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Translations of Hellenistic Inscriptions: 175


PRIENE HONOURS ITS BENEFACTORS

By the time of these decrees, a benefactor was often distinguished more by his regular handouts from his personal wealth than by his exploits in the service of the state; see P.Thonemann, "The Hellenistic Age", pp.107-110 ( Google Books ).   Nevertheless it is remarkable how much foreign travel most of these men undertook on behalf of their homeland - apart from Zosimos, whose most important achievements were as gymnasiarch in Priene.

All these inscriptions were discovered in the Sacred Stoa, which was constructed in the middle of the 2nd century B.C.; see D.Seres, "Dynamics of public memory in Hellenistic Priene", pp.193-197 ( academia.edu ).   For an explanation of the format, see the key to translations.


[A]   Greek text:   Priene_66   ( I.Pri. 108 )
  Provenance:     Priene , Ionia
  Date:   after 129 B.C.

Moschion

This long inscription contains one of the most detailed surviving accounts of the career of a local benefactor in Hellenistic times. Moschion's career lasted well over twenty years, from the reign of Demetrios I of Syria (161-150 B.C.) up until the Roman settlement of Asia Minor in 129 B.C.   There is a French translation of the inscription in a thesis by Isabelle Carbonneau, "L'évergétisme à Priène à la fin de l'époque hellénistique", pp.45-52 ( PDF ).

[When] Moschion was stephanephoros, on the fifth day [of the month] of Metageitnion, the council and the people [honoured Moschion] son of Kydimos with a [golden] crown for valour, with a gilded [and a marble] statue, [with meals] in the prytaneion [and in the Panionion] and whenever the council [meets], with freedom from taxes on his person, [and with privileged seating] at all games.

10 The people crowns Moschion son of Kydimos.

It was resolved by the council and the people, [as proposed by] Zotion son of Zotion: since Moschion son of Kydimos has been a good and noble man since his earliest [youth], and has lived devoutly towards the gods and piously towards his parents and those who live with him in kinship and intimacy and towards all the other citizens, and behaves justly and gloriously towards his fatherland, in a manner worthy of the virtue and glory of his ancestors; 20 and throughout his life he has had the evident favour of the gods and the [goodwill] of his fellow citizens and residents for what he has done with the best intent . . . 

. . . [and when in the year of . . . as stephanephoros] he was elected as theoros by the people [along with his brother], he performed the sacrifices with his brother from his own resources, and he released the people from paying the prescribed allowance; for he chose from the beginning to provide a fine display of his piety towards the gods 30 and his good attitude towards the city; and when in the year of Telon as stephanephoros the people required a large amount of money for its support, as he wished at every opportunity not to to overlook the needs of his fatherland, with his brother he contributed a thousand drachmas; and as for the construction work on the gymnasium, not only . . .

. . . the instruction; and when . . . was stephanephoros, 40 [with his brother he gave] three thousand drachmas [for the completion] of the aforesaid building; and in the year [of the same stephanephoros], as the store of corn was deficient, observing the urgency of the matter and having a spontaneous goodwill towards the people, he willingly came forward to the assembly and on behalf of [himself] and his brother he gave [to the city] two hundred [and six] medimnoi [of wheat], at a cost of four drachmas per medimnos, from the beginning . . . he promised not to neglect [other requirement] on critical occasions, and intended that all the citizens and those residing with us should have plenty to eat; 50 and when, in the year of Hippothon as stephanephoros, there was a requirement for money arising from advances, in this matter also he acted honourably, as he came forward to the citizens and with his brother he advanced a thousand drachmas; and because [he wished] to act on his [goodwill] towards the populace in every way and not to be found lacking in anything, he not only showed himself eager to help in [? the matter of] the advances, but also, in the year of Herakleitos as stephanephoros, with his brother he gave corn to the city as a free gift, as [is recorded] in the documents about this matter in the public archives; 60 and wishing to make his goodwill towards his parents [clear to everyone] . . . and when [? the god] was stephanephoros [? after] Demetrios, because he both [held] the interests of the city before his eyes and wished to ensure the honour and dignity [of his mother], with his brother [Athenopolis] he distributed on behalf of their mother [a thousand] Alexandrian drachmas; and when [in the year] of Herodotos as stephanephoros the store of [corn] was deficient, Moschion, wishing to act in a manner typical of himself and realising the urgency of the matter, 70 [undertook] to donate [what was lacking], and offered besides for . . . months [to measure it out] to the citizens at a lower price so that the people might be preserved [along with their wives and] children . . . and through this matter [he obtained glory] and good repute [from everyone]; and when the temple of Alexandros was in disrepair, and the people had . . . at the same time, [in this] matter also he did not neglect the interests of his fatherland, [but with] his brother he contributed an advance of a thousand drachmas; and in the year of Aias as stephanephoros, when again . . . Alexandrian [drachmas] were lacking 80 for urgent requirements, he gave . . .

. . . [when] the people asked for [volunteers] individually [to measure out corn for] the public store at whatever price they wished, coming forward with his brother he measured out for the city the medimnoi of wheat as he proposed, in which he took no account of his own profit, and as always he acted in keeping with his honourable conduct towards the state; and in the year of Kekrops as stephanephoros, when the city required not only money 90 but also the provision of pledges, considering that his property should be shared with all the citizens, and the [appropriate] distributions . . . [? his brother], who himself also missed [no opportunity] in his [services] to the state, he contributed [a thousand] Alexandrian drachmas of money, and for use in pledges he contributed silver plate worth four thousand [Alexandrian] drachmas; and [with his] brother he measured out in addition for the city five hundred and fifty medimnoi of wheat, at the price that the citizens prescribed, wishing throughout to keep the citizens in prosperity, 100 and in accordance with his own purpose in his benefactions towards the city. . . and in the year of Sotes as stephanephoros, when there was no money in the public accounts and a payment of interest needed to be made to the Ionians, [then] also he did not ignore the reputation of the city, as he wanted the people to be seen to act justly, and with his brother he provided for this purpose 2,158 Alexandrian drachmas and 4 obols; and to pay the price of corn 110 he lent 1,200 Alexandrian drachmas; and after the people voted previously for the building of a gymnasium close to the city, and this could not be completed [because] of the changes that occurred to the kings who had offered to assist with the aforesaid expenditure, he observed that this would remain [forever] as a [great] and glorious ornament for the city, [if] he took on these matters and . . .

130 . . . in [agreement] with the edicts of the Roman leaders . . .

140 . . . the surrounding danger, an embassy from all the [? citizens], and . . .

. . . from the Romans . . .

. . . and observing that the city was eagerly . . . to the requests . . .

150 . . . Moschion, along with the other citizens who undertook it . . . the soldiers for two months, supplying their pay from his own resources; and when the people had previously chosen theoroi to go to King Demetrios,and Moschion also was appointed to be a theoros, he did not accept the allowance that was assigned to him by the city; and when he was elected to go as envoy to king Demetrios the son of king Demetrios, he showed the same excellent attitude as in his previous actions . . .

. . . and performed the embassy using his own resources; and when he was appointed as theoros 160 to Magnesia and Tralleis and Kibyra, again he did not accept the travelling allowances that were assigned for these journeys, as he wished in [all] matters to behave in a manner typical of himself, and he performed the journeys [as a free gift]; and afterwards he acted as an envoy on behalf of the people on many occasions, both to kings and to cities, and he performed all these embassies to the advantage of the people; the previous embassies he performed as a free gift, but when he was sent by his fatherland on official business to king Ptolemaios in Alexandria and to Petra in Arabia, as he stayed there for a longer time than had been anticipated by the people, 170 and [? incurred] extra expenses in order to help in achieving what was useful for the whole city, he took on himself the expenditure in excess of the allowance assigned for [the journey] . . .

200 . . . he showed himself to be . . . [to the guards] . . . and because of his excellent conduct towards them, 210 [he received every] honour from those who served [with him in the] guarding of the citadel; and when he became checking-clerk {antigrapheus} for the year when Nausikrates was stephanephoros, he applied close attention to the keeping of the accounts and to the other matters related to the city, so that everything might be safely [managed], and due to his carefulness in these matters he was of considerable benefit to the [people]; and consequently later, when . . . was stephanephoros, the people again elected him to be checking-clerk [for the] year when Dionysokles was stephanephoros, knowing that this man would apply the greatest [care] 220 to public business; [and he] showed consistently honourable conduct, acting to the advantage of the city [in all matters relating to] his service as checking-clerk; [then], when Marcus Perperna son of Marcus, who arrived in Asia with infantry and cavalry forces to fight against those who chose to take action in opposition to the senate, won gloriously and overcame the enemy, and Perperna gave thank-offerings in the city of Pergamon and wrote to the people of Priene about the games and sacrifices that he intended to perform, 230 Moschion was chosen as envoy and theoros by the people, and along with the others who were appointed [he made] his visit notable . . . 

. . . devoutly disposed towards the gods, and treating his parents [piously], and forever behaving justly and benevolently towards the people; and when he assumed the crown of Olympian Zeus and took on the office of stephanephoros, he adorned all the temples in front of the city with wreaths, and honoured the altars of the gods with incense; and by a proclamation he invited the sons of those [? who fell in battle] and all the citizens and resident aliens and [foreigners] and freedmen and household slaves to share in sweetmeats; and after sacrificing oxen to Olympian [Zeus] 260 and Hera and Athene Polias and Pan Arogos on the first day of the month, on the second day he made a proclamation and distributed the meat from the sacrifices to the citizens, in every month of the year when he was stephanephoros, . . .

. . . [to a distribution] of wine and sweetmeats, and [he measured out] half a tetarteus of wheat for each [of the citizens; and because he did not wish the foreigners and] resident aliens [to be deprived of the pleasure] of the aforesaid feasting, or to miss [the generosity of the distributions], he welcomed them as well; and similarly . . . to whom the people gives participation, as also . . . the critical occasion 280 . . . to miss [no opportunity] for generosity; and he led a [procession in the] festival of Panathenaia with a cow [worthy] of Athene, [giving a demonstration of his] absolute devoutness towards the gods; and he conducted himself fittingly, in a manner worthy [? of the god], [throughout his time as] stephanephoros, [showing his goodwill] towards everyone conspicuously, so that he received the greatest [approbation] from [the foreigners] who were staying in the city . . .

. . . as a benefactor to the people, 310 and his own [nobleness] . . . [always] being the cause of some good for the city; therefore, in order that future generations, seeing that such men receive the greatest approbation, may offer themselves eagerly to serve the interests of the [city], it is resolved by the council and the people to praise Moschion son of Kydimos for all the reasons stated above, and to crown him with a golden crown for valour; and he shall be honoured with a gilded and a marble statue, both as fine as possible, and the statues shall be placed in the most prominent place in the city; both the council and the people shall take due care of him; and Moschion shall be given privileged seating 320 at [all] the games that the city [holds] . . . and meals in the prytaneion and the Panionion and participating in the sacrifices that are performed in the council and a share of all the other privileges that are shared by the council, and freedom from taxes on his person, and this inscription shall be carved on the base of each of the statues that are set up: "The people honours Moschion son of Kydimos on account of his virtue and goodwill and nobleness and his excellent conduct towards the people and his piety towards the gods." The agonothete who is appointed for the year when Apollodoros is stephanephoros and the secretary 330 of the council [and the people] shall [announce] the award of the crown in the theatre at the Dionysia, during the contest of the boy [flute-players, when the people] performs the ancestral libations, [in accordance] with what has been written; and after the proclamation of the award of the crown there shall be . . . that "The people honoured Moschion son of Kydimos with a gilded and a marble statue, because he is a fine and noble man concerning the [safety] and well-being of the people." 340 In the [same] way the [agonothetes] and the secretaries who are in office each year shall announce the award of the crown and the statues [in the manner] described above; and in order that the people may be seen not only to honour Moschion while he is alive, but also rightly to deem him worthy of the appropriate honours after he meets his fate, the steward {oikonomos} [of the city shall] . . .

. . . [and the funeral procession shall be followed] by the supervisors of boys {paidonomoi} [with the] boys and the gymnasiarch bringing the ephebes and the youths and the [generals] with the other citizens, 370 so that, with the funeral procession being so splendid, the others, because they recognise that the city shows gratitude in this [matter] also, and honours the best of men not only while they are alive, but also after they pass away, may offer themselves much more eagerly to the service of the people; and the incoming steward, Thrasyboulos, shall publish this decree, ensuring that it is inscribed in the most prominent place in the agora, [wherever the] architect [decides], in order that, when [the honours] are recorded in an inscription, 380 the magnanimity [and glory] of Moschion and the zeal of the people towards [its] benefactors may receive conspicuous gratitude for evermore.



[B]   Greek text:   Priene_106   ( I.Pri. 121 )
  Date:   c. 90 B.C.
  Tags:     arbitration

An envoy (name lost)

Although only a part of this inscription has survived, it gives a good impression of the extent of Priene's diplomatic activity in the early 1st century B.C. It is clear that, even after Asia Minor became a Roman province, Priene was still involved in disputes with some of the neighbouring Greek cities, such as Miletos, Samos, and perhaps Magnesia; see S.L.Ager, "Interstate Arbitrations in the Greek World, 337-90 B.C.", no. 171 ( Google Books ). For some comments on the Roman officials who are mentioned in the inscription, see G.V.Sumner, "Governors of Asia in the Nineties B.C.", pp.150-153 ( PDF ).

20 . . . on behalf of. . . to the governors who were [sent] by the Romans to Asia, Gaius Labeo and Lucius Piso and Marcus Hypsaeus, and Marcus Silanus the quaestor (?) of Murena, and to other Romans. He went as envoy on many occasions to the Milesians concerning the matters that beset the city, and similarly to the Magnesians. He also went as envoy to the Samians concerning the affairs of the territory and to demand the surrender of the murderers, and to the Trallians concerning the matters that beset the city, on many occasions without ever shirking any hardship. Similarly he went as envoy to the citizens of Alexandria in Troas and Ephesos and Mylasa, 30 and to the Erythraians concerning the dispute with the Milesians, and to the Sardians; and similarly he went to the Kolophonians concerning the (?) dispute with the Magnesians on many occasions, and to Seleukos son of king Antiochos the son of king Demetrios, and to the Alabandians. And when he was sent as an adjudicator to Gaius Egnatius, he performed his own duties for the city without pay . . . [concerning] the interests of his fatherland . . . 



[C]   Greek text:   Priene_56   ( I.Pri. 111 )
  Date:   c. 89 B.C.

Krates

Krates had an important role in resolving the disputes in which Priene was involved at the time, but much of the long inscription in his honour has been lost, and the frequent gaps can make it difficult to follow the sense. The topics seem to be as follows:
1-22 :   dispute with (?) publicani - L.Caesar is Roman governor
112-120 :   dispute with publicani about salt-pans
123-133 :   dispute with (?) Miletos, arbitrated by Erythrai
134-143 :   dispute with publicani - L.Lucilius is Roman governor
143-151 :   dispute with Miletos - L.Lucilius is Roman governor
167-198 :   Krates as agonothete
199-214 :   Krates as supervisor of the sacred funds
238-245 :   Krates as stephanephoros
299-317 :   honours awarded to Krates.

The inscription has recently been analysed by C.Wallace, "Ager Publicus in the Greek East: I. Priene 111 and Other Examples of Resistance to the publicani", Historia 2014 (not currently available on the internet). Some sections of the translation are derived from his article. He concludes that the dispute between Priene and the publicani was not about taxation, but about the ownership of the salt-pans.

For the specific issue of Roman control of salt production, see I. Tsigarida, in "Ownership and Exploitation of Land and Natural Resources in the Roman World", pp.277-288 ( Google Books ).   For the dispute between Priene and Miletos, see the introduction to inscription B above.

. . . 10. . . of the proprietary rights [in the] places, from which . . . embassies in opposition . . . thinking these things unjust . . . to Gaius Julius, the son of Gaius . . . he travelled to Pergamon and made . . . so that he enjoined the proconsul . . . they toiled; when [. . .] was stephanephoros . . . fulfilled by them . . . [when . . . was] stephanephoros, in the month of Lenaion . . . 20 security deposit for the buildings . . . of the governor Gaius Julius, the son of Gaius . . . himself chosen to be envoy . . . of the jurors and the [. . .] responsible for . . . . . . and he performed this embassy also as a free gift . . . and when he was appointed as public advocate to . . . [the] people [voted him] for a second period of six months . . .

. . . 110 . . . [the salt-pans, which] formerly king Attalos worked, our city neither held them nor did [the senate] make any [lease of them] to the publicani . . . [Those salt-pans], which had been outfitted at his own expense and [had been the property] of Athene Polias for a long time and which [our people] did hold and profit from, [he preserved], prevailing upon the governor not to heed the arguments of the salt-contractors, but to [release] the installation to the city until we learned what had been decided [by the senate]; and he persuaded the proconsul personally to declare that the [? land occupied] by us ought to be fully retained; and again when the publicani used force and brought a [petition against us] to the governor, and suggested that we ought to give a security deposit until a [response] was received [from the senate], Krates set forth [arguments] on behalf of his fatherland and with close attention . . . 120 . . . and he accepted the whole . . . through his personal judgement, and he . . . [the] affairs; and when Sosikrates was stephanephoros . . . concerning which the senate issued a decree, and of all the . . . time, when he was also appointed to be a public advocate, and he joined in preparing . . . when he [travelled] to Erythrai, he bestowed every care and . . . pleading his cause on behalf of the city in the theatre of the Erythraians . . . of [the] men, and when another considerable multitude arrived and particularly . . . along with his fellow advocates he successfully resolved [the disagreement] about the right of sailing in . . . and they rejoiced with them at their good fortune arising from the judgement . . . 130 he retained the rights of the city in their entirety; and also when he brought news of the judgement [and the (?) indemnity for his] fatherland to the city along with the other [advocates] who had been appointed . . . and he also prevented the city from paying for the [expense] of his personal arrangements, by [paying] for these from his own resources; and throughout, as the publicani . . . of us, and always tried out the governors who [were sent] to Asia, and they met with the governor Lucius Lucilius, son of Lucius . . . he [replied] to the envoys who were sent to him by [us that] he . . . about the salt-pans, of which they accused . . . of his fatherland, and when he travelled to Ephesos . . . nothing of the places that fell to them the publicani . . . 140 when the people had sent an embassy to the senate about the salt-pans, which . . . the business to the city, until the senate determined about the salt-pans , by which the governor was persuaded . . . to leave the business intact for the city; and when Akrisios was stephanephoros, because we had an impending judgement against the Milesians, he was appointed [as public advocate], and went abroad with the others who were elected as advocates; and because our city wanted [a decision] to be made on the matters about which there was [a disagreement], and the matters about which a judgement had previously been made by the Erythraians, and we had been victorious in [the inquiry on] the right of sailing in . . . sharing with . . ., and the matters about which Lucius Lucilius [wrote a letter] and referred the matters [to the] senate, just as the decree contains, and . . . [all this] business should be [left] intact, just as was right; and when the Milesians in general [requested] that a judgement be made . . . they wanted to get a worthless [trial], and said . . . 150 a judgement to be made about all [these affairs] . . . or otherwise a judgement should not be made, and they requested . . .

. . . 160 . . . and when he was elected as agonothete, [while] Akrisios was still stephanephoros, throughout the five [year period] . . .

. . . 170 . . . with his fellow agonothetes [he gave] a distribution of meat [to all the citizens and the resident aliens and to the foreigners], and similarly to the theoroi from the other cities and the Dionysiac artists and the doctors and the trainers and the 'sparring-partners' {prosgymnastai} who were staying here and to the ephebes [from neighbouring states] who were staying here for [their education]; and along with his fellow agonothetes he spent from his own resources . . . twice he performed the duty concerning these matters; and he also spent . . . as agonothete the meat . . . and the cost of crowning the victors; and he went in procession with . . . of the most revered goddess . . . 180 and he offered the sacrifices to the goddess and he [prayed] earnestly for the city to have the best fortune and he sacrificed favourably on behalf of the safety of the citizens and he prayed [on behalf of the] citizens and the residents of the city and its territory . . .

. . . with his [fellow] agonothetes [he invited] the [theoroi] from the other cities [who were staying here] and their theorodokoi to the public hearth of the city, and he . . . released the people from a considerable [expense], 190 and [by adorning] the public [hearth] of the city in the way [that is customary for everyone], he obtained glory and fitting praise; [and he summoned] to his [house] all the magistrates who [hold office for a year], the generals who were in office for a month, the gymnasiarch of the youths, the [neōpoiēs, the] secretary of the council and the people, the copy clerk {antigrapheus}, the gymnasiarch of the [ephebes, the] supervisors of boys {paidonomoi}, the public reader and the herald of the city; and on account of the . . . of the money with his fellow agonothetes; with respect to the proclamation, he paid [the balance] due to this along with his fellow agonothetes liberally and . . . out of his own resources; . . . year, and while he was the priest of Homonoia {"Concord"} and . . . 200 . . . and foreign contracts for a greater rate of interest, and because of this [the city] was burdened [and was harassed by] its creditors, then he thought of the way through which he could establish the people . . . and he composed decrees when Akrisios was . . . of the city and for the money loaned to the neōpoiēs by Athene . . . Krates, [thinking] it necessary to remain, in the case of the sacred funds, in compliance with the terms set out in the [contracts] and to pay [the remainder of] the interest payments which the decree encompassed, the contracts . . . of the [? sacred] monies, he gave thought to the restoration of the balance to the goddess, arranging verbal contracts for the repayment of the monies until it was complete; not only did he exercise all care and forethought in these matters, supervising these contracts in the most honourable [way], but also [he took on] the whole [administration] of the sacred funds . . . throughout he continually 210 both said and did what was advantageous [to the city] . . . he compiled a concise [catalogue] of the gold offerings . . . when Megaristos son of Taureon was . . . in his devoutness [towards] the divinity; and . . . worthy of his [magnanimity] both in public and in [private] . . .

. . . 230 . . . when he took on the crown {of stephanephoros}, he made a distribution of sweetmeats in his own [house] . . . and slaves, and also the foreigners who were staying here . . . 240 and sacrificing propitiously to the goddess . . . [on behalf of the safety] of the citizens and the . . .

. . . to them as [was resolved by the] council [and the people] in lawful assembly; [and he summoned to recline and eat in the] Bianteion . . . [all the citizens] by tribe . . .

. . . 290 . . . his benevolence, therefore [it is resolved by the council and the people] . . .

. . . 300 . . . and a bronze [statue] . . .

. . . the stephanephoroi who are [chosen] each year [shall (?) take care of] the honours; and the secretary of the council and the people [shall announce the award of the crown in the theatre] at the Dionysia during the boys' contest; and when he departs from life, he shall be crowned [with a golden crown in his funeral procession, and] the secretaries of the [council and the people] who are then in office [shall make] the announcement [in the agora; and] the neōpoiēs of the city shall supply the money for the cost [of the] crown; and anyone else who wishes to crown Krates during his funeral procession shall be able 310 to do so . . . and the funeral procession shall be followed by the supervisor of boys {paidonomos} [with the boys and the gymnasiarch] of the youths accompanied by the ephebes and the youths and [the generals with the other citizens; and] he [shall have meals in the prytaneion and in the Panionion; and he shall participate in the sacred rites and the] sacrifices [that are performed] in the council; and this decree shall be inscribed [on the wall of the sacred stoa; and] the neōpoiēs [shall take care] that money is supplied [for the cost of] the inscription, [in order that by means of the inscription the] noble conduct of Krates may be revealed and [the recompense], given by his fatherland [to him in return for] his deeds, [may be made evident].



[D]   Greek text:   Priene_32 ,   Priene_33 ,   Priene_34   ( I.Pri. 112-114 )
  Date:   c. 80 B.C.
  Tags:     ephebes ,   gymnasiarchs

Aulus Aemilius Zosimos

Zosimos was honoured in three decrees, shown here in chronological order: the first, for his service as gymnasiarch; the second, for his service as stephanephoros; and the third, for his service as secretary of the council and the people for a second time. There are several references in the decrees to a war that had recently ended; this was probably the First Mithridatic War. It is noticeable that not only Zosimos, but also two other men who served as stephanephoros in Priene at this time, had adopted Roman names.

There is a French translation of the three inscriptions in a thesis by Isabelle Carbonneau, "L'évergétisme à Priène à la fin de l'époque hellénistique", pp.90-100 ( PDF ).

[D]   When Gaius Cestius Heliodoros was stephanephoros, on the twelfth day of the month of Metageitnion, the council and the people honoured Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus, who has served as gymnasiarch of the youths in a fine and upright and [honourable] manner, with a golden crown and a painted image and a bronze and a gilded and a marble statue on account of [his virtue] and [his goodwill towards the people.]

It was resolved by the council [and the] people, as proposed by Dioskourides son of Dioskourides, the son of Demeas, by birth the son of Herostratos: 10 since Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus, who is a fine [and noble man and] has followed a life that is not dishonourable with respect to glory, and has sought sincerity [and a noble] disposition as a distinction worthy of honour . . . and in no matter has he selfishly [pursued] his own [pleasure], but seeing that virtue alone procures prosperity and gratitude from [foreigners] and citizens who hold goodness in honour, he has stored up for himself [praise] from those who are alive now, and remembrance from those who will come in the future; for he has conducted himself with goodwill towards our city, and having been made a citizen by decree, he has provided a profitable recompense for this honour, by loving the city as if it were his fatherland, reckoning that kindness towards an individual is recalled as long as the recipient is alive, but benevolence towards the populace is passed on to everlasting fame; and as evidence of this he provides the trust shown in what has been (?) done by him; 20 for when he was elected to be secretary of the council and the people in the month of Boēdromion in the year of Demeas as stephanephoros, because the secretary who had previously been chosen in the elections had died, and no-one else would take on this duty at the time due to the heavy demands of the office, he protected the [private] welfare [of each individual and the] public welfare of the city, by making a second copy of documents on [parchment], and he did not begrudge the expense [of this], in order that the trust of the people might be [firmly assured], himself . . . when the [gymnasium] of the youths was likely [to be shut down and] no-one wanted to [undertake this service to the city], because its duties were burdensome, [in the year of] . . . as stephanephoros 30 [he was appointed] to be gymnasiarch [of the youths] . . .

. . . reckoning that to provide anointing-oil for an hour was not worthy of his personal distinction and would deprive many of his generosity, he rejected this course 60 and provided the oil from sunrise throughout the day until the first hour of the night, and on market days and traditional festivals he provided perfumed oil and unguents in the gymnasium and in the baths; [and so] it happened that no-one missed out on his generosity . . .

. . . 70. . . and a punch-bag and hoops . . . also the boxing-gloves and the weapons and a grammarian as overseer of the ephebes (?) for their studies in philology, intending that through the former their bodies should be made resolute, and through the latter their [souls] should be induced towards virtue and liberal instincts; and he provided bathing water as a free gift throughout the year for the ephebes and the trainers and the youths who bathed with the ephebes, and at the festivals he provided bathing water for all the citizens and resident aliens and neighbours and foreigners and Romans; 80 and determining that no physical competition should be (?) prevented . . . he dedicated throughout the year also a double set [of contests] both in all the physical exercises and in the [literary] studies; and because he wanted [his] gymnasiarchy and the city itself to appear remarkable to the foreigners who were [staying there], he allowed all those who were present at the festival to share in his gift of anointing-oil [in the] baths, and he made [available to all] the provision of oil 90 and unguents at the baths for all the days of the festival; and [he held] a contest of 'squill fighting' and a gymnastic contest in clothes for the ephebes and the youths, giving a golden head-band [to each] of the victors in the boxing, and he dignified the customs of the city, and as a (?) prize for the winning ephebes in the 'squill fight' he provided a calf; and because he wanted to make each of them more eager to come to the gymnasium for the care of their bodies, he heated the vapour-bath during the day throughout the whole winter, and he gave a share in the use of it to those who could not have made use of it 100 during the legally appointed time, and [he] . . . as a free contribution . . . undertaking this service . . . [he took on the] supervision of the festival of Panathenaia, [in order that (?) the people] might always honour the goddess {Athene}, the guardian of our city, and he led a procession according to custom with the (?) ox-drivers, and he offered a sacrifice of oxen on behalf of the city; and he presented a prize to the ephebes for wearing fine armour; 110 and he distributed the meat from the sacrifice to the magistracies and the councillors and to those who ran the long distance race and to the trainers (?) around the place and to the public officials; and as he wished in all matters to act in accordance with his benevolence towards the people, he also adorned the gymnasium, setting up two herms in front of the exedra of the ephebes, and . . . images of the [gods] to whom the place is set aside . . .

. . . so that other men, observing the goodwill of the people towards good men, 130 may serve the city with zeal, it is resolved by the council and the people to praise Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus for what has been mentioned above, and to crown him with a golden crown; and to honour him with a painted image and a bronze and a gilded and [a marble] statue; and it [shall be permitted] to set them up in the [most prominent] place 140 in the city; and the following [shall be inscribed] on them: "The people honours [Aulus Aemilius] Zosimos son of Sextus, who has served as gymnasiarch of the youths in a [fine] and upright and honourable manner, on account of his virtue and his goodwill towards the people."

[E]   [When Publius . . . was stephanephoros, on the (?) twelfth day of the month of Metageitnion, the council and the people] honoured [Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus with a golden crown] for valour [and a painted image and a bronze and a] gilded and a marble statue, and with meals in the prytaneion and in the Panionion, and with participation in the sacred rites and sacrifices that are performed in the council, on account of his virtue and his goodwill towards the people.

10 When Publius . . . [was stephanephoros, it was resolved by the council and the] people, as proposed by Demeas son of Demeas: [since Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus, who is a fine and] noble man, has done. . . so that his distinction . . . and as the first to have started on favours towards the city, he considered how the populace might preserve the memory of those who were well disposed towards them; for when he became secretary of the council and of the people, he carefully managed this office and he did not skimp on the expenditure for public documents, but he protected the common welfare of the city and the private welfare of each citizen by recording the documents on parchment scrolls; and after this magistracy, he also took on the gymnasiarchy [of the youths] . . . [in all matters he showed himself] to be lavish in adornment 20 and in expenditure, so that not only the body of those [who received] the benefits, [but also the whole] people rewarded him with suitable honours . . . he took care of good conduct, by making the trainers co-operate with him and imparting his sense of decency to them; and he held contests in their philological studies and in physical exercise, receiving the customary displays of these from the trainers 30 and giving to each of them the prize for their efforts; as he received a written commendation for this, he discovered that the people would be ready to reward similar actions, and he himself got a reliable test of his well-considered ideas; he decided that for the future he would do nothing inferior to what he had done previously, and he did not [neglect] a later opportunity for action; and when he was elected to be stephanephoros for the year [after] . . . he immediately gave written notice at the elections that on the day of his entry into office [he would invite] all the citizens and resident aliens [and neighbours] and Romans and foreigners and their slaves, and he would offer the customary and traditional sacrifices 40 to the gods of the city, and that he would provide breakfast for the free boys and the ephebes, and that he would do something that had not been done since the war: for he would provide a feast for all the citizens, arranged by tribes, and for those of the resident aliens and neighbours who had served as ephebes, and for all the Romans and for the Athenians and Thebans and Rhodians and Milesians and Magnesians and Samians and Ephesians who were staying in the city, and also the Trallians . . .

50. . . [taking on the] office of stephanephoros on the first day of the [month of] Boēdromion, he shared the generous provision of breakfast on his first [day in office] with everyone equally, in which the condition of a slave and the designation of a foreigner were held of little account, and he invited the boys and the ephebes to share in this breakfast, so that he fully delivered what he promised, by enabling all those, whom in his announcement he had invited to the feasts, to recline to eat in the sacred stoa in the agora: he provided a plentiful supply of food 60 and was the only person after the war to hold a feast for the whole people during his year as stephanephoros; he [used] the meat from the sacrifices for the catering, neglecting nothing that contributed to the public [benefit]; because [he (?) wished] to provide not only things that caused pleasure [and . . . but also things] that gave entertainment, he paid for [performers] from [abroad], including the pantomime Ploutogenes, who was able to beguile by his art, and by showing his performance for (?) four days, [he created] a perfect occasion for this kind of impulse; and because he observed that the welfare of private citizens and the concord of the city was preserved by piety towards the gods, he sacrificed with good omens every month on behalf of the people to Olympian Zeus and to Hera, 70 providing the appropriate offerings; and as the promises he had made were fulfilled, confirming what he said at the beginning of the year, and the subsequent period was considered to confirm his attentiveness towards the populace, so also he did not allow the time after this to pass without making a contribution, but he made the public and national festivals more splendid by his favours to persons, and he doubled the number of those who could make use of his generosity, providing bathing water as a free gift during the festivals to [all] the citizens and resident aliens and neighbours and foreigners and Romans and their household slaves, and placing oil and unguents in the baths; and since the biennial festival in honour of Dionysos had not been held in the previous year, he provided a singer and a choral flute-player and a citharode 80 in performance for two days; and after offering the customary sacrifice to Zeus Keraunios on the twelfth day of the month of Artemision, he shared the meat from the offerings with the citizens and resident aliens and neighbours and foreigners and Romans and their slaves, and he gave a dinner for the councillors and the magistracies in the precinct of the god; and during the festival of Panathenaia he provided an offering of oxen to Athene Polias, and after sacrificing them with good omens on behalf of the public concord and the restitution of the people to a better condition, he did not use the meat from the sacrifice for his personal profit, but he invited the councillors and the magistracies to recline to eat in the Bianteion, and provided a lavish meal for them, worthy of his personal magnanimity; and in general [he has offered his services] eagerly with his [good intentions] 90 and his goodwill towards the people, because he wishes to be unsurpassed in performing public and essential duties; and he has announced that he will dedicate the stephanephoric band that according to the law ought to be dedicated to Olympian Zeus, so that the temple of this god too may be adorned through his generosity; and it is fitting that he should receive the appropriate praise for these matters;   therefore it is resolved by the council and the people to praise Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus for everything that has been mentioned above, and to crown him with a golden crown for valour; and to honour him with a painted image and a bronze and a gilded and a marble statue, which shall be set up in the most prominent places in the city, 100 and the following shall be inscribed on them: " The people honours Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus on account of his virtue and his goodwill towards the people;" and he shall be crowned by the people with a golden crown of valour at the Dionysia on account of his virtue and his generosity towards the people; and it is resolved that the agonothetes and the secretary of the council and the people who are appointed in the elections shall [take care] that the proclamation of the award of the aforesaid crown is made during the Dionysia, in the contest of the boys, when the people performs the traditional libations to Dionysos; and he shall be given meals in the prytaneion and the Panionion, and he shall participate in the sacred rites and the sacrifices 110 that are performed in the council; and when he passes away, he shall be crowned by the people in his funeral procession with a golden crown, and the crowns that have been awarded to him by the city and by the others that wished to crown him shall be proclaimed by the sacred herald in the agora; and the funeral procession shall be followed by the gymnasiarch with the ephebes and the youths and the supervisor of boys {paidonomos} with the boys and the generals with the [other] citizens; and anyone [else] who wishes shall be permitted to crown Aulus in the funeral procession; and in order that the goodwill and generosity of Aulus towards the people and the recompense given by the [city] to him may be evident, 120 this decree shall be inscribed in a convenient place, wherever is decided in the sacred stoa that is in the agora; and also the honours that have previously been granted to him shall be inscribed in the same place.

[F]   When Publius Laberius was stephanephoros, on the third day of the month of Metageitnion, the council and the people honoured Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus with a painted image and a bronze and a gilded and a marble statue on account of his virtue and his goodwill towards the people.

It was resolved by the council and the people, as proposed by Demeas son of Demeas: since Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus, who is a fine and noble man, has shown goodwill to the people on many occasions, and being (?) manifestly well disposed towards the people has unhesitatingly given favours to it; and when he first received the vote of the people, he conducted his first term as secretary carefully and honourably, and maintained the reliability and the protection 10 of the documents that were handed over to him, by creating a double record of them, on parchment and on papyrus scrolls; and when after this office he was appointed gymnasiarch of the youths, he devoted his energy to the prestige of the place and the community of those who anointed themselves there, and amongst other public contributions he provided oil to be available to everyone from sunrise until sunset; and he won approval for his expenditure as gymnasiarch and received rightful gratitude from the people and the youths for his actions; nor did he neglect to be generous to the boys, so that when he alone had been the first to restore the system of education, which had fallen into disuse after the war, to its former condition, he did not fail to give the boys a share of his generosity; for when he became supervisor of boys {paidonomos}, he oversaw their training prudently, 20 carefully doing everything that was prescribed by law, and he received full demonstrations of their learning, for which he gave splendid prizes to the boys and living prizes {animals} to the trainers; in return for this he received a just reward when he was crowned by those who benefited from his generosity, and he also dedicated their weapons; after all this, when he received from the people the eponymous crown of Olympian Zeus, he alone was the first after the war to perform the duties of stephanephoros most splendidly; he offered full sacrifices to the gods of the city, and by himself he provided dinner for the ten tribes, and he twice invited the councillors and the magistracies to recline to eat at his own expense, which has given an example to others in the future of how to behave generously towards the people; and furthermore, now that he has been appointed to be secretary of the council and the people for a second time in the current year, he has made a double record of the public documents, 30 on papyrus and on parchment scrolls, and he has transcribed all the decrees of the people that were transacted in his year and the letters and the legal documents, in the way that has been described; by which he has secured the welfare of each citizen individually and of the city as a whole; and it is fitting that, having been seen to be diligent and earnest in all matters, he should be praised and awarded the appropriate honour;   therefore it is resolved by the council and the people to praise Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus for what has been recorded above, and to honour him with a painted image and a bronze and a gilded and a marble statue, which shall be set up in the most prominent places in the city, and the following shall be inscribed on them: "The people honours Aulus Aemilius Zosimos son of Sextus, who has served well as secretary, on account of his virtue and his goodwill towards the people." It shall be permitted for others to crown him, and the honours granted to him by the decrees of the people shall be inscribed on the wall of the sacred stoa that is in the agora.

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