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1 Maccabees


The "First Book of Maccabees" is an important source for the history of the Jews at the time of the Maccabean Revolt, covering the period between about 175 and 134 B.C.   The RSV version of the book is shown here, with a few changes in spelling.   Click on the G symbols to go to the Greek text of each chapter.


  Chapters:   1 -   2 -   3 -   4 -   5 -   6 -   7 -   8 -   9 -   10111213141516

[1]     G 

1 After Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came from the land of Kittim, had defeated Darius, king of the Persians and the Medes, he succeeded him as king. (He had previously become king of Greece.)  2 He fought many battles, conquered strongholds, and put to death the kings of the earth.  3 He advanced to the ends of the earth, and plundered many nations. When the earth became quiet before him, he was exalted, and his heart was lifted up.  4 He gathered a very strong army and ruled over countries, nations, and princes, and they became tributary to him.  

5 After this he fell sick and perceived that he was dying. 6 So he summoned his most honoured officers, who had been brought up with him from youth, and divided his kingdom among them while he was still alive.  7 And after Alexander had reigned twelve years, he died.  

8 Then his officers began to rule, each in his own place. 9 They all put on crowns after his death, and so did their sons after them for many years; and they caused many evils on the earth.  

10 From them came forth a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king; he had been a hostage in Rome. He began to reign in the one hundred and thirty-seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks { 175 B.C. }.   

11 In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covenant with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us." 12 This proposal pleased them,  13 and some of the people eagerly went to the king. He authorised them to observe the ordinances of the Gentiles.  14 So they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to Gentile custom,  15 and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covenant. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.  

16 When Antiochus saw that his kingdom was established, he determined to become king of the land of Egypt, that he might reign over both kingdoms. 17 So he invaded Egypt with a strong force, with chariots and elephants and cavalry and with a large fleet.  18 He engaged Ptolemy king of Egypt in battle, and Ptolemy turned and fled before him, and many were wounded and fell.  19 And they captured the fortified cities in the land of Egypt, and he plundered the land of Egypt.  

20 After subduing Egypt, Antiochus returned in the one hundred and forty-third year { 169 B.C. }. He went up against Israel and came to Jerusalem with a strong force. 21 He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils.  22 He took also the table for the bread of the Presence, the cups for drink offerings, the bowls, the golden censers, the curtain, the crowns, and the gold decoration on the front of the temple; he stripped it all off.  23 He took the silver and the gold, and the costly vessels; he took also the hidden treasures which he found.  24 Taking them all, he departed to his own land. 
  He committed deeds of murder,
  and spoke with great arrogance. 
  25 Israel mourned deeply in every community, 
  26 rulers and elders groaned,
  maidens and young men became faint,
  the beauty of women faded. 
  27 Every bridegroom took up the lament;
  she who sat in the bridal chamber was mourning. 
  28 Even the land shook for its inhabitants,
  and all the house of Jacob was clothed with shame. 

29 Two years later the king sent to the cities of Judah a chief collector of tribute, and he came to Jerusalem with a large force. 30 Deceitfully he spoke peaceable words to them, and they believed him; but he suddenly fell upon the city, dealt it a severe blow, and destroyed many people of Israel.  31 He plundered the city, burned it with fire, and tore down its houses and its surrounding walls.  32 And they took captive the women and children, and seized the cattle.  33 Then they fortified the city of David with a great strong wall and strong towers, and it became their citadel.  34 And they stationed there a sinful people, lawless men. These strengthened their position;  35 they stored up arms and food, and collecting the spoils of Jerusalem they stored them there, and became a great snare.  
  36 It became an ambush against the sanctuary,
  an evil adversary of Israel continually. 
  37 On every side of the sanctuary they shed innocent blood;
  they even defiled the sanctuary. 
  38 Because of them the residents of Jerusalem fled;
  she became a dwelling of strangers;
  she became strange to her offspring,
  and her children forsook her. 
  39 Her sanctuary became desolate as a desert;
  her feasts were turned into mourning,
  her sabbaths into a reproach,
  her honour into contempt.
  40 Her dishonour now grew as great as her glory;
  her exaltation was turned into mourning. 

41 Then the king wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people, 42 and that each should give up his customs.  43 All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath44 And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land,  45 to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts,  46 to defile the sanctuary and the priests,  47 to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals,  48 and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane,  49 so that they should forget the law and change all the ordinances.  50 "And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die."  

51 In such words he wrote to his whole kingdom. And he appointed inspectors over all the people and commanded the cities of Judah to offer sacrifice, city by city. 52 Many of the people, every one who forsook the law, joined them, and they did evil in the land;  53 they drove Israel into hiding in every place of refuge they had.  

54 Now on the fifteenth day of Kislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year { 167 B.C. }, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah, 55 and burned incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets.  56 The books of the law which they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire.  57 Where the book of the covenant was found in the possession of any one, or if any one adhered to the law, the decree of the king condemned him to death.  58 They kept using violence against Israel, against those found month after month in the cities.  59 And on the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar which was upon the altar of burnt offering.  60 According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised,  61 and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers' necks.  

62 But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 63 They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covenant; and they did die.  64 And very great wrath came upon Israel. 

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1 In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein. 2 He had five sons, John surnamed Gaddi,  3 Simon called Thassi,  4 Judas called Maccabaeus,  5 Eleazar called Avaran, and Jonathan called Apphus.  6 He saw the blasphemies being committed in Judah and Jerusalem,  7 and said, 
  "Alas! Why was I born to see this,
  the ruin of my people, the ruin of the holy city,
  and to dwell there when it was given over to the enemy,
  the sanctuary given over to aliens? 
  8 Her temple has become like a man without honour; 
  9 her glorious vessels have been carried into captivity.
  Her babes have been killed in her streets,
  her youths by the sword of the foe. 
  10 What nation has not inherited her palaces
  and has not seized her spoils? 
  11 All her adornment has been taken away;
  no longer free, she has become a slave. 
  12 And behold, our holy place, our beauty,
  and our glory have been laid waste;
  the Gentiles have profaned it. 
  13 Why should we live any longer?" 

14 And Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned greatly.  

15 Then the king's officers who were enforcing the apostasy came to the city of Modein to make them offer sacrifice. 16 Many from Israel came to them; and Mattathias and his sons were assembled.  17 Then the king's officers spoke to Mattathias as follows: "You are a leader, honoured and great in this city, and supported by sons and brothers.  18 Now be the first to come and do what the king commands, as all the Gentiles and the men of Judah and those that are left in Jerusalem have done. Then you and your sons will be numbered among the friends of the king, and you and your sons will be honoured with silver and gold and many gifts."  

19 But Mattathias answered and said in a loud voice: "Even if all the nations that live under the rule of the king obey him, and have chosen to do his commandments, departing each one from the religion of his fathers, 20 yet I and my sons and my brothers will live by the covenant of our fathers.  21 Far be it from us to desert the law and the ordinances.  22 We will not obey the king's words by turning aside from our religion to the right hand or to the left."  

23 When he had finished speaking these words, a Jew came forward in the sight of all to offer sacrifice upon the altar in Modein, according to the king's command. 24 When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar.  25 At the same time he killed the king's officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar.  26 Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu [Numbers, 25'6-8].  

27 Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covenant come out with me!" 28 And he and his sons fled to the hills and left all that they had in the city.  

29 Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there, 30 they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them.  31 And it was reported to the king's officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the king's command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness.  32 Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day.  33 And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live."  34 But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day."  35 Then the enemy hastened to attack them.  36 But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places,  37 for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly."  38 So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons.  

39 When Mattathias and his friends learned of it, they mourned for them deeply. 40 And each said to his neighbour: "If we all do as our brethren have done and refuse to fight with the Gentiles for our lives and for our ordinances, they will quickly destroy us from the earth."  41 So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places."  

42 Then there united with them a company of Hasidaeans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law. 43 And all who became fugitives to escape their troubles joined them and reinforced them.  44 They organised an army, and struck down sinners in their anger and lawless men in their wrath; the survivors fled to the Gentiles for safety.  45 And Mattathias and his friends went about and tore down the altars;  46 they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel.  47 They hunted down the arrogant men, and the work prospered in their hands.  48 They rescued the law out of the hands of the Gentiles and kings, and they never let the sinner gain the upper hand.  

49 Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 50 Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covenant of our fathers.  

51 "Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honour and an everlasting name. 52 Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness?  53 Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt.  54 Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covenant of everlasting priesthood.  55 Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel.  56 Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land.  57 David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever.  58 Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven.  59 Hannaniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame.  60 Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions.  

61 "And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 62 Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendour will turn into dung and worms.  63 Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish.  64 My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honour.  

65 "Now behold, I know that Simeon your brother is wise in counsel; always listen to him; he shall be your father. 66 Judas Maccabaeus has been a mighty warrior from his youth; he shall command the army for you and fight the battle against the peoples.  67 You shall rally about you all who observe the law, and avenge the wrong done to your people.  68 Pay back the Gentiles in full, and heed what the law commands."  

69 Then he blessed them, and was gathered to his fathers. 70 He died in the one hundred and forty-sixth year  { 166/5 B.C. } and was buried in the tomb of his fathers at Modein. And all Israel mourned for him with great lamentation. 

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1 Then Judas his son, who was called Maccabaeus, took command in his place. 2 All his brothers and all who had joined his father helped him; they gladly fought for Israel.  
  3 He extended the glory of his people.
  Like a giant he put on his breastplate;
  he girded on his armour of war and waged battles,
  protecting the host by his sword. 
  4 He was like a lion in his deeds,
  like a lion's cub roaring for prey. 
  5 He searched out and pursued the lawless;
  he burned those who troubled his people. 
  6 Lawless men shrank back for fear of him;
  all the evildoers were confounded;
  and deliverance prospered by his hand. 
  7 He embittered many kings,
  but he made Jacob glad by his deeds,
  and his memory is blessed for ever. 
  8 He went through the cities of Judah;
  he destroyed the ungodly out of the land;
  thus he turned away wrath from Israel. 
  9 He was renowned to the ends of the earth;
  he gathered in those who were perishing. 

10 But Apollonius gathered together Gentiles and a large force from Samaria to fight against Israel. 11 When Judas learned of it, he went out to meet him, and he defeated and killed him. Many were wounded and fell, and the rest fled.  12 Then they seized their spoils; and Judas took the sword of Apollonius, and used it in battle the rest of his life.  

13 Now when Seron, the commander of the Syrian army, heard that Judas had gathered a large company, including a body of faithful men who stayed with him and went out to battle, 14 he said, "I will make a name for myself and win honour in the kingdom. I will make war on Judas and his companions, who scorn the king's command."  15 And again a strong army of ungodly men went up with him to help him, to take vengeance on the sons of Israel.  

16 When he approached the ascent of Beth-horon, Judas went out to meet him with a small company. 17 But when they saw the army coming to meet them, they said to Judas, "How can we, few as we are, fight against so great and strong a multitude? And we are faint, for we have eaten nothing today."  18 Judas replied, "It is easy for many to be hemmed in by few, for in the sight of Heaven there is no difference between saving by many or by few.  19 It is not on the size of the army that victory in battle depends, but strength comes from Heaven.  20 They come against us in great pride and lawlessness to destroy us and our wives and our children, and to despoil us;  21 but we fight for our lives and our laws.  22 He himself will crush them before us; as for you, do not be afraid of them."  

23 When he finished speaking, he rushed suddenly against Seron and his army, and they were crushed before him. 24 They pursued them down the descent of Beth-horon to the plain; eight hundred of them fell, and the rest fled into the land of the Philistines.  25 Then Judas and his brothers began to be feared, and terror fell upon the Gentiles round about them.  26 His fame reached the king, and the Gentiles talked of the battles of Judas.  

27 When king Antiochus heard these reports, he was greatly angered; and he sent and gathered all the forces of his kingdom, a very strong army. 28 And he opened his coffers and gave a year's pay to his forces, and ordered them to be ready for any need.  29 Then he saw that the money in the treasury was exhausted, and that the revenues from the country were small because of the dissension and disaster which he had caused in the land by abolishing the laws that had existed from the earliest days.  30 He feared that he might not have such funds as he had before for his expenses and for the gifts which he used to give more lavishly than preceding kings.  31 He was greatly perplexed in mind, and determined to go to Persia and collect the revenues from those regions and raise a large fund.  

32 He left Lysias, a distinguished man of royal lineage, in charge of the king's affairs from the river Euphrates to the borders of Egypt. 33 Lysias was also to take care of Antiochus his son until he returned.  34 And he turned over to Lysias half of his troops and the elephants, and gave him orders about all that he wanted done. As for the residents of Judaea and Jerusalem,  35 Lysias was to send a force against them to wipe out and destroy the strength of Israel and the remnant of Jerusalem; he was to banish the memory of them from the place,  36 settle aliens in all their territory, and distribute their land.  37 Then the king took the remaining half of his troops and departed from Antioch his capital in the one hundred and forty-seventh year { 165 B.C. }. He crossed the Euphrates river and went through the upper provinces.  

38 Lysias chose Ptolemaeus the son of Dorymenes, and Nicanor and Gorgias, mighty men among the friends of the king, 39 and sent with them forty thousand infantry and seven thousand cavalry to go into the land of Judah and destroy it, as the king had commanded.  40 so they departed with their entire force, and when they arrived they encamped near Emmaus in the plain.  41 When the traders of the region heard what was said to them, they took silver and gold in immense amounts, and fetters, and went to the camp to get the sons of Israel for slaves. And forces from Syria and the land of the Philistines joined with them.  

42 Now Judas and his brothers saw that misfortunes had increased and that the forces were encamped in their territory. They also learned what the king had commanded to do to the people to cause their final destruction. 43 But they said to one another, "Let us repair the destruction of our people, and fight for our people and the sanctuary."  44 And the congregation assembled to be ready for battle, and to pray and ask for mercy and compassion.  
  45 Jerusalem was uninhabited like a wilderness;
  not one of her children went in or out.
  The sanctuary was trampled down,
  and the sons of aliens held the citadel;
  it was a lodging place for the Gentiles.
  Joy was taken from Jacob;
  the flute and the harp ceased to play. 

46 So they assembled and went to Mizpah, opposite Jerusalem, because Israel formerly had a place of prayer in Mizpah. 47 They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes.  48 And they opened the book of the law to inquire into those matters about which the Gentiles were consulting the images of their idols.  49 They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days;  50 and they cried aloud to Heaven, saying, 
  "What shall we do with these?
  Where shall we take them? 
  51 Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,
  and thy priests mourn in humiliation. 
  52 And behold, the Gentiles are assembled against us to destroy us;
  thou knowest what they plot against us. 
  53 How will we be able to withstand them,
  if thou dost not help us?" 

54 Then they sounded the trumpets and gave a loud shout. 55 After this Judas appointed leaders of the people, in charge of thousands and hundreds and fifties and tens.  56 And he said to those who were building houses, or were betrothed, or were planting vineyards, or were fainthearted, that each should return to his home, according to the law.  57 Then the army marched out and encamped to the south of Emmaus.  

58 And Judas said, "Gird yourselves and be valiant. Be ready early in the morning to fight with these Gentiles who have assembled against us to destroy us and our sanctuary. 59 It is better for us to die in battle than to see the misfortunes of our nation and of the sanctuary.  60 But as his will in heaven may be, so he will do." 

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1 Now Gorgias took five thousand infantry and a thousand picked cavalry, and this division moved out by night 2 to fall upon the camp of the Jews and attack them suddenly. Men from the citadel were his guides.  3 But Judas heard of it, and he and his mighty men moved out to attack the king's force in Emmaus  4 while the division was still absent from the camp.  5 When Gorgias entered the camp of Judas by night, he found no one there, so he looked for them in the hills, because he said, "These men are fleeing from us."  

6 At daybreak Judas appeared in the plain with three thousand men, but they did not have armour and swords such as they desired. 7 And they saw the camp of the Gentiles, strong and fortified, with cavalry round about it; and these men were trained in war.  8 But Judas said to the men who were with him, "Do not fear their numbers or be afraid when they charge.  9 Remember how our fathers were saved at the Red Sea, when Pharaoh with his forces pursued them.  10 And now let us cry to Heaven, to see whether he will favour us and remember his covenant with our fathers and crush this army before us today.  11 Then all the Gentiles will know that there is one who redeems and saves Israel."  

12 When the foreigners looked up and saw them coming against them, 13 they went forth from their camp to battle. Then the men with Judas blew their trumpets  14 and engaged in battle. The Gentiles were crushed and fled into the plain,  15 and all those in the rear fell by the sword. They pursued them to Gazara, and to the plains of Idumaea, and to Azotus and Jamnia; and three thousand of them fell.  16 Then Judas and his force turned back from pursuing them,  17 and he said to the people, "Do not be greedy for plunder, for there is a battle before us;  18 Gorgias and his force are near us in the hills. But stand now against our enemies and fight them, and afterward seize the plunder boldly."  

19 Just as Judas was finishing this speech, a detachment appeared, coming out of the hills. 20 They saw that their army had been put to flight, and that the Jews were burning the camp, for the smoke that was seen showed what had happened.  21 When they perceived this they were greatly frightened, and when they also saw the army of Judas drawn up in the plain for battle,  22 they all fled into the land of the Philistines.  23 Then Judas returned to plunder the camp, and they seized much gold and silver, and cloth dyed blue and sea purple, and great riches.  24 On their return they sang hymns and praises to Heaven, for he is good, for his mercy endures for ever.  25 Thus Israel had a great deliverance that day.  

26 Those of the foreigners who escaped went and reported to Lysias all that had happened. 27 When he heard it, he was perplexed and discouraged, for things had not happened to Israel as he had intended, nor had they turned out as the king had commanded him.  28 But the next year he mustered sixty thousand picked infantrymen and five thousand cavalry to subdue them.  29 They came into Idumaea and encamped at Beth-zur, and Judas met them with ten thousand men.  

30 When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Saviour of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armour. 31 So do thou hem in this army by the hand of thy people Israel, and let them be ashamed of their troops and their cavalry.  32 Fill them with cowardice; melt the boldness of their strength; let them tremble in their destruction.  33 Strike them down with the sword of those who love thee, and let all who know thy name praise thee with hymns."  

34 Then both sides attacked, and there fell of the army of Lysias five thousand men; they fell in action. 35 And when Lysias saw the rout of his troops and observed the boldness which inspired those of Judas, and how ready they were either to live or to die nobly, he departed to Antioch and enlisted mercenaries, to invade Judaea again with an even larger army.  

36 Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it." 37 So all the army assembled and they went up to Mount Zion.  38 And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins.  39 Then they rent their clothes, and mourned with great lamentation, and sprinkled themselves with ashes.  40 They fell face down on the ground, and sounded the signal on the trumpets, and cried out to Heaven.  41 Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary.  

42 He chose blameless priests devoted to the law, 43 and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place.  44 They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned.  45 And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar,  46 and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them.  47 Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one.  48 They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts.  49 They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple.  50 Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple.  51 They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken.  

52 Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Kislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year { December  164 B.C. }, 53 they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built.  54 At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals.  55 All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them.  56 So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise.  57 They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors.  58 There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed.  

59 Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Kislev.   

60 At that time they fortified Mount Zion with high walls and strong towers round about, to keep the Gentiles from coming and trampling them down as they had done before. 61 And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumaea. 

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1 When the Gentiles round about heard that the altar had been built and the sanctuary dedicated as it was before, they became very angry, 2 and they determined to destroy the descendants of Jacob who lived among them. So they began to kill and destroy among the people.  3 But Judas made war on the sons of Esau in Idumaea, at Acrabattene, because they kept lying in wait for Israel. He dealt them a heavy blow and humbled them and despoiled them.  4 He also remembered the wickedness of the sons of Baean, who were a trap and a snare to the people and ambushed them on the highways.  5 They were shut up by him in their towers; and he encamped against them, vowed their complete destruction, and burned with fire their towers and all who were in them.  6 Then he crossed over to attack the Ammonites, where he found a strong band and many people with Timotheus as their leader.  7 He engaged in many battles with them and they were crushed before him; he struck them down.  8 He also took Jazer and its villages; then he returned to Judaea.  

9 Now the Gentiles in Gilead gathered together against the Israelites who lived in their territory, and planned to destroy them. But they fled to the stronghold of Dathema, 10 and sent to Judas and his brothers a letter which said, "The Gentiles around us have gathered together against us to destroy us.  11 They are preparing to come and capture the stronghold to which we have fled, and Timotheus is leading their forces.  12 Now then come and rescue us from their hands, for many of us have fallen,  13 and all our brethren who were in the land of Tūbias have been killed; the enemy have captured their wives and children and goods, and have destroyed about a thousand men there."  

14 While the letter was still being read, behold, other messengers, with their garments rent, came from Galilee and made a similar report; 15 they said that against them had gathered together men of Ptolemais and Tyre and Sidon, and all Galilee of the Gentiles, "to annihilate us."  16 When Judas and the people heard these messages, a great assembly was called to determine what they should do for their brethren who were in distress and were being attacked by enemies.  17 Then Judas said to Simon his brother, "Choose your men and go and rescue your brethren in Galilee; I and Jonathan my brother will go to Gilead."  18 But he left Joseph, the son of Zechariah, and Azariah, a leader of the people, with the rest of the forces, in Judaea to guard it;  19 and he gave them this command, "Take charge of this people, but do not engage in battle with the Gentiles until we return."  20 Then three thousand men were assigned to Simon to go to Galilee, and eight thousand to Judas for Gilead.  

21 So Simon went to Galilee and fought many battles against the Gentiles, and the Gentiles were crushed before him. 22 He pursued them to the gate of Ptolemais, and as many as three thousand of the Gentiles fell, and he despoiled them.  23 Then he took the Jews of Galilee and Arbatta, with their wives and children, and all they possessed, and led them to Judaea with great rejoicing.  

24 Judas Maccabaeus and Jonathan his brother crossed the Jordan and went three days' journey into the wilderness. 25 They encountered the Nabateans, who met them peaceably and told them all that had happened to their brethren in Gilead:  26 "Many of them have been shut up in Bozrah and Bosor, in Alema and Chaspho, Maked and Carnaim" - all these cities were strong and large - 27 "and some have been shut up in the other cities of Gilead; the enemy are getting ready to attack the strongholds tomorrow and take and destroy all these men in one day."  

28 Then Judas and his army quickly turned back by the wilderness road to Bozrah; and he took the city, and killed every male by the edge of the sword; then he seized all its spoils and burned it with fire. 29 He departed from there at night, and they went all the way to the stronghold of Dathema.  30 At dawn they looked up, and behold, a large company, that could not be counted, carrying ladders and engines of war to capture the stronghold, and attacking the Jews within.  31 So Judas saw that the battle had begun and that the cry of the city went up to Heaven with trumpets and loud shouts,  32 and he said to the men of his forces, "Fight today for your brethren!"  33 Then he came up behind them in three companies, who sounded their trumpets and cried aloud in prayer.  34 And when the army of Timotheus realised that it was Maccabaeus, they fled before him, and he dealt them a heavy blow. As many as eight thousand of them fell that day.  

35 Next he turned aside to Alema, and fought against it and took it; and he killed every male in it, plundered it, and burned it with fire. 36 From there he marched on and took Chaspho, Maked, and Bosor, and the other cities of Gilead.  

37 After these things Timotheus gathered another army and encamped opposite Raphon, on the other side of the stream. 38 Judas sent men to spy out the camp, and they reported to him, "All the Gentiles around us have gathered to him; it is a very large force.  39 They also have hired Arabs to help them, and they are encamped across the stream, ready to come and fight against you." And Judas went to meet them.  

40 Now as Judas and his army drew near to the stream of water, Timotheus said to the officers of his forces, "If he crosses over to us first, we will not be able to resist him, for he will surely defeat us. 41 But if he shows fear and camps on the other side of the river, we will cross over to him and defeat him."  42 When Judas approached the stream of water, he stationed the scribes of the people at the stream and gave them this command, "Permit no man to encamp, but make them all enter the battle."  43 Then he crossed over against them first, and the whole army followed him. All the Gentiles were defeated before him, and they threw away their arms and fled into the sacred precincts at Carnaim.  44 But he took the city and burned the sacred precincts with fire, together with all who were in them. Thus Carnaim was conquered; they could stand before Judas no longer.  

45 Then Judas gathered together all the Israelites in Gilead, the small and the great, with their wives and children and goods, a very large company, to go to the land of Judah. 46 So they came to Ephron. This was a large and very strong city on the road, and they could not go round it to the right or to the left; they had to go through it.  47 But the men of the city shut them out and blocked up the gates with stones.  48 And Judas sent them this friendly message, "Let us pass through your land to get to our land. No one will do you harm; we will simply pass by on foot." But they refused to open to him.  49 Then Judas ordered proclamation to be made to the army that each should encamp where he was.  50 So the men of the forces encamped, and he fought against the city all that day and all the night, and the city was delivered into his hands.  51 He destroyed every male by the edge of the sword, and razed and plundered the city. Then he passed through the city over the slain.  

52 And they crossed the Jordan into the large plain before Beth-shan. 53 And Judas kept rallying the laggards and encouraging the people all the way till he came to the land of Judah.  54 So they went up to Mount Zion with gladness and joy, and offered burnt offerings, because not one of them had fallen before they returned in safety.  

55 Now while Judas and Jonathan were in Gilead and Simon his brother was in Galilee before Ptolemais, 56 Joseph, the son of Zechariah, and Azariah, the commanders of the forces, heard of their brave deeds and of the heroic war they had fought.  57 So they said, "Let us also make a name for ourselves; let us go and make war on the Gentiles around us."  58 And they issued orders to the men of the forces that were with them, and they marched against Jamnia.  59 And Gorgias and his men came out of the city to meet them in battle.  60 Then Joseph and Azariah were routed, and were pursued to the borders of Judaea; as many as two thousand of the people of Israel fell that day.  61 Thus the people suffered a great rout because, thinking to do a brave deed, they did not listen to Judas and his brothers.  62 But they did not belong to the family of those men through whom deliverance was given to Israel.  

63 The man Judas and his brothers were greatly honoured in all Israel and among all the Gentiles, wherever their name was heard. 64 Men gathered to them and praised them.  

65 Then Judas and his brothers went forth and fought the sons of Esau in the land to the south. He struck Hebron and its villages and tore down its strongholds and burned its towers round about. 66 Then he marched off to go into the land of the Philistines, and passed through Marisa.  67 On that day some priests, who wished to do a brave deed, fell in battle, for they went out to battle unwisely.  68 But Judas turned aside to Azotus in the land of the Philistines; he tore down their altars, and the graven images of their gods he burned with fire; he plundered the cities and returned to the land of Judah. 

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1 King Antiochus was going through the upper provinces when he heard that Elymais in Persia was a city famed for its wealth in silver and gold. 2 Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks.  3 So he came and tried to take the city and plunder it, but he could not, because his plan became known to the men of the city  4 and they withstood him in battle. So he fled and in great grief departed from there to return to Babylon.  

5 Then some one came to him in Persia and reported that the armies which had gone into the land of Judah had been routed; 6 that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down;  7 that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city.  

8 When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 9 He lay there for many days, because deep grief continually gripped him, and he concluded that he was dying.  10 So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep departs from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry.  11 I said to myself, `To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power.'  12 But now I remember the evils I did in Jerusalem. I seized all her vessels of silver and gold; and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judah without good reason.  13 I know that it is because of this that these evils have come upon me; and behold, I am perishing of deep grief in a strange land."  

14 Then he called for Philippus, one of his friends, and made him ruler over all his kingdom. 15 He gave him the crown and his robe and the signet, that he might guide Antiochus his son and bring him up to be king.  16 Thus Antiochus the king died there in the one hundred and forty-ninth year { 164 B.C. }17 And when Lysias learned that the king was dead, he set up Antiochus the king's son to reign. Lysias had brought him up as a boy, and he named him Eupator.  

18 Now the men in the citadel kept hemming Israel in around the sanctuary. They were trying in every way to harm them and strengthen the Gentiles. 19 So Judas decided to destroy them, and assembled all the people to besiege them.  20 They gathered together and besieged the citadel in the one hundred and fiftieth year { 163/2 B.C. }; and he built siege towers and other engines of war.  21 But some of the garrison escaped from the siege and some of the ungodly Israelites joined them.  22 They went to the king and said, "How long will you fail to do justice and to avenge our brethren?  23 We were happy to serve your father, to live by what he said and to follow his commands.  24 For this reason the sons of our people besieged the citadel and became hostile to us; moreover, they have put to death as many of us as they have caught, and they have seized our inheritances.  25 And not against us alone have they stretched out their hands, but also against all the lands on their borders.  26 And behold, today they have encamped against the citadel in Jerusalem to take it; they have fortified both the sanctuary and Beth-zur;  27 and unless you quickly prevent them, they will do still greater things, and you will not be able to stop them."  

28 The king was enraged when he heard this. He assembled all his friends, the commanders of his forces and those in authority. 29 And mercenary forces came to him from other kingdoms and from islands of the seas.  30 The number of his forces was a hundred thousand foot soldiers, twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants accustomed to war.  31 They came through Idumaea and encamped against Beth-zur, and for many days they fought and built engines of war; but the Jews sallied out and burned these with fire, and fought manfully.  

32 Then Judas marched away from the citadel and encamped at Beth-zechariah, opposite the camp of the king. 33 Early in the morning the king rose and took his army by a forced march along the road to Beth-zechariah, and his troops made ready for battle and sounded their trumpets.  34 They showed the elephants the juice of grapes and mulberries, to arouse them for battle.  35 And they distributed the beasts among the phalanxes; with each elephant they stationed a thousand men armed with coats of mail, and with brass helmets on their heads; and five hundred picked horsemen were assigned to each beast.  36 These took their position beforehand wherever the beast was; wherever it went they went with it, and they never left it.  37 And upon the elephants were wooden towers, strong and covered; they were fastened upon each beast by special harness, and upon each were four armed men who fought from there, and also its Indian driver.  38 The rest of the horsemen were stationed on either side, on the two flanks of the army, to harass the enemy while being themselves protected by the phalanxes39 When the sun shone upon the shields of gold and brass, the hills were ablaze with them and gleamed like flaming torches.  

40 Now a part of the king's army was spread out on the high hills, and some troops were on the plain, and they advanced steadily and in good order. 41 All who heard the noise made by their multitude, by the marching of the multitude and the clanking of their arms, trembled, for the army was very large and strong.  42 But Judas and his army advanced to the battle, and six hundred men of the king's army fell.  43 And Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the beasts was equipped with royal armour. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was upon it.  44 So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name.  45 He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides.  46 He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died.  47 And when the Jews saw the royal might and the fierce attack of the forces, they turned away in flight.  

48 The soldiers of the king's army went up to Jerusalem against them, and the king encamped in Judaea and at Mount Zion. 49 He made peace with the men of Beth-zur, and they evacuated the city, because they had no provisions there to withstand a siege, since it was a sabbatical year for the land.  50 So the king took Beth-zur and stationed a guard there to hold it.  51 Then he encamped before the sanctuary for many days. He set up siege towers, engines of war to throw fire and stones, machines to shoot arrows, and catapults.  52 The Jews also made engines of war to match theirs, and fought for many days.  53 But they had no food in storage, because it was the seventh year; those who found safety in Judaea from the Gentiles had consumed the last of the stores.  54 Few men were left in the sanctuary, because famine had prevailed over the rest and they had been scattered, each to his own place.  

55 Then Lysias heard that Philippus, whom King Antiochus while still living had appointed to bring up Antiochus his son to be king, 56 had returned from Persia and Media with the forces that had gone with the king, and that he was trying to seize control of the government.  57 So he quickly gave orders to depart, and said to the king, to the commanders of the forces, and to the men, "We daily grow weaker, our food supply is scant, the place against which we are fighting is strong, and the affairs of the kingdom press urgently upon us.  58 Now then let us come to terms with these men, and make peace with them and with all their nation,  59 and agree to let them live by their laws as they did before; for it was on account of their laws which we abolished that they became angry and did all these things."  

60 The speech pleased the king and the commanders, and he sent to the Jews an offer of peace, and they accepted it. 61 So the king and the commanders gave them their oath. On these conditions the Jews evacuated the stronghold.  62 But when the king entered Mount Zion and saw what a strong fortress the place was, he broke the oath he had sworn and gave orders to tear down the wall all around.  63 Then he departed with haste and returned to Antioch. He found Philippus in control of the city, but he fought against him, and took the city by force. 

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1 In the one hundred and fifty-first year  { 162/1 B.C. } Demetrius the son of Seleucus set forth from Rome, sailed with a few men to a city by the sea, and there began to reign. 2 As he was entering the royal palace of his fathers, the army seized Antiochus and Lysias to bring them to him.  3 But when this act became known to him, he said, "Do not let me see their faces!"  4 So the army killed them, and Demetrius took his seat upon the throne of his kingdom.  

5 Then there came to him all the lawless and ungodly men of Israel; they were led by Alcimus, who wanted to be high priest. 6 And they brought to the king this accusation against the people: "Judas and his brothers have destroyed all your friends, and have driven us out of our land.  7 Now then send a man whom you trust; let him go and see all the ruin which Judas has brought upon us and upon the land of the king, and let him punish them and all who help them."  

8 So the king chose Bacchides, one of the king's friends, governor of the province Beyond the River; he was a great man in the kingdom and was faithful to the king. 9 And he sent him, and with him the ungodly Alcimus, whom he made high priest; and he commanded him to take vengeance on the sons of Israel.  10 So they marched away and came with a large force into the land of Judah; and he sent messengers to Judas and his brothers with peaceable but treacherous words.  11 But they paid no attention to their words, for they saw that they had come with a large force.  

12 Then a group of scribes appeared in a body before Alcimus and Bacchides to ask for just terms. 13 The Hasidaeans were first among the sons of Israel to seek peace from them,  14 for they said, "A priest of the line of Aaron has come with the army, and he will not harm us."  15 And he spoke peaceable words to them and swore this oath to them, "We will not seek to injure you or your friends."  16 So they trusted him; but he seized sixty of them and killed them in one day, in accordance with the word which was written [Psalms, 79'2-3],  
  17 "The flesh of thy saints and their blood
  they poured out round about Jerusalem,
  and there was none to bury them." 

18 Then the fear and dread of them fell upon all the people, for they said, "There is no truth or justice in them, for they have violated the agreement and the oath which they swore."  

19 Then Bacchides departed from Jerusalem and encamped in Beth-zaith. And he sent and seized many of the men who had deserted to him, and some of the people, and killed them and threw them into a great pit. 20 He placed Alcimus in charge of the country and left with him a force to help him; then Bacchides went back to the king.  

21 Alcimus strove for the high priesthood, 22 and all who were troubling their people joined him. They gained control of the land of Judah and did great damage in Israel.  23 And Judas saw all the evil that Alcimus and those with him had done among the sons of Israel; it was more than the Gentiles had done.  24 So Judas went out into all the surrounding parts of Judaea, and took vengeance on the men who had deserted, and he prevented those in the city from going out into the country.  25 When Alcimus saw that Judas and those with him had grown strong, and realised that he could not withstand them, he returned to the king and brought wicked charges against them.  

26 Then the king sent Nicanor, one of his honoured princes, who hated and detested Israel, and he commanded him to destroy the people. 27 So Nicanor came to Jerusalem with a large force, and treacherously sent to Judas and his brothers this peaceable message,  28 "Let there be no fighting between me and you; I shall come with a few men to see you face to face in peace."  29 So he came to Judas, and they greeted one another peaceably. But the enemy were ready to seize Judas.  30 It became known to Judas that Nicanor had come to him with treacherous intent, and he was afraid of him and would not meet him again.  31 When Nicanor learned that his plan had been disclosed, he went out to meet Judas in battle near Caphar-salama.  32 About five hundred men of the army of Nicanor fell, and the rest fled into the city of David.  

33 After these events Nicanor went up to Mount Zion. Some of the priests came out of the sanctuary, and some of the elders of the people, to greet him peaceably and to show him the burnt offering that was being offered for the king. 34 But he mocked them and derided them and defiled them and spoke arrogantly,  35 and in anger he swore this oath, "Unless Judas and his army are delivered into my hands this time, then if I return safely I will burn up this house." And he went out in great anger.  36 Then the priests went in and stood before the altar and the temple, and they wept and said,  
  37 "Thou didst choose this house to be called by thy name,
  and to be for thy people a house of prayer and supplication. 
38 Take vengeance on this man and on his army,
  and let them fall by the sword;
  remember their blasphemies,
  and let them live no longer." 

39 Now Nicanor went out from Jerusalem and encamped in Beth-horon, and the Syrian army joined him. 40 And Judas encamped in Adasa with three thousand men. Then Judas prayed and said,  41 "When the messengers from the king spoke blasphemy, thy angel went forth and struck down one hundred and eighty-five thousand of the Assyrians.  42 So also crush this army before us today; let the rest learn that Nicanor has spoken wickedly against the sanctuary, and judge him according to this wickedness."  43 So the armies met in battle on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar. The army of Nicanor was crushed, and he himself was the first to fall in the battle.  44 When his army saw that Nicanor had fallen, they threw down their arms and fled.  45 The Jews pursued them a day's journey, from Adasa as far as Gazara, and as they followed kept sounding the battle call on the trumpets.  46 And men came out of all the villages of Judaea round about, and they out-flanked the enemy and drove them back to their pursuers, so that they all fell by the sword; not even one of them was left.  47 Then the Jews seized the spoils and the plunder, and they cut off Nicanor's head and the right hand which he so arrogantly stretched out, and brought them and displayed them just outside Jerusalem.  48 The people rejoiced greatly and celebrated that day as a day of great gladness.  49 And they decreed that this day should be celebrated each year on the thirteenth day of Adar.  50 So the land of Judah had rest for a few days. 

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1 Now Judas heard of the fame of the Romans, that they were very strong and were well-disposed toward all who made an alliance with them, that they pledged friendship to those who came to them, 2 and that they were very strong. Men told him of their wars and of the brave deeds which they were doing among the Gauls, how they had defeated them and forced them to pay tribute,  3 and what they had done in the land of Spain to get control of the silver and gold mines there,  4 and how they had gained control of the whole region by their planning and patience, even though the place was far distant from them. They also subdued the kings who came against them from the ends of the earth, until they crushed them and inflicted great disaster upon them; the rest paid them tribute every year.  5 Philip, and Perseus king of the Macedonians, and the others who rose up against them, they crushed in battle and conquered.  6 They also defeated Antiochus the Great, king of Asia, who went to fight against them with a hundred and twenty elephants and with cavalry and chariots and a very large army. He was crushed by them;  7 they took him alive and decreed that he and those who should reign after him should pay a heavy tribute and give hostages and surrender some of their best provinces,  8 the country of India and Media and Lydia. These they took from him and gave to Eumenes the king.  9 The Greeks planned to come and destroy them,  10 but this became known to them, and they sent a general against the Greeks and attacked them. Many of them were wounded and fell, and the Romans took captive their wives and children; they plundered them, conquered the land, tore down their strongholds, and enslaved them to this day.  11 The remaining kingdoms and islands, as many as ever opposed them, they destroyed and enslaved;  12 but with their friends and those who rely on them they have kept friendship. They have subdued kings far and near, and as many as have heard of their fame have feared them.  13 Those whom they wish to help and to make kings, they make kings, and those whom they wish they depose; and they have been greatly exalted.  14 Yet for all this not one of them has put on a crown or worn purple as a mark of pride,  15 but they have built for themselves a senate chamber, and every day three hundred and twenty senators constantly deliberate concerning the people, to govern them well.  16 They trust one man each year to rule over them and to control all their land; they all heed the one man, and there is no envy or jealousy among them.  

17 So Judas chose Eupolemus the son of John, son of Accos, and Jason the son of Eleazar, and sent them to Rome to establish friendship and alliance, 18 and to free themselves from the yoke; for they saw that the kingdom of the Greeks was completely enslaving Israel.  19 They went to Rome, a very long journey; and they entered the senate chamber and spoke as follows:  20 "Judas, who is also called Maccabaeus, and his brothers and the people of the Jews have sent us to you to establish alliance and peace with you, that we may be enrolled as your allies and friends."  21 The proposal pleased them,  22 and this is a copy of the letter which they wrote in reply, on bronze tablets, and sent to Jerusalem to remain with them there as a memorial of peace and alliance:  

23 "May all go well with the Romans and with the nation of the Jews at sea and on land for ever, and may sword and enemy be far from them. 24 If war comes first to Rome or to any of their allies in all their dominion,  25 the nation of the Jews shall act as their allies wholeheartedly, as the occasion may indicate to them.  26 And to the enemy who makes war they shall not give or supply grain, arms, money, or ships, as Rome has decided; and they shall keep their obligations without receiving any return.  27 In the same way, if war comes first to the nation of the Jews, the Romans shall willingly act as their allies, as the occasion may indicate to them.  28 And to the enemy allies shall be given no grain, arms, money, or ships, as Rome has decided; and they shall keep these obligations and do so without deceit.  29 Thus on these terms the Romans make a treaty with the Jewish people.  30 If after these terms are in effect both parties shall determine to add or delete anything, they shall do so at their discretion, and any addition or deletion that they may make shall be valid.  

31 "And concerning the wrongs which King Demetrius is doing to them we have written to him as follows, `Why have you made your yoke heavy upon our friends and allies the Jews? 32 If now they appeal again for help against you, we will defend their rights and fight you on sea and on land.'" 

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