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Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum: 712


KNOSSOS ARBITRATES BETWEEN LATO AND OLOUS

Greek text:   IC_1.16.3 ,   IDelos_1513 ,   REA_1942.34
Date:   (A) 118 B.C.,   (B,C) 116 B.C.,   (D) 115 B.C.,   (E) 113 B.C.
Format:   see key to translations

This arbitration has been discussed by S.L.Ager, "Interstate Arbitrations in the Greek World, 337-90 B.C.", no. 164 ( Google Books ).   It may be compared with the arbitration between Itanos and Hierapytna, Syll_685; both documents refer to the Roman envoys led by Q.Fabius, who went to Crete in 113 B.C. in an attempt to put an end to several years of conflict between the Cretan cities.

The decrees contain instructions that they should be inscribed at various locations, in Crete and in Delos. Part A has been translated from the copy in Lato; parts B&C from the copy in Delos; and parts D&E from the copy in the temple at Dera.

There is a French translation of parts B&C by F.Dürrbach, "Choix d'Inscriptions de Délos", no. 111, pp. 181-182 ( Google Books ); and a German translation of parts D&E by A.Chaniotis, "Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischen Zeit", pp. 328-9 ( Google Books ).   The inscription from Sta Lenika (parts D&E) was published with a French commentary by H. Van Effenterre, "Querelles crétoises" ( Persée ).



[A]   With good fortune. When the Aithaleis, Kydas son of Kydas and his colleagues, were kosmoi at Knosos, in the month of Elchanios, and Diokles son of Heroidas and his colleagues were kosmoi at Lato, in the month of Balkinios, and Telemachos son of Gnomis and his colleagues were kosmoi at Olous, in the month of Agrianios;   since the city of Knosos has sent envoys to the city of Lato and the city of Olous, to urge them to put an end to the dispute and estrangement that has happened between them, and to refer a decision about the points of disagreement between the cities to the Knosians;   therefore it is resolved by the Latians and the Olountians to comply with the request of the Knosians; 10 and they have referred to them the whole decision about all the points; the city of Knosos, those who are kosmoi along with Kydas, shall decide within ten months what seems to be right to them; the decisions and reports of the Knosians shall be valid and enduring for all time, and no grounds for bringing further complaints shall be left to them, by any device. The agreement . . . shall be inscribed at Knosos in the temple of Apollo Delphidios, and on a stele in the temple of Ares at Dera, and at Lato in the temple of Eleuthyia, and at [Olous] in the temple of Zeus Tallaios, and at [Delos in the temple] of Apollo. 20 The Latians [and Olountians] shall each give [a copy of this document] to the [city of Knosos and to each other; and they shall send an embassy] to [Delos concerning] the document . . . [The kosmoi in office] shall force [those who have . . . to hand them over], and the kosmoi shall not be subject to penalties [or prosecution]. The [secretary of the city shall inscribe] this decree in [the temple of Apollo] Dekataphoros. The envoys shall also be given hospitality, in the established manner.

[B]   With good fortune. After the city of Knosos sent envoys to the cities of Lato and Olous, and urged them from the start to refer to them a decision about the dispute that they judged previously;   it was resolved by the Latians and Olountians, deliberating together,   when the kosmoi at Knosos were Nennaios son of Mopseios and his colleagues, on the second day of the month of Spermios, and the kosmoi at Lato were Diokles son of Heroidas and his colleagues, on the second day of the month of Theodaisios, and the kosmoi at Olous were Menontidas son of Akasson and his colleagues, on the second day of the month of Eleusynios,   that the Latians and Olountians shall refer the decision 10 about the disputed points between the cities - everything about all the disputed points - to the city of Knosos; and that within thirty days they shall place a stele at Knosos in the temple of Apollo Delphidios and in the temple at Dera, and at Lato in the temple of Eleuthyia, and at Olous in the temple of Zeus Tallaios; and another jointly at Delos in the temple of Apollo; in order to display this document in Delos, the Knosians and the Latians and the Olountians shall send an embassy with a letter to the governor {epimelētēs} of Delos within thirty days, requesting permission to set up a stele, on which the resolution will be inscribed; and these decisions will be binding. 20 The Knosians shall make a decision within six months, beginning from the month of Karonios when Nennaios is kosmos, which is the month of (?) Chartobiarios as the Latians reckon, and the month of Delphinios as the Olountians reckon. The Knosians shall be authorised to inscribe their decision on the steles in Crete within thirty days, and they shall send out a copy to Delos within the same number of days; and if the envoy sent by the Knosians to Delos is present, he shall be authorised to inscribe the decision on the same stele at Delos; whatever is decided and inscribed by the Knosians shall be enduring and valid for all time, and no grounds for bringing further complaints shall be left to them, by any device. 30 The Latians and Olountians shall each give a copy of this document to the city of Knosos, and to each other. Within twenty days the Latians and Olountians shall each appoint Knosian guarantors, via the debt registration office in Knosos, for ten Alexandrian talents of silver, to guarantee to the Knosians that they will abide by the terms of this document, and by the decision of the city of Knosos; if either party does not abide by the terms, the sum shall exacted from the guarantors, and after exacting it the kosmois of the Knosians shall hand over to the party that abides by the terms, and in any case the decisions shall be valid. The guarantors shall remain until the decision is completed and inscribed, as has been described above; 40 if the cities of Knosos and Lato and Olous later jointly agree to add or remove something in the terms, this shall be valid.

[C]   With good fortune. When Sarapion was archon, in the month of Pyanopsion, Agesipolis son of Agathandros, the envoy who has come {to Delos} from the city of Knosos, also inscribed the appended decree, with the agreement of the other envoys who have come, Aristandros son of Glaukias from the city of Lato and Ikadion son of Archikomos from the city of Olous, in accordance with the letter 50 from the cities that they handed over to the governor.

It was resolved by the Latians and Olountians, deliberating together, with the agreement also of the Knosians, to approve a delay in making a decision, beyond the time previously stated in the stele, which was when Nennaios was kosmos at Knosos and Diokles was kosmos at Lato and Menontidas was kosmos at Olous; and to record that the Knosians are authorised to make a decision within twelve months, beginning from the month of Nekysios, when Hagemon is kosmos at Knosos, which is the month of Thesmophorios when Kydannos son of Enipas and his colleagues are kosmoi at Lato, and the month of Apellaios, when Antikles son of Euboulos and his colleages are kosmoi at Olous. 60 The Latians and Olountians shall each give a copy of this document to the city of Knosos and to each other.

[D]   Decision of the Knosians.   The city of Knosos decided, concerning the matters for which the city of Lato referred judgement in relation to the city of Olous - the territory and the temple at Dera and all the precincts adjoining the temple and the island of Pyrrha and the headland next to it and the quadrireme ship and the silverware from the ship and the silver coinage and the bronze vessels and all the other vessels of all types and the persons who have been sold off, two free men and one slave - that the Latians shall own the island of Pyrrha and the headland next to it 50 and the territory of Krēsa and the temple at Dera and all the precincts adjoining the temple, so that they shall have the same boundaries as in ancient times: from the sea along the ridge to Plymon, and to the old temple of Aphrodite and from there along the northern borders of the sacred precinct at Dera to the circuit of Kalolakka and to Archelarcha and to the Deras by the holm oaks and to Akamas. Concerning the] ship and the silverware from the ship and the silver coinage and the bronze vessels and all the others vessels and the persons who were sold off - [two free men and] one [slave] - they judged that the Olountians shall own them all 60 . . . [to pay] thirty five silver minas when [Ther]siphanes [son of] . . . is kosmos, in the month of Bakynthios.

[E]   With good fortune. Response of the envoys from Rome - Quintus Fabius Maximus, son of Quintus, Gaius Fannius, son of Gaius, Publius Rutilius, son of Publius, Quintus Plautius, son of Aulus, Marcus Domitius, son of Publius - concerning a decision for the Latians and the Olountians and the priest. We re-confirmed the decision that the Knosians gave to the Latians and the Olountians in its entirety for this reason, that the decision was accepted by both parties at the time of the war that arose, when the Latians were allies of the Knosians and the Olountians were allies of the Gortynians . . . in order that we may hear about this matter anew 70 . . . the decision that the Knosians made for the Latians and the Olountians about the territory. We agree that the borders that they decided on shall remain. We consider that to define the borders of the temple of Ares in the land of Dera, and of the territory of the temple, should be the responsibility of that people.

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