Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum: 35.665


Greek text:   SEG_35.665   ( see also: SEG_35.1845 )
Provenance:   Ambracia , western Greece
Date:   c. 160 B.C.
Tags:     treaties-cities ,   walls+fortifications
Format:   see key to translations

This agreement between two cities in western Greece shows how carefully some Hellenistic cities defined their borders and recorded their decisions. The agreement was inscribed on bronze steles at Olympia and Larissa, which have not survived, as well as this stone stele, which was found at Arta on the site of ancient Ambrakia.

The inscription was published with a French translation by P.Cabanes & I.Andréou, BCH 1985, pp. 499-544 ( Persée ); the text was revised by P.Charneux & J. Tréheux, BCH 1988, pp.359-373 ( Persée ), with an updated French translation of part B.

[A]   When Diophanes son of Daimachos was secretary {at Ambrakia} and Menandros son of Metrophanes was city-archon at Charadros, in the month of Phoinikaios according to both their calendars, they made this covenant and treaty of agreement, as was resolved by the council and assembly of Ambrakia, and also was resolved by the council and assembly of Charadros. The terms were written down by the Ambrakiots, [when] their secretary was Diophanes son of Daimachos and their delegates were:

- and the terms were written down by the Charadrians [when their] city-archon was Menandros son of Metrophanes and their delegates were:

The terms were as follows. So that the borders between the territory of Ambrakia and Charadros may be defined, [both the cities have decided]: after measuring a plethron, from the first corner of the wall [of Ambrakia to] . . . of Herakleia, in the region by Orraon, and placing a boundary-marker there; from this [boundary-marker in the valley] of the river Aphas by Orraon, and again from the other angle at the top of the [wall, after measuring] a plethron 20 to the region by Orraon along the whole of the wall, and placing a [boundary-marker there; from this] boundary-marker straight ahead to the top of the mountain called Kala..., [and placing a boundary-marker] at the top; and after measuring however many stades this is distant from [the wall of the city] of Ambrakia by the most direct route, and from this boundary-marker [(?) measuring . . .] as the water divides until the border between the Orraites and the [Ambrakiots] . . . and Oistreon; from the border between the Orraites and [the Ambrakiots], all of [the places in the direction] of Ambrakia shall belong to the Ambrakiots, and from . . . including the Herakleion and the fortress in it . . . from (?) Herakleia in the direction of Ambrakia [shall all belong] to the Ambrakiots . . . [the river] shall be shared and the places to the west of [the shared border between the Ambrakiots] . . . in the direction alongside the fortress 30 towards Orraon [shall all belong to the] Charadrians . . . wherever is agreed by each side, and if any other land needs to be surveyed . . . the territory indicated, and [neither the Charadrians nor the] Ambrakiots nor anyone else shall be able concerning these matters . . . to accuse anyone or to summon them . . . the Roman magistrates, or to suffer anything else . . .

[B]   . . . 10 [as] is [written above], the Ambrakiots shall possess according to the [written terms] . . . the produce of the territory which [they] hold . . . the Charadrians [shall be allowed] to rent out their own land to foreigners [who have a treaty with the Ambrakiots and the Orraites], but to no one else; if not, they shall pay [ten talents] to the city [of Ambrakia], when the Ambrakiots exact the fine, as is written above; similarly [the Ambrakiots shall be allowed to rent out] their land to those who have a treaty with the Charadrians [and the Orraites, but to no-one else, otherwise] they shall be liable to pay ten talents of silver to the Charadrians, [when the Charadrians exact the fine, as] is written above; and neither the [Ambrakiots nor the Charadrians] shall be able to [lay claim] to any other part of the land, under any pretext, but [they shall remain within] the boundaries [that are recorded in the] document and indicated by the stones; and if either of them 20 [does not abide by the terms, those who do not] abide by the terms [shall be liable to pay] thirty talents to those who do abide by the terms, [when those who abide by the terms exact the fine from] those who do not abide by the terms, as is written above.

[If the city] of Ambrakia and the city of Charadros [still have any disagreement], in the year after Diophanes [son of Daimachos was secretary] on the thirtieth day [of the month] of Artemisios, they shall each appoint on their behalf [(?) three border-officers, whose names] the magistrates of each [city] shall declare to each other. [Those who are] appointed shall meet together in the month of Psydreus according to the calendar of both [the Charadrians and the] Ambrakiots, and they shall travel through the territory, starting from the [corners of the wall, as] defined in the document; and they shall place boundary markers as the document instructs, [and wherever seems] suitable [to both sides]; and they shall measure the distance from the wall of the city of [Ambrakia] towards the boundary-marker on the peak, and any other distance [from this boundary-marker] that it is necessary to measure, 30 judging from the nature of the places, and they shall write down [the boundaries] in agreement . . . to the borders between the Orraites and the Ambrakiots. [The Ambrakiots shall] provide [the] expense of the boundary-markers and they shall pay expenses to the surveyor. When [the border-officers have] made their report, each of the cities [shall inscribe] this document also on steles, and each of them shall set up the steles [in the (?) customary temples]. Similarly each of the cities shall send envoys [to carry the document, which] the border-officers {termastai} have jointly composed, to Elis and Larisa; and the envoys [who are sent] shall place bronze steles in the temple of [Olympian] Zeus [(?) in Elis and] the temple of Apollo Kerdoios at Larisa, inscribed with the same words [as the steles in Ambrakia and in] Charadros; similarly they shall deposit copies in the archive offices [of the cities; and] the city of Ambrakia shall give money for the expense of the steles and the inscriptions. 40 [If] either the Ambrakiots or the Charadrians [fail to do something that is] prescribed in [this] decision, [they shall be liable to pay] thirty talents of silver to those who do what is prescribed, [when those who do what is prescribed and] abide by the decision [exact the fine] from those who do not do what is prescribed and do not abide by the decision, as is written above. [The envoys shall swear an oath] about all these matters, that the [Ambrakiots and the Charadrians will remain within the] borders that [have been] recorded in the document of the [border-officers].

[Oath:   I swear by Apollo] Soter and all the other gods [and goddesses that I will observe the terms that have been written down by the city] of Ambrakia and by the city [of Charadros] . . . agreed between the Ambrakiots [and the Charadrians] . . .

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