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Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum: 45.1556 & 1557


DECREES FOR LEON OF STRATONIKEIA, PRIEST AT PANAMARA


Greek text: (A) SEG_45.1556 , (B) SEG_45.1557 , (C) Panamara_7   ( I.Strat. 7 )
Date:   c.175-150 B.C.
Format:   see key to translations

Each of these three inscriptions from Caria provides some new information. C, which was discovered first, shows that the region around the temple of Zeus at Panamara was organised as a koinon - a community or federation of villages. A shows that the priest at Panamara was a citizen of Stratonikeia, and thus Panamara was to some extent controlled by Stratonikeia. B gives an approximate date, by referring to Eudamos, the priest of Helios at Rhodes - and this also of course points to strong Rhodian influence in the region.

From this evidence, scholars have tried to deduce the exact relationship between the city of Stratonikeia and the small community of Panamara. See, for instance, J.LaBuff, "Polis Expansion and Elite Power in Hellenistic Karia", pp.131-139 ( Google Books ). A good overview of the history of Panamara is provided by C.Williamson, "The (mis)fortunes of a Karian sanctuary" ( academia.edu ).

The translations are adapted from pages 240-244 of the thorough study by R. van Bremen, "Leon son of Chrysaor" ( Google Books ).


[A] { Decree of Kallipolis }

. . . [was resolved by the] council and the people [of Kallipolis]; since [Leon] of Stratonikeia, [the son of Chrysaor] son of Zoïlos son Polyperchon, having held the priesthood in Panamara [piously and honourably] and lavishly . . . those of the citizens [(?) who had gone] to the sanctuary . . . of the suppliants . . . he made forethought . . . he achieved a settlement between [those who disagreed] on the oaths . . . avoiding [neither] danger nor cost nor suffering; therefore so that the people [may be seen to render the appropriate] gratitude, it is resolved to praise [him] for his benevolence and piety, and to crown him with a crown of olive leaves; and that the prytaneis entering office during the main assembly shall announce the award of the [crown], making [the following] proclamation: 'the people of Kallipolis praises and crowns Leon of Stratonikeia, the son of Chrysaor son of Zoïlos son Polyperchon, on account of his virtue and the benevolence which has continuously shown towards the people of Kallipolis;' and that this decree shall be inscribed on a stone [stele] and placed in the sanctuary of [Carian] Zeus in Panamara; and that an ambassador shall be elected, who shall go the citizens of Stratonikeia, who are our friends and kinsmen; he shall hand over the decree to them and praise them for having appointed an excellent man to be priest in the most prominent sanctuary.   Aristonikos son of Zenodotos was elected.

[B] { Decree of Laodikeia }

When Eudamos was priest, and Menekrates son of Thargelios, Myonides son of Pantaleon and Nikon son of Nikomachos were archons in Laodikeia, and Phanias son of Kallias was secretary; on the second day of the month of Zminthios; it was resolved by the community {koinon} of Laodikeia, as recommended by the archons; since Leon son of Chrysaor son of Zoïlos son Polyperchon, while holding the priesthood in Panamara piously and well, conducted himself generously towards all of our citizens who came to the sanctuary and achieved a settlement between those who disagreed about the oaths, and was altogether hard-working and zealous and did not avoid hardships or expenses; therefore so that the people will be seen to show appropriate gratitude to excellent and glory-loving men, it is resolved to praise Leon son of Chrysaor son of Zoïlos son Polyperchon and to crown him with a crown of olive leaves and to set up a stone stele, on which this decree will be inscribed; the stele will be erected wherever he wishes, and the money for it will come from a promised contribution.

[C] { Decree of Panamara }

. . . handing over the decree and providing alongside it evidence from the [letters] and from the old documents, and having demonstrated that the above-mentioned honours and grants of inviolability adhered to Zeus and the Panamareis, he persuaded the entire people to make the sacrifices more splendid and greater, and going to certain peoples he persuaded them, too, to participate in the sacrifices; in all of this he zealously promoted the cause of the god and of the community {koinon} of the Panamareis, not shirking danger or cost or suffering; therefore so that the Panamareis may be seen to show appropriate gratitude to excellent men, it is resolved by the community to praise Leon son of Chrysaor son of Zoïlos son Polyperchon and to crown him with a golden crown on account of his virtue and his piety; and to grant to him and his descendants citizenship and a share in all the rights that are shared by the Panamareis; and to erect a bronze statue of him, in whichever place he wishes, and to inscribe it as follows: 'the community of the Panamareis honours the former priest Leon son of Chrysaor son of Zoïlos son Polyperchon with praise, a golden crown and a bronze statue, on account of his virtue and piety.' This decree shall be inscribed on a stone stele and set up in the most prominent place in the sanctuary of Carian Zeus; the money for the aforesaid will come from a promised contribution. So that the whole people may know what has been decided by the Panamareis, a man shall be elected, who will hand over this decree and upon arrival at the council and the people he shall speak concerning the things decided by the community.   Kallimedes son of Polyarches was elected.


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