodians his oration against Ctesiphon as an exhibition of his powers, and when they all wondered that after delivering that speech he had lost his case,  "You would not wonder, Rhodians," he said, "if you had heard Demosthenes speak in reply to it." And he left a school behind him there, called the Rhodian school. Then he sailed to Samos and not long after, while lingering on that island, died. He had an excellent voice, as is clear from what Demosthenes says { xviii. 259, 308 } and from the oration of Demochares.   

 Four orations are current under his name : that Against Timarchus, that On the False Legation, and that Against Ctesiphon, and these alone are genuine, since the one entitled the Delian Oration is not by Aeschines ; for he was, to be sure, appointed associate advocate in the trial relating to the sanctuary at Delos, but he did not deliver the speech ; for Hypereides was elected in his place, as Demosthenes says. { xviii. 134 }  He had, as he himself says { ii. 149 }, two brothers, Aphobetus and Philochares. He was the first to bring to the Athenians the news of the victory at Tamynae, for which he was crowned a second time. Some have said that Aeschines did not study under any teachers, but rose from the under-clerkship in the courts, which he held at that time. And they say that his first speech before the people was against Philip, by which he gained such reputation as to be chosen envoy to the Arcadians ; and when he came to them he raised the ten thousand troops with which to oppose Philip. He also prosecuted for unchastity Timarchus, who gave up the defence and hanged himself, [841] as Demosthenes says somewhere. { xix. 2, 285 } He was elected envoy to Philip with Ctesiphon and Demosthenes to treat for peace, on which occasion he was more successful than Demosthenes ; and the second time, when he was one often **, he confirmed the peace with oaths, was tried for it, and was acquitted, as has been said above. 

 VII.   LYCURGUS   G

Lycurgus was the son of Lycophron and grandson of the Lycurgus  whom the Thirty Tyrants put to death, his execution being brought about by Aristodemus of Batē, who also, after having been one of the Hellenotamiae, was banished under the democracy. Lycurgus was of the deme of the Butadae and the family of the Eteobutadae. He attended the lectures of Plato the philosopher and at first devoted himself to philosophy ; then, after being a pupil of the orator Isocrates, he had a notable public career both as a speaker and as a man of action, and he was also entrusted with the management of the finances of the State ; for he was made treasurer for three periods of four years ** in charge of fourteen thousand talents, or, as some say (and among them the man who proposed the vote of honours for him **, Stratocles the orator), eighteen thousand, six hundred and fifty.  He was elected in his own person the first time, but afterwards he entered the name of one of his friends, though he himself administered the office, because a law had previously been introduced forbidding anyone elected treasurer of the public funds to hold the office more than four years ; and he was always intent upon the public business summer and winter. When he was elected to provide munitions of war he restored many edifices in the city, he provided four hundred triremes for the people, he constructed the gymnasium in the Lyceum  and planted trees in it, he built the palaestra and finished the Theatre of Dionysus when he was the commissioner in charge of that work **. He took care of two hundred and fifty talents entrusted to him on deposit by private persons, he provided for the city objects of gold and silver for use in processions and golden Victories, and many buildings which came into his hands half-finished he completed, among them the ship-sheds and the arsenal. And he put the foundation-walls round the Panathenaic Stadium. This he accomplished, and also the levelling of the ravine, because a certain Deinias who owned this plot of land gave it to the city when Lycurgus suggested to him that he make the gift.   

  He was charged also with guarding the city and arresting malefactors, whom he drove out entirely, so that some of the sophists said that Lycurgus signed warrants against evil-doers with a pen dipped, not in ink, but in death. And therefore, when King Alexander demanded his surrender, the people did not give him up. When Philip was carrying on the second war with the Athenians, Lycurgus went as envoy with Polyeuctus and Demosthenes to the Peloponnese and to some other States.  Throughout his life he was always highly esteemed among the Athenians and considered a just man, so that in the courts of law the word of Lycurgus was regarded as a help to anyone requiring an advocate.   

 He also introduced laws : the law relating to comic actors, that a competitive performance be held on the festival of Pots ** and that the victor's name be inscribed as eligible for the City Dionysia **, which had not been permitted before, and thus he revived a contest which had fallen out of use ; the law that bronze statues of the poets Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides be erected, that their tragedies be written out and kept in a public depository, and that the clerk of the State read them to the actors who were to perform their plays for comparison of the texts and that it be unlawful to depart from the authorised text in acting ; a third law that no Athenian [842] or foreign resident of Athens should be permitted to buy from among captives a person of free birth to be a slave without the consent of his former master **; furthermore, that a festival of Poseidon should be held in Peiraeus, consisting of no fewer than three cyclic choruses, that not less than ten minas be given to the victors, eight to those ranked second by the judges, and six to those ranked third ; furthermore, that no woman should go to Eleusis ** in a carriage, lest the women of the people appear inferior to the rich, and if any woman should be caught doing this, she should pay a fine of six thousand drachmas. His own wife disobeyed, the informers caught her in the act, and he gave them a talent ;  and at a later time, when accused of this in the popular assembly, he said, "At any rate I am found to have been the giver, not the receiver." ** And once when a tax-collector laid hands on Xenocrates the philosopher and Lycurgus met him as he was leading him away to enforce payment of his tax as a resident alien **, he brought his walking-stick down on the tax-collector's head, set Xenocrates free, and shut the other man up in prison for improper conduct. As he was generally commended for his act, Xenocrates, happening to meet Lycurgus's children some days later, said "I have repaid your father quickly for the favour he did me, boys ;  for he is widely commended for coming to my assistance."   

 He also proposed decrees **, making use of a certain Olynthian named Eucleides, who was an expert in decrees. And although he was well-to-do, he wore one and the same cloak winter and summer and put on sandals only on days when they were necessary. He studied night and day, since he had no natural gift for extemporaneous speaking, and he lay on a cot with only a sheepskin and a pillow on it, so that he might wake up easily and study. When someone found fault with him for paying money to sophists  although he made words his profession, he replied that if anyone would promise to make his sons better, he would pay him, not thousands only, but half his property. He was an outspoken speaker on account of his good birth. Once, indeed, when the Athenians were showing dissent as he was speaking, he burst out with : "O Corcyraean whip, how many talents you are worth ! " ** And when they were proclaiming Alexander a god, "What sort of god," he said, "is he when those who come out of his temple have to sprinkle themselves with holy water ? "  After his death his sons were handed over to the eleven executioners on the accusation of Menesaechmus, the indictment being written by Thrasycles ; but when Demosthenes, who was at that time in exile, wrote a letter to the Athenians ** saying that their reputation was suffering because of Lycurgus's sons, they changed their mind and released them, Democles, a pupil of Theophrastus, speaking in their defence. He himself and some of his descendants were buried at public expense ; and their monuments are opposite the Paeonian Athena in the garden of the philosopher Melanthius ** ; they are in the form of tables, and those of Lycurgus and his children have inscriptions and are still preserved in our day.  His greatest achievement was the raising of the State revenue to twelve hundred talents when it had previously been sixty. When he was at the point of death he gave orders that he be carried to the temple of the Great Mother and into the Bouleuterion **, as he wished to give an accounting for his public acts ; and when no one had the face to accuse him except Menesaechmus, he freed himself from his false accusations, was carried to his house, and died **, having been considered a honourable man throughout his whole life, and highly praised for his speeches. He never was convicted, though many brought accusations against him. 

 He had three children by Callisto, the daughter of Habron and sister of Callias the son of Habron of the deme Batē, the one who was treasurer of military funds in the archonship of Charondas {338-337 B.C.}. [843] Deinarchus, in his speech against Pistius, tells about this connexion by marriage. He left three sons, Habron, Lycurgus, and Lycophron, of whom Habron and Lycurgus died without issue. However, Habron at any rate had a distinguished public career before he died ; but Lycophron married Callistomache, daughter of Philippus of Aexone, and had a daughter Callisto. She was married to Cleombrotus of Acharnae, son of Deinocrates, to whom she bore a son Lycophron, who was adopted by his grandfather Lycophron and died without issue. After Lycophron's death Socrates married Callisto  and had a son Symmachus. Symmachus had a son Aristonymus, he a son Charmides, and Charmides a daughter Philippa. Her son by Lysander was Medeius, who became an expounder of rites **, being of the family of the Eumolpidae. He and Timothea, daughter of Glaucus, had three children, Laodameia and Medeius, who held the priesthood of Poseidon-Erechtheus, and Philippa, who afterwards became priestess of Athena ; but before that Diocles of Melite married her, and their son was the Diocles who was general in command of the heavy-armed force. He married Hediste, daughter of Habron, and had two children, Philippides and Nicostrata.  Themistocles, the Torch-bearer **, son of Theophrastus, married Nicostrata and had two sons, Theophrastus and Diodes, He also organised the priesthood of Poseidon-Erechtheus.   

 Fifteen speeches of the orator are current **. He was crowned by the people many times and was honoured with statues. A bronze statue ** of him stands in the Cerameicus, set up in accordance with a decree passed in the archonship of Anaxicrates **, in which year Lycurgus and his eldest descendant were granted maintenance in the prytaneion by the same decree. After Lycurgus died his eldest son, Lycophron, brought a suit for the grant.  Lycurgus spoke also many times on religious matters, bringing suit against Autolycus the Areopagite, Lysicles the general, Demades the son of Demeas, Menesaechmus, and many others, and he caused them all to be convicted. He also brought Diphilus to trial, who removed from the silver mines the rock props which supported the weight above and made himself rich from them contrary to the law ; and though the penalty for this was death, Lycurgus brought about his conviction, and from the confiscated estate distributed fifty drachmas to every citizen, since the total sum collected was one hundred and sixty talents or,  as some say, he distributed a mina to each citizen. He it was who called Aristogeiton, Leocrates, and Autolycus to account for cowardice. Lycurgus was nicknamed "Ibis,"   

 An ibis for Lycurgus, for Chaerephon a bat. **   

 His family was derived ultimately from Erechtheus, the son of Gaia and Poseidon, but in the nearest generations from Lycomedes and Lycurgus, whom the people honoured with funerals at the public expense ; and this succession from father to son of those of the family who have been priests of Poseidon exists on a complete tablet which has been set up in the Erechtheum, painted by Ismenias the Chalcidian ; and there are wooden statues of Lycurgus and his sons Habron, Lycurgus, and Lycophron,  made by Timarchus and Cephisodotus, the sons of Praxiteles. But the tablet was put up by his son Habron, who received the priesthood by inheritance and handed it over to his brother Lycophron ; and that is why Habron is represented as handing Lycophron the trident. And Lycurgus had a record made of all his acts as a public official and set it up on a tablet, for all men to see who wished, in front of the palaestra that he had built ; no one, however, could convict him of embezzlement. He made the motion to crown Neoptolemus the son of Anticles and to set up a statue of him because he had promised to gild the altar of Apollo ** in the agora [844] in accordance with the God's prophecy. He also moved a decree granting honours to Diotimus, son of Diopeithes, of the deme Euonymon, in the archonship of Ctesicles {334-333 B.C.}. 

Following pages (844 - 852) →





FOOTNOTES

    

1.   Cf. Thucydides, viii. 68, "a man inferior to none of the Athenians of his own day in force of character, and one who had proved himself most able both to formulate a plan and to set forth his conclusions in speech" (Smith's translation, L.C.L.). 

     

2.   In 411 B.C. when for some four months an oligarchy ruled Athens.     

 

3.   Antiphon was a common name at Athens in the fifth century. Blass distingxiishes, in addition to the orator: (1) a patriotic and worthy citizen (Xenophon, Hell. ii. 3. 40) in defence of whose daughter Lysias wrote a speech, and to whom the military activities belong which are here ascribed to the orator ; (2) the tragic poet who was put to death by Dionysius of Syracuse (Aristotle, Rhet. ii. 6. p. 1385 a 9) ; (3) Antiphon the sophist (Xenophon, Mem. i. 6. 5; Diog. Laert. ii. 5. 25), who is probably the one who practised mental healing at Corinth ; (4) the son of Pyrilampus (Plato, Parmenides, 127 a); (5) the son of Lysonides (Moralia, 833 a); and (6) an Antiphon derided by Aristophanes (Wasps, 1270), as a starveling. The Pseudo-Plutarch has evidently fused several of these personalities with that of the orator.

   

4.   Eetioneia, the mole which formed the northern side of the great Harbour of Peiraeus, was fortified by the Four Hundred in order to command the entrance.  

   

5.   Müller, FHG. i. p. 300. 

   

6.   Kock, CAF. i. p. 6-29, no. 103.  

   

7.   Cf. Müller, FHG. ii. p. 23.    

 

8.   411-410 B.C. Caecilius derived his text of the decree from Craterus's collection of decrees. See Harpocration, s.v. Andron and Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., i. p. 99.

   

9.   Six of the annually elected archons ; their duties were to administer the courts of justice.    

   

10.   The Thirty Years' Peace, by the terms of which Athens gave up Megara and its ports in 446-445 B.C. 

   

11.   Cf. Müller, FHG. i. p. 55, no. 78.  

   

12.   Cf. Thucydides, i. 51, who seems to have been the source of this error. The colleague of Glaucon on this expedition was Dracontides, son of Leogoras of Thurae, and not Andocides, who at the time, 433 B.C., was too young.  

   

13.   The Hermae, square pillars surmounted by the head of the god Hermes, stood before the doors of Athenian houses. In 415 B.C., just as the great expedition against Sicily was about to sail, these Hermae were systematically mutilated in the night by unknown persons.  

   

14.   In the summer of 404 B.C. thirty men had been appointed to draw up laws and manage the state temporarily. They seized all power and ruled like tyrants. Thrasybulus seized the hill-fortress of Phyle in December and maintained his position against two attacks by the Thirty. In May 403 Thrasybulus and his followers seized Peiraeus. In September the Thirty were overthrown and the democracy re-established. 

    

15.   The nature of the accusation cannot be determined. See Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., pp. 293 ff. The oration On the Peace, delivered between 393 and 390 B.C., deals with the terms proposed by the mission in which Andocides participated.  

   

16.   468-467 B.C. This date, however, is based upon a false reckoning, and from the orator's own statements he could not have been born much before 440. See Blass, ibid. i. p. 283, and Kirchner. Prosop. Att. 828.  

   

17.   The numeral is an emendation. 

   

18.   A decree of the tribe Pandionis in which the orator is named among the victorious choregi is extant, I.G. ii. 1138 (ed. min.); it was with a chorus of boys at the Dionysia.  

    

19.   The archon in 460-459 B.C. was Phrasicleides, not Phrasicles.   

   

20.   The scene of Plato's Republic is laid at the house of Cephalus. The dialogue is not historical, and its imagined date cannot be fixed, but it seems to show that Plato knew Cephalus and his sons, see Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., i. p. 341.  

    

21.   413-412 B.C. The ninety-second Olympiad is the date of the archonship of another Callias, 406-405 B.C.  

   

22.   The dates given by our author for events in the life of Lysias are consistent (see also 835 a above, and 836 f below, cf. also Dion. Hal. Isocrates, i.), on the assumption that he went to Thurii when the colony was founded, in 444 B.C. But if that is correct, his activity as a writer of speeches to be delivered in the Athenian courts would not begin until his fifty-seventh year. Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., i. p. 345, after stating the evidence, comes to the conclusion that Lysias was born at Athens probably about 446 B.C., the only certain date being his age (fifteen years), when he went to Thurii, and his return to Athens in 413-412 B.C. or the year following. It is quite possible that he did not go to Thurii until some years after the foundation of the colony. The latest of his extant speeches may be dated about 380 B.C., so that we may believe that he died not long after that date. 

    

23.   The great expedition which the Athenians had sent out in 415 B.C. expecting to conquer Sicily was utterly anniliilated in the autumn of 413 B.C.  

    

24.   See Lysias, xii. 15. 

    

25.   Thrasybulus and his followers, May 303 B.C. After these exiles seized Peiraeus, there was a period of confusion until the democracy was re-established and Eucleides made archon for the year 403-402 B.C.  

 

26.   The Athenians termed any period an "anarchy" in which no archon could be elected because of party strife.  

   

27.   The Senate or Council of Five Hundred prepared the business for the Popular Assembly, which could not legally vote upon any measure not previously adopted by the Senate. 

   

28.   Cicero, De Oratore, i. 231, and Diogenes Laertius, ii. 20, 40, say that Lysias composed an oration in defence of Socrates, and offered it to him, but Socrates refused it. A speech in defence of Socrates is mentioned several times by the scholiast on Aristeides. It was composed probably some years after the death of Socrates, as an epideictic oration in reply to a similar speech against Socrates by the sophist Polycrates. This is doubtless the speech which Cicero and Diogenes wrongly believed to have been composed for use in the actual trial of Socrates. See Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., i. p. 351.  

   

29.   Cf. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Ancient Orators, v. 1, "when read he is considered easy, but is found to be difficult by any who try to imitate him."  

   

30.   Lysis, because the word Lysias is inadmissible in the Greek metre. Wyttenbach suggests that the verses were really written in honour of Lysis the Pythagorean.  

   

31.   Bergk, PLG. ii. p. 640. Bergk rightly says that this is only part of a longer poem. The fragment does not indicate that Lysias was older than Isocrates, but some such statement may have been contained in a later part of the poem. 

    

32.   In 355 B.C. Iphicrates and Timotheus, Athenian generals who had been unsuccessful, were accused by their colleague Chares, of treason. Although Iphicrates accepted full responsibility, he was acquitted, but Timotheus was fined one hundred talents, which he could not pay. He left Athens and soon died. 

    

33.   Only a fragment (Or. xxxiii.) of this is extant.   

 

34.   Wealthy Athenians performed in turn special services to the state called "liturgies." The most expensive of these was the choregy, which involved the payment, training, and equipment of a chorus for a lyrical or dramatic performance. 

    

35.   See Isocrates, xv. 161. 

  

36.   Plato was born in 428-427 B.C. Lysias, according to this statement, in 459-458. But see note on 835 d above.  

   

37.   The sanctuary of this Goddess of the Senate's Hearth was in or near the prytaneion, which was somewhere on the northern slope of the Acropolis. 

    

38.   See Isocrates, v. 81 ; xii. 9. 

 

39.   i.e. the Panegyric, delivered at Olympia.    

   

40.   The text of Photius reads Xenophon the son of Gryllus and Theopompus.   

   

41.   This popular story of Isocrates' death is given also by Lucian (?), Macrobioi 23, Pausanias, i. 18. 8, and Plutarch, 838 below. It is made famous by Milton in his tenth sonnet :  
  ... as that dishonest victory  
  At Chaeronea, fatal to liberty,  
  Killed by report that old man eloquent.      

But Isocrates himself, at the end of his third letter, writes to Philip : "But I am grateful to old age for this thing only, that it has continued my life to this point, so that of the things which I meditated in my youth and undertook to write in my Panegyric Oration and in that which I sent to you, I now see some being accomplished through your deeds and hope that others will be accomplished." Apparently he was well pleased with Philip's success. See Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., ii. p. 97.  

    

42.   From the Archelaüs ; Nauck, TGF. p. 427, no. 228.   

   

43.   From the Phrixus ; Nauck, TGF. p. 627, no. 819. Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., ii. p. 97, thinks these lines enumerate three intrusions of foreigners into Greece. The fourth - not mentioned - would then be that of the Macedonians under Philip.  

   

44.   Under the Athenian empire in the fifth century, by the Spartans after the Peloponnesian War, by the Thebans under Epameinondas, and by the Macedonians. All these Isocrates himself had seen.   

 

45.   Oration xv. If anyone proposed that a certain man be obliged to perform one of the "liturgies" which were required of wealthy Athenians, the man of whom this was required could challenge the proposer to an exchange of properties, which might transfer the obligation.  

   

46.   Mausolus, ruler of Halicarnassus, died in 353 B.C. His widow, Artemisia, caused eulogies to be written in competition by Greek orators and completed the magnificent tomb which he had, apparently, begun. This magnificent building - the Mausoleum - was designed by Greek architects and decorated by famous Greek sculptors. The remains of the sculpture include portrait statues of Maussolus and Artemisia and are among the most highly prized possessions of the British Museum.    

   

47.   Cf. Moralia, 613 a.    

 

48.   Attributed to Pericles by Plutarch, Life of Pericles, chap, viii., and Cicero, De Officiis, i. 40. 144.  

   

49.   The great work of Ephorus was a history of the world (primarily of Greece) from the return of the Heracleidae to the siege of Perinthus in 340 B.C. From this work Plutarch and others derived much of their information. Ephorus was born early in the fourth century and died about 320 B.C.    

   

50.   Bergk, PLG. ii. p. 329. The column and statue existed in the time of Pausanias (Paus. i. 18. 8). A bust in the Villa Albani in Rome may be a late copy of the head of this statue or, more probably, since Leochares was a famous sculptor, of the statue at Eleusis mentioned above. 

   

51.   This seems to have been situated near the north-west wall of the Acropolis, west of the Erechtheum : cf. Judeich, Topographie von Athen, p. 283. Two maidens were chosen each year to carry the peplos at the Panathenaic festival and were called Arrephoroi.

52.   See note on 837 f.  

   

53.   The Pompeium was just inside the Dipylon gate, at which point the processions began. It was the storehouse for objects used in processions. 

  

54.   When a poet wished to avoid the labour of presenting a play he could delegate the management to a hypodidascalus, another poet experienced in such matters. We have many instances of this practice in the didascalic notices, notably in the case of Aristophanes.  

   

55.   The City or Greater Dionysia were celebrated in March, the Rural or Lesser Dionysia in the various demes of Attica in December, and the Lenaean festival in December. At all of these dramas were performed, but new tragedies were not produced at the Rural Dionysia, and for a time the same was true of the Lenaean festival. A series of dramas comprised three tragedies and a satyr drama. The two prizes of Aphareus are recorded in an inscription, I.G. ii.2 2325 b (ed. min.). 

    

56.   Statues erected to honour one person were not infrequently transferred to another by changing the inscriptions, Dio Chrysostom in his Oration to the Rhodians condemns this practice.   

   

57.   Cf. Dion. Hal. De Isaeo Judicium, 2, "he emulated in the highest degree the character of Lysias."    

 

58.   See below, Demosthenes, 844 b.    

 

59.   Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., ii. p. 499, interprets this as referring to figures of thought. Cf. 835 B supra (of Andocides).   

 

60.   Cf. Kock, CAF. i. p. 737, no. 18.    

 

61.   A catalogue of the tribe Oeneis, I.G.2 2408, gives his full name : Atromētos son of Aischines, of Kothokidai. It gives also the name of Aeschines' son : Atromētos.  

 

62.   Demosthenes, xviii. 261 ; xix. 246. The festivals in question are those held in the small towns of Attica, Aristodemus was one of the most noted tragic actors of his time. Born at Metapontum, he was granted Athenian citizenship and was one of the envoys (among whom were Aeschines, Demosthenes, and Philocrates) who made the peace of Philocrates with Philip in 346 B.C. 

   

63.   More accurately in Photius, the dramatic festivals held in the small towns of Attica. For the ancient accounts of Aeschines' career as an actor see O'Connor, Actors and Acting in Ancient Greece, pp. 74 ff. Kelly Rees, The Rule of Three Actors in the Classical Greek Drama, pp. 31 ff., has shown that the term "tritagonist" was invented by Demosthenes as an opprobrious epithet and it is applied in antiquity to no other actor than Aeschines; also that it meant, not "actor of third-rate roles," but "third-rate actor".

   

64.   "Old tragedies" are those which had been performed in Athens before. 

    

65.   But see below, 840 e, where the more probable statement is made that he had no teacher. Cf. the anonymous Life of Aeschines, 13, Quintillian, ii. 17. 12, and Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 2nd ed., iii. p. 157.  

   

66.   Aeschines was sent in 347 and 346 b.c. on two embassies to Philip concerning peace. The second is probably the one especially referred to here. In his orations On the Peace (346 B.C.) and On the False Legation (343 B.C.) Demosthenes attacks Aeschines and his colleagues. 

   

67.   The author's extreme brevity reduces to two sentences the events of about eight years. The acquittal of Aeschines took place in 343 B.C.  

   

68.   Anyone who brought a suit against another for proposing a measure forbidden by law was subject to a fine and was debarred from bringing any similar suit if he received less than one-fifth of the votes cast by the dicasts.  

   

69.   Aeschines, On the False Legation, 178.   

   

70.   The Hellenotamiae were a board of ten members who collected and administered the tribute paid to Athens by the members of the Delian Confederacy.    

 

71.   338-326 B.C. The title of his office is not known. No regular office so extensive as this is mentioned in Aristotle's Constitution of Athens. He may have been in charge of the theoric fund or the military fund, or both, by virtue of a special commission, which in the next generation became a regular office ; see Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, p. 10, Tarn, Cambridge Ancient History, vi, p. 441. The period meant may be the quinquennium.    

 

72.   Probably while he was in control of the finances. Cf. Dorpfeld and Reisch, Das griechische Theater, pp. 39 f.   

 

73.   The third day of the Anthesteria, the thirteenth day of the month Anthesterium.   

 

74.   The Tragōdoi and Komōdoi alone were eligible to be chosen by lot as protagonists for the tragedies and comedies to be presented at the City Dionysia, the subordinate roles being assigned to plain hypokritai. Prior to the passage of the law of Lycurgus those only were eligible who had previously won a victory at the City Dionysia. The effect of the law of Lycurgus was, therefore, to increase the number of those from whom the archon could choose a komōdos for each of the five comedies to be presented. See Rohde, Rheinisches Museum, xxxviii. p. 276, and J. B. O'Connor, Chapters in the History of Actors and Acting, pp. 57 ff.  

   

75.   Prisoners of war were usually auctioned off into slavery regardless of their previous condition. If such a captive could prove his free birth through the testimony of the man who owned him when taken captive, he could not under this new law be purchased by any Athenian for slavery, cf. M. H. E. Meier, Comment. de vita Lycurgi, xxxix. ff.  

   

76.   This refers to the great annual procession to Eleusis in the celebration of the mysteries of Demeter and Persephonē. 

   

77.   The story may well be apocryphal. The saying of Lycurgus, repeated by Plutarch in his Comp. of Nicias and Crassus, 3, is not there connected with the Eleusis incident ; and Aelian, Var. Hist. xiii. 24, expressly states that the statesman's wife paid a fine after legal condemnation, not a bribe to the informer.  

   

78.   The tax was twelve drachmas.  

   

79.   Several decrees moved by him are extant, e.g. I.G. ii.2 337, 338.   

   

80.   The Corcyraean whip was especially stinging, and the orator's outbreak means : "I would give a great deal to use a cat-o'-nine-tails on you people."    

 

81.   Cf. Demosthenes, Epistle iii., and Aeschines, Epistle xii. 14.   

   

82.   Judeich, Topogr. v. Athen,2 p. 409, conjectures that the garden of Melanthius was in the neighbourhood of the Academy.  

   

83.   The Bouleuterion was the meeting-place of the Boulē or Senate ; the foundations of this and of the temple of the Great Mother have recently been found on the west side of the Agora. See T. L. Shear, Hesperia, iv. pp. 349 ff.   

 

84.   His death occurred about 324 B.C.    

   

85.   At Eleusis in connexion with the Eleusinian Mysteries.   

 

86.   The Torch-bearer was an important functionary in the Eleusinian Mysteries. The office was hereditary.  

   

87.   Of these only the speech against Leocrates has come down to us. 

    

88.   The inscription on the base of this statue is probably preserved in I.G. ii.2 3776. Another statue stood not far from the Prytaneium ; cf. Pausanius, i. 8. 2.  

   

89.   307-306 B.C. See the Decree III below, 851 ff. 

   

90.   Aristophanes, Birds, 1296 and scholium. But it was the grandfather of the orator and statesman to whom Aristophanes referred.   

 

91.   This altar may have stood in front of the temple of Apollo Patroüs ; cf. Judeich, Topographie von Athen,2 p. 345, n. 4.    



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