221 B.C. Olympiad 139.4

Consuls: P. Cornelius Cn.f. Scipio Asina, M. Minucius C.f. Rufus
Achaean General: Timoxenus (II?)

previous year   |   next year

    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY {13 Choiak -E = January} Document: SelPap_267A, a petition from a widow in the Arsinoite nome.
1a {30 Gorpiaeus -M = 13 Tybi -E = February} Document: Austin_318,B  a petition from Aristomachus to Ptolemy IV.
2 ROM {1 March -R} The triumph of Marcellus over the Insubres and Germans, in which he carries back the spolia opima to Rome.
* Read Plutarch's account
Naev:Praet_1; Verg:Aen_6'855-859; +FastTr_p101; [Liv]:Per_20; ValMax_3.2'5; Silius_1'133; +Plut:Marc_8'1-11, :Rom_16'7; Flor_1.20'5; Ampel_21'1; [Vict]:VirIll_45'2;L  +Eutrop_3.6'2.
3 MAC << Antigonus defeats an invading Illyrian army.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Polyb_2.70'6; ~Plut:Cleom_30'3-4; { CAH_7.1'472; OCD_a.}
4 PER << Molon starts a rebellion against Antiochus.
~Polyb_5.41'1-42'9; { CAH_7.1'434; Green_701.}
5 SYR Antiochus marries Laodice, the daughter of Mithridates of Pontus.
~Polyb_5.43'1-4; { Green_701.}
6 SPA ++ Hannibal develops his skills as a soldier and officer while serving under Hasdrubal in Spain.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_21.4'5-10; Frontin:Str_4.3'8; Suda_A'2452.
7 ++ Hasdrubal pursues a policy of expansion in Spain, and seeks political influence at Carthage.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.8'1-5; Diod_25.12'1; Liv_21.2'5; Silius_1'144-150; Appian:Hisp_8'
8 Hasdrubal is assassinated, and Hannibal is appointed to be the new Carthaginian commander in Spain.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_2.36'1-7, 3.13'3-4; Diod_25.12'1; ~Nepos_23.3'1-2, 7'4; Liv_21.2'6, 3'1; ValMax_3.3e'7; Silius_1'144-270; ~Appian:Hisp_8, :Hann_2-3; Ampel_28'4; Just_29.1'7, 44.2'4, 5'5-6; Zonar_8'21;(p55)  { CAH_8'28; OCD_h.}
9 MES Molon gains control of Apollonia.
9a MAC {10 Dius - M} Document: SEG_60.586, two letters of Antigonus granting privileges to men who fought at Sellasia.
10 PEL ?? The philosopher Prytanis is appointed by Antigonus to draw up a legal code at Megalopolis.
11 ?? The drunken behaviour of Euphorion at a banquet given by Prytanis.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_11.477'e<q" Hegesander>; Suda_E'3801.
12 MAC ?? A saying of Apollophanes, a parasite of Antigonus.
Athen_6.251'd<q" Phylarch_46>.
13 ++ General remarks on the achievements of Antigonus.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_32.21'25, 40.54'4.
14 The death of Antigonus Doson, who is succeeded by Philippus V.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_2.70'6-8, +71'6, 4.87'6-8, 39.8'5-6; Liv_40.56'4; Plut:Cleom_30'3-4; Paus_7.7'5; Just_28.4'16-29.1'2; +[Euseb]:Chron_237-239,(↓)  241,(↓)  243; !Hieron:Chron_1799; ExcBarb_44A; ChronSynt_91; { CAH_7.1'472; Errington_p103.}
14a CIL ?? Document: SEG_39.1426, a letter from Thraseas about a dispute between the cities of Nagidus and Arsinoē.
14b GRE ?? Document: IG_2³.1150, an Athenian decree in honour of the people of Ephesus.
14c PHO << Document: THI_250, the dedication of a portico to Astarte.
15 EGY ?? Document: BD_69, an oath made by Semtheus of Heracleopolis, concerning his duties as assistant to a banker.
15a ?? Document: OGIS_726, the dedication of two Jewish synagogues in Egypt.
16 ?? Ptolemy III defeats and kills Adaeus.
17 ?? The phoenix appears at Heliopolis.
18 ?? Ptolemy III introduces the cult of Sarapis at Alexandria.
Tac:Hist_4'84; { Tacitus reports this as an alternative account - most authors agreed that the cult was introduced by Ptolemy I.}
19 ?? Berenice rebukes Ptolemy for playing dice while sentencing criminals to death.
20 EXT ?? Ptolemy III is a keen collector of rare wild animals, and sends Simmias to explore Ethiopia.
Diod_3.18'4, 41'1, 42'1; Aelian:NA_16'39.
21 EGY ++ Callicrates and Panaretus are favourites of Ptolemy.
* Read Athenaeus' account
Athen_6.251'd<q" Euphantus>, 12.552'c.
22 << The death of Ptolemy III, and accession of Ptolemy IV.
* Read Polybius' account
+PHaun_6'22; +Polyb_2.71'6, 39.8'5-6; +AstrCan_3; Strab_17'795;(1.11)  Plut:Cleom_33'1; ClemAl:Strom_1'21; Just_29.1'5, 30.1'2; [Euseb]:Chron_127,(↓)  161; ChronPasc_432'B; +Hieron:Chron_1797; ExcBarb_35B; { CAH_7.1'435; OCD_p; Bennett=222.}
23 CIS The consuls subdue the Istrians.
* Read Zonaras' account
[Liv]:Per_20; +Eutrop_3.7'1; +Oros_4.13'16; +Zonar_8'20;(p49)  { CAH_7.2'435; CAH_8'91.}
24 AFR The Barcid faction at Carthage appeals to Hannibal for help.
* Read Appian's account
~Appian:Hisp_8-9, :Hann_3'
25 SPA Hannibal subdues the Olcades.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_3.13'5-8; Liv_21.5'3-4, '7; { CAH_8'32; OCD_h.}
26 PAL The Egyptian army holds a defensive position against Antiochus at Gerrha.
~Polyb_5.45'5-46'5; { CAH_7.1'434.}
27 MES Molon defeats Xenoetas, the general of Antiochus.
28 PEL The Messenian ephors fine Dorimachus the Aetolian for encouraging brigands to attack their territory.
~Polyb_4.3'1-4'9; { CAH_7.1'474; Green_702.}
29 MES Molon gains control of Babylonia.
30 Antiochus takes command of the war against Molon.
31 {December?} Antiochus stops for the winter at Antiocheia in Mygdonia.
32 SPA >> Civil dissension at Saguntum.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_3.15'7, 30'2; { CAH_8'34.}
33 ROM ?? L.Metellus officiates at the dedication of a temple to Ops.
CIL_add.7'Dec19; Plin:HN_11'174.L 
34 >> The death of L.Metellus, the pontifex maximus.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:Sen_30; ValMax_8.13'2; { OCD_m.}
35 >> Q.Metellus delivers a funeral oration in praise of his father.
Plin:HN_7'139-141; { CAH_8'424.}
36 >> Fabius "Censorius" puts his son to death on a charge of theft.
37 >> Fabius Maximus (? or Minucius) is forced to resign as dictator.
* Read Plutarch's account
Liv_22.9'7; ValMax_1.1'5; Plut:Marc_5'6-7; { OCD_f..}

previous year   |   next year

How to use this site   |   Sources and abbreviations   |   Geographical labels
Symbols used to describe events   |   Symbols used to describe references

This page Andrew Smith, 2023
Attalus' home page   |   09.06.23   |   Any comments?