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Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum: 633


TREATY OF ISOPOLITEIA BETWEEN MILETOS AND HERAKLEIA

Greek text:   Miletos_39   ( I.Milet. 3.150 )
Date:     c. 180 B.C.
Format:   see key to translations

For some time before this treaty, Miletos had been expanding its local power to an extent that threatened the interests of Herakleia-Latmos. Herakleia responded by asking Miletos to agree a treaty including isopoliteia, which seems to have resolved the tensions between the two cities. For the background to the treaty, see G.Reger, "Sympoliteiai In Hellenistic Asia Minor", pp.157-158 ( academia.edu ); and R.M.Errington, "A History of the Hellenistic World: 323 - 30 BC", page 235 ( Google Books ).


When Menandros was stephanephoros, in the month of Taureon, it was resolved by the people {of Miletos}, as recommended by the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city and the appointed councillors, namely:

and as proposed by the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city and the appointed councillors, namely:

Since the Herakleotes, who are the friends and city neighbours of our city, have sent envoys with a decree to request the people to make a treaty with them concerning isopoliteia and other rights; and the envoys sent by them - Theodoros son of Aineas, Archedemos son of Delphinos and Maion son of Hypsikles - have come before the magistrates and the council and the assembly, and have set forth the various conditions on which they requested an agreement; and when the people had recourse to the oracle at Didyma concerning these matters, the god issued a response making it clear that it would be better for us to make a treaty with the Herakleotes; therefore it is resolved by the Milesians, in order that everything might be done with the favour of the gods in a manner advantageous to both the cities, that in accordance with the advice of Apollo, the prophet [20] along with the attending treasurer shall perform sacrifices in the temple and processions of sacred rites to Apollo Didymeus and Artemis and Leto and Athene and Zeus the Saviour; and similarly the stephanephoros along with his colleagues shall perform sacrifices to Apollo Delphinios, and the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city along with the priest and the sacred herald shall perform sacrifices to Hestia Boulaia, praying that the resolutions of the people of Miletos and the people of Herakleia might be advantageous; and the treaty with Herakleia is agreed as follows.

With good fortune, in the year when Menandros son of Maion was stephanephoros at Miletos, in the month of Taureon, and in the fourteenth year of the god after Demetrios at Herakleia, in the month of Gamelion, the Milesians and Herakleotes agreed and made this treaty, signed on behalf of the Milesians by the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city and the appointed councillors, namely:

and on behalf of the Herakleotes by the envoys who were sent, namely:

The Milesians shall be citizens of Herakleia and the Herakleotes shall be citizens of Miletos; and they shall have for all time the same enemies and friends, as long as they do nothing contrary to the peoples' alliance with the Rhodians; there shall be an amnesty on both sides of accusations both private and public arising from times of war, unless trials have already been registered about some accusations or a court has convicted them or the magistrates have formally accused someone of public crimes.

If any enemy attacks the city or the territory or the fortified places of the Milesians, or destroys their revenues, [40] the Herakleotes shall come to the aid of the Milesians in full strength. In the same way, if any enemy attacks the city or the territory or the fortified places of the Herakleotes, or destroys their revenues, the Milesians shall come to the aid of the Herakleotes in full strength.

Those of the Herakleotes who wish to share in the citizenship of Miletos, and in the sacred rites and the magistracies and the other rights that are shared by other Milesians, shall be registered each year by the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city, recording their names and which tribe they belong to and also the names of their wives and children, if they have any; and this registration shall be performed in the month of Anthesterion. They shall be assigned by lot in the same month by the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city, [50] and they shall be assigned in equal parts to each tribe. They shall immediately share in all the other rights, but they shall share in the command of the guard and the protection of the city and guard duty after ten years have passed from the time when each of them was assigned; their own right rights concerning casting by lot in elections shall be in accordance with the council law. Those of the Milesians who wish to have citizenship in Herakleia shall be registered by the prytaneis at Herakleia in the month of Thesmophorion; their names and which tribe they belong to shall be recorded; the names of their wives and children shall also shall be recorded, if they have any; and similarly the prytaneis shall assign them by lot in the same month. If any of the Herakleotes have not lived either in their own homeland or in Miletos up to the month of Artemision in the the year of the god after the year of Philidas, it shall not be possible for them to be enrolled into citizenship of Miletos, unless they have previously resided in Herakleia or resided as an alien in Miletos for at least five years. [60] Similarly, if any of the Milesians have not lived either in their own homeland or in Herakleia up to the aforesaid time, it shall not be possible for them to be enrolled in Herakleia, unless they have previously resided in Miletos or in Herakleia for at least five years. And if anyone was previously enrolled as a citizen in either Miletos or Herakleia, it shall be permitted for them to share in citizenship in both cities, if they have previously resided in the city in which they were enrolled for at least ten years. If anyone partakes of citizenship contrary to the terms of this treaty, they shall be brought to trial at Miletos in the court of aliens and in prosecution among the guild of singers {molpoi}, and at Herakleia in the court of aliens.

If any of the Milesians or those dwelling in Miletos wishes on account of war to remove some of his personal possessions or to transport them to the city or territory of Herakleia or to move them through the city or territory of Herakleia, he shall be free from taxes on all [70] the aforesaid possessions. Similarly if any of the Herakeotes or those dwelling in Herakleia chooses on account of war to remove some of his personal possessions or to transport them to the city or territory of Miletos or to move them through the city of territory of Miletos, he shall be free from taxes.

In the same way, if anyone who possesses property or farms in the territory of Miletos moves his livestock from the territory of Miletos through the territory or city of Herakleia into the territory of Miletos, from the month of Metageitnion, as the Milesians reckon when Menandros is stephanephoros, and as the Herakleotes reckon in the year after the god was stephanephoros for the fourteenth time after Demetrios, they shall be free from taxes if they give a pledge on oath that they are moving the livestock upon ownership.

Concerning the part of the mountainous land that is disputed - which the Milesians declare is part of Myēsia, being sacred to Apollo Terbintheus, and they say it belongs to [80] to Tēia and the property owners in Kysselis, but the Herakleotes say that it is part of Kisaris and the public and sacred region around the Kyklopeion; and similarly concerning the place in which the brickworks is situated, and the place adjoining this, which the Milesians declare is part of the territory of Ionopolis, but the Herakleotes say is part of their own territory; the Milesians and the Herakleotes shall jointly agree on a free and democratic city, from which they will receive arbitrators, acceptable to both cities, who shall come to the places and make a decision about the disputes, all in the year after Menandros was stephanephoros { at Miletos }. If there are any crops growing in these places, they shall be deposited with a neutral party until the decision is made.

If the slaves, who have run away from Miletos to Herakleia and from Herakleia to Miletos, have been brought back to the border guards {horophulakes} in service in the respective cities beginning with the year after Menandros was stephanephoros { at Miletos }, [90] those who have undertaken this service {telos} through purchase in Miletos shall report to the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city about the slaves within ten days from the day of the delivery. The latter shall send to the magistrates in Herakleia a letter with a detailed list of the slaves. Those who have undertaken the service of border guards in Herakleia shall report to the magistrates within the same deadline, and similarly the latter shall send a letter to the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city in Miletos. The owners of the slaves in each city shall have the right to have their slaves returned, after they have paid a fee for the restitution of the slave of twelve old Rhodian drachmas and an obol each day for food, within four months at the latest from the time when the letter was written to the magistrates. Otherwise the slaves shall belong to the border guards.

The anataktai at Miletos shall sell [100] the contract for the toll on ferries to the bay of Ionopolis; upon which those who buy the contract for the year after Menandros was stephanephoros shall extract payments from the Herakleotes and from those who dwell with them and from their servants, when they sail from Ionopolis to Miletos or from Miletos to Ionopolis, just the same as the Milesians pay. Similarly the ferrymen shall take the same payment from them as they take from the Milesians.

In order that each measure may be performed to the advantage of both cities, the people of Miletos shall choose three men, after the decree and the treaty have been formally approved, and those who are appointed shall together with the sacred herald administer an oath to the envoys who have come from Herakleia, and then they shall go to Herakleia and administer an oath to the people there. The oath shall be as follows:"I will abide by the agreement for all time and [110] I will not contravene it by any means or device; nor will I permit anyone else to contravene the treaty, and if I discover that someone is contravening the agreement, I will not allow it as far as I can, but I will report the facts truthfully to the council and the people; by Apollo of Didyma, Hestia Boulaia, Zeus, Athene and the other gods. And if I keep this oath, may it turn out well for me; but if I break the oath, may I and my household be utterly destroyed." The envoys of the Herakleotes shall administer the aforesaid oath to the prytaneis and those chosen for the protection of the city and the councillors who signed the treaty with them and the people of Miletos.

Each of the peoples shall inscribe the agreement about these matters on a stone stele, and the Milesians shall set it up in the temple of Apollo Delphinios and the Herakleotes shall set it up in the temple of Athene. [120] If the cities decide together that something in this treaty should be corrected, it shall be possible for them to make the correction after the peoples have sent envoys to each other. Whoever does not abide by the terms set out in the treaty shall have committed an offence against the gods, in whose names they made the oath, and those who do not abide by it shall pay a fine of fifty talents to those who keep it.

The men appointed to administer the oath to the envoys from Herakleia and the Herakleotes were: Autokles son of Poseidonios, Theogenes son of Leodamas and Pasikles son of Philidas.

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