281 B.C. Olympiad 124.4

Consuls: L. Aemilius Q.f. Barbula, Q. Marcius Q.f. Philippus
Athenian archon: Urias

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 {9 Gamelion -G = February} Document: IG_2³.881, an Athenian decree in honour of Euthius, the archon of the previous year.
1a ?? Document: Syll_373, a statue of Hadeia, the sister-in-law of Lysimachus, at Oropus.
2 THR ?? Onesicritus recites his histories to Lysimachus.
Plut:Alex_46'4; DiogLaert_6'84.
3 ?? Menedemus is sent as an ambassador to Lysimachus.
4 ?? Sotades attacks both Lysimachus and Ptolemy Philadelphus.
5 ASI ?? Lysimachus builds or refounds cities at Nicaea, Alexandria and Smyrna.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_12'565,(4.7)  13'593,(1.26)  '597,(1.33)  '607,(1.52)  14'646.(1.37) 
6 PON ?? Lysimachus destroys the city of Astacus.
7 ASI ?? Lysimachus attempts to tax salt which is collected at Tagasae.
Athen_3.73'd<q" Phylarch_65>.
8 THR ?? Lysimachus banishes all philosophers from his kingdom.
8a ?? Document: OGIS_15, a dedication by Arsinoe in Samothrace.
9 Lysimachus punishes Telesphorus for an insult against Arsinoe.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Sen:Dial_5.17'2-4; Plut:Mor_534'E; Athen_14.616'c-d.
10 ?? Lysimachus carefully fortifies his camp after being forced to stop in an exposed position.
11 ?? Lysimachus discovers a new herb with a pungent smell.
12 ?? Sayings of Bithys, Pasiades, and Philippides, addressed to Lysimachus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Mor_183'E, 338'A-B, 508'C, 517'B, 633'B;(Q2.1)  Athen_6.246'e.
13 ++ Territory controlled by Lysimachus.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_33.40'6; Strab_7'319.(6.1) 
14 ASI {February} Lysimachus is defeated and killed by Seleucus at the battle of Corupedium, after which Arsinoe escapes from Ephesus.
* Read Appian's account
@  HierCard_10; Polyb_18.51'4; Nepos_21.3'2; Liv_34.58'5; Strab_13'623;(4.1)  Plin:HN_8'143; Memn_5'7; Plut:Mor_970'C; Phlegon:Fr_9; Appian:Syr_62, 64; Paus_1.10'5; Polyaen_8.57'1; Lucian:Macr_11; ~Just_17.2'1-3; Trog:Prol_17; +[Euseb]:Chron_233-235;(↓)  Oros_3.23'60-62; { CAH_7.1'113; Errington_p62.}
15 ROM {5 March -R} The triumph of Fabricius, over the Samnites, Lucanians, and Bruttii.
16 EPI << Pyrrhus regains control of Corcyra, with help from Tarentum.
* Read Pausanias' account
Paus_1.12'1; Just_25.4'8; { CAH_7.2'458, '462.}
17 SIC << Phintias moves the inhabitants of Gela to a new city called Phintias, but his cruelty causes his subjects to revolt against him.
~Diod_22.2'2-4; { OCD_g.}
17a GRE << Document: Syll_365, honours awarded by the Athenian people to the agonothete Glaucon.
18 CAP Diodorus the general of Seleucus is heavily defeated.
19 ASI Seleucus captures Sardis.
20 PON The inhabitants of Heracleia arrest Heracleides, their previous governor, but Seleucus threatens to attack them.
20a GRE Areus, king of Sparta, leads a raid against the Aetolians, but is defeated.
Just_24.1'2-7; { Errington_p84.}
21 THR ?? Cambaules leads a band of Gauls in a raid into Thrace.
Paus_10.19'5; { At some unspecified time before the Gauls' invasion of Greece in 279 B.C.}
22 ITA The Tarentines attack Thurii.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_6'263;(1.13)  ~Appian:Sam_7'2;(15)  { CAH_7.2'457.}
23 The Tarentines reject and insult a Roman embassy.
* Read Dionysius' account
Polyb_1.6'5; DionHal_19.4'2-5'5; ~[Liv]:Per_12; ValMax_2.2'5; Flor_1.13'5; Appian:Sam_7'3-6;(16)  DioCass_fr.39'6-9; Julian:Mis_355'C-D; Eutrop_2.11'1; +Oros_4.1'2; ~Zonar_8'2;(p297)  { CAH_7.2'457.}
24 AEG The inhabitants of Lemnos erect temples in honour of Seleucus and Antiochus.
24a ASI Document: SEG_59.1406A, a decree of Aegae in Aeolis, granting divine honours to Seleucus and Antiochus.
25 Document: RC_9, a letter from Seleucus to Sopater, concerning the city of Athymbria.
26 SYR << Seleucus enters into a treaty of friendship with Ptolemy (II ?).
27 ?? Seleucus returns to the Greeks the statues etc. which were removed by the Persians.
* Read Gellius' account
ValMax_2.10e'1; Plin:HN_34'70<x>; Paus_1.16'3, 3.16'8, 8.46'3; Gell_7.17'2.
28 ?? Seleucus founds numerous cities throughout his kingdom, including Beroea, Cyrrhus, Dura, Ecbatana, Edessa, Hierapolis, Nicephorium, Nicopolis, Nisibis, Pella, Rhagae, Seleuceia-on-Calycadnus, and Thyateira.
* Read Appian's account
OGIS_211; Apollod:Fr_286; IsidChar_2;(↓)  Strab_11'524,(13.6)  14'670;(5.4)  Plin:HN_6'43; Appian:Syr_57; Sherk:AH_131;B  Aelian:NA_12'2; Liban:Or_11'100-103<t=B  Austin_58>; Hieron:Chron_1715; AmmMarc_14.8'2, '5-6; Malal_203-204; Tzetz:Chil_7'168-180.(118) 
29 PER ?? Seiles massacres 3000 Persian rebels.
30 EXT ?? Seleucus unsuccessfully attempts to transplant Indian perfume trees.
31 ?? Seleucus plans a canal between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.
32 ?? The explorations of Demodamas, along the river Jaxartes and in India.
Plin:HN_6'49, '63.
33 SYR ?? Seleucus maintains a herd of elephants near Apameia.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_16'752;(2.10)  Aelian:NA_9'58.
34 ++ General remarks on the reign of Seleucus.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Plut:Mor_790'A; Arrian:Anab_7.22'5; Athen_6.244'f; Malal_198.
35 THR {month6 -B = August/September} Ptolemy Ceraunus assassinates Seleucus and makes himself king of Macedonia.
* Read Appian's account
BabylChron_9'R1-7, #BM.35603'O8-10; Polyb_2.41'1; Nepos_21.3'4; Strab_13'623;(4.1)  Memn_8'1-3; Appian:Syr_62-63, 64-65;(↓)  Paus_1.16'2; Just_17.2'4-5; Trog:Prol_17; +[Euseb]:Chron_235, 243, 249; Hieron:Chron_1735, 1737; Oros_3.23'63-68; { CAH_7.1'113; Errington_p62.}
36 The funeral of Seleucus.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:Syr_63;(↓)  Malal_204.
37 ROM The Roman senate declares war on Tarentum.
38 ITA Aemilius leaves Samnium and moves against Tarentum.
* Read Zonaras' account
Ennius:Ann_180; DionHal_19.7'2; ~[Liv]:Per_12; Appian:Sam_7'7;(17)  +Oros_4.1'3-4; ~Zonar_8'2;(p299)  { CAH_7.2'457.}
39 The Tarentines call on Pyrrhus to protect them against the Romans; Pyrrhus is encouraged to go by an oracle from Delphi.
* Read Plutarch's account
Polyb_1.6'5-6, 8.24'1; Cic:Div_2'116; Diod_21.21'1-15; ~DionHal_19.8'1-3; ~Plut:Pyrrh_13'3-14'14; Flor_1.13'6; Appian:Sam_7'8;(17)  Paus_1.12'1-2; MinFel:Oct_26'6; DioCass_fr.39'10, 40'3-6; Just_17.3'22-18.1'2; [Vict]:VirIll_35'1-3; August:DeCiv_3'17;(↓↓)  ~Oros_4.1'5; ~Zonar_8'2,(p301-5)  { CAH_7.2'666; Green_228.}
40 MAC Ptolemy Ceraunus attempts to win the support of other kings.
* Read Justin's account
~Just_17.2'9-10; Trog:Prol_17.
41 EPI Pyrrhus makes an alliance with Ptolemy Ceraunus and gets help from Macedonia for his expedition to Italy.
* Read Justin's account
~Just_17.2'11-15; Trog:Prol_17; { CAH_7.2'462-463.}
41a LYC {Audnaeus -M = Sept./Oct.} Document: SEG_63.1270, a decree of Termessus in Pamphylia, in honour of a Ptolemaic official.
42 EGY Ptolemy II frees Jewish slaves.
* Read Aristeas' account
Aristeas_12-27; Joseph:AJ_12'17-33; ChronPasc_425'A; +Hieron:Chron_1736; August:DeCiv_18'42, '45.(↓) 
43 GRE ?? Sayings of Gnathaena, an Athenian hetaera, addressed to Andronicus, Callistion, Chaerephon, Dexithea, Diphilus, Hippomachus, Mania, Pausanias, Stratocles, and others.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_13.578'e, 579'e-581'c, 583'a, 'e-f, 584'b-585'b; { Gnathaena was a contemporary of the poet Diphilus, and lived to be an old woman (see Ath_13.580'c).}

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