In addition to the conflicts between the major powers of the Hellenistic World, there were also small local wars between city-states; this treaty marked the conclusion of one such war. The treaty was dated by Dittenberger to 196 B.C., but R.M.Errington has argued for a date in the 180s; the debate is summarised by A.Carrara, "Prevention or Cure? Tax Exemptions in a Warfare Context: Miletus and the Low Valley of the Maeander", sections 2 & 3 ( CHS Research Bulletin ).
Treaty between the Milesians and the Magnesians.
With good fortune, these are the terms on which the Magnesians and Milesians entered into agreement; the agreement was facilitated by the envoys from the cities, who were present and brought Magnesia and Miletos back to their former friendship, namely:
There shall be peace and friendship between the Magnesians and the Milesians for all time. The boundary of the territory in the Peraia, which was disputed by the Magnesians and the Milesians, shall be the Hybandos river, and everything above this river shall belong to the Magnesians, and everything below the river as far as the sea shall belong to the Milesians; they shall each set up stones and place inscribed steles on them in their own area along the course of the river, as the places were determined by the envoys who were sent by the cities to facilitate the agreement. So that the agreement may be secure, and the peace and friendship between the two cities may last for ever, the Magnesians shall not be permitted to seize any territory of the Milesians - either the Peraia or any other territory or fortress - and the Milesians shall not be permitted to seize any territory of the Magnesians - either the Peraia or any other territory or fortress - neither by themselves nor through the agency of others, neither by purchase nor as a gift, neither by dedication nor by consecration, nor in any other way, or for any other reason. If any land is seized the gift or dedication or consecration or purchase or whatever other reason or method was used shall be invalid, whether it was made by themselves or through the agency of others. Those who are assaulting the Magnesians or the Milesians shall not be provided with a base by either city, and nothing that is seized from them, by any method or for any reason, shall be accepted by the cities. If the Magnesians wish to transport anything that was constructed or moved in the recent war through the territory of the Milesians, or the Milesians likewise through the territory of the Magnesians, they shall be able to do so without incurring tax, as long as they move them within two months of the date of the treaty. Whatever the Magnesians have constructed or moved into the territory of the Milesians, or likewise the Milesians into the territory of the Magnesians (or the residents of either city), or whatever they have moved through the other territory so that they can reconstruct it in their own territory, this shall be free from tax and the magistrates in each city shall take care of it.
The same peace terms shall apply to the inhabitants of Priene, the allies of the Magnesians, and to the inhabitants of Herakleia, the allies of the Milesians. The generals and ex-generals and commanders and subordinates of any of the aforementioned cities, and anyone who assisted in the fighting in any way, shall be granted an amnesty and freedom from prosecution, for anything that they did during the war, and shall not be brought to trial either publicly or privately for anything that happened up until the time of the treaty. Whichever citizens, who were captured during the war, are being held as public prisoners in Magnesia or Miletos or Herakleia or Priene, each city shall exchange an equal number of them, through the envoys who were sent to facilitate the agreement. The people of Magnesia have delivered their additional Milesian prisoners to the Rhodians without ransom, as a favour. As for the additional prisoners who are being held by private citizens of Magnesia or Priene or Miletos or Herakleia, the Magnesians shall pay the ransom for citizens of Miletos or Herakleia who are being held in Magnesia or Priene, and the Milesians shall pay the ransom for citizens of Magnesia or Priene who are being held in Miletos or Herakleia. The magistrates [in each city shall] provide [hospitality] to the envoys [who come] . . .
When the treaty [has been ratified, [the envoys sent by the Magnesians shall go] to Miletos and administer the oath [to the people of Miletos, and those] who were sent [by the Milesians] to agree the terms [shall go to Magnesia and administer the oath to the people] of Magnesia. [The Magnesians] shall provide the offerings for the oath [to the Milesians, and the Milesians] likewise to the Magnesians. When they burn the offerings, they shall swear [the oaths as written below].
[Oath] of the Magnesians. I swear by Artemis [Leukophryene and] all [the other gods] and goddesses that I will observe the terms of the treaty [and I will abide by what has been agreed]. I will bear no malice concerning anything that happened in the past. [If I keep my oath, may it turn out well for me]; if I break my oath, may it be the opposite.
Oath of the Milesians. I swear [by Apollo of Didyma and] all the other gods and goddesses that I will observe the terms of the [treaty and] I will abide by what has been agreed. I will bear no malice concerning anything that happened in the past. If I keep my oath, may it turn out well for me; if I break my oath, may it be the opposite.
The treaty [shall commence], by the Milesian reckoning, on the 16th day of the month of Pyanopsion, in the year when the god is stephanephoros, [after the year of . . . ]; and by the Magnesian reckoning, on the 15th day of the month of Hagneon in the year when Aristeus is stephanephoros. A sealed copy of the treaty [shall be given to the envoys] from Rhodes, so that they may retain it in the city of Rhodes until the treaty is copied onto stone steles.
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