220 B.C. Olympiad 140.1

Consuls: M. Valerius P.f. Laevinus, Q. Mucius P.f. Scaevola
Athenian archon: Thrasyphon
Achaean General: Aratus (XIII)
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Zopyrus of Syracuse

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY {18 Gorpiaeus -M = February} Document: SelPap_1.65, recording a loan from Demetria to Apollonius. { SelPap_2.269 gives the synchronization 28 Gorpiaeus, Year 1 = 12 Tubi = February 220 B.C.}
2 {12 Tubi -E = February} Document: SelPap_2.269, a petition from Philista against Petechon.
3 {13 Tubi -E = February} Document: SelPap_2.268, a petition from Ctesicles against Dionysius.
3a {23 Tubi -E = March} Document: AET_7.28, a disputed contract about burial arrangements at Hawara.
4 MES Antiochus crosses the Tigris and advances against Molon.
5 GRE Aetolian acts of aggression in Epirus, Acarnania, and the Peloponnese.
+Polyb_4.5'1-6'2; { CAH_7.1'474.}
6 PEL Timoxenus, the general of the Achaean League, captures Clarium, a fort near Megalopolis which had been occupied by the Aetolians.
7 The Aetolians invade Messenia.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.6'7-12, 7'2; ~Plut:Arat_47'1-2; { Green_702.}
8 MES Antiochus defeats Molon near Apollonia-Sittace.
+Polyb_5.52'4-54'8; { CAH_7.1'434; Green_289.}
9 EGY << Sosibius plots against Theodotus of Aetolia, the Egyptian general in Syria.
Polyb_5.61'4; { At the same time as Antiochus' campaign against Molon.}
10 PEL The Achaean assembly declares war on the Aetolians.
11 {? July} Aratus becomes general of the Achaean League.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.7'6-10; ~Plut:Arat_47'3; { CAH_7.1'474.}
12 Hagesidamus of Messene wins the pancration contest at the Olympic Games.
13 EGY << Ptolemy is dominated by his concubine Agathocleia, and gives himself up to a life of idleness and luxury.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_5.34'1-11; ~Plut:Cleom_33'1-2, :Mor_753'D;(9)  Athen_13.577'a; ~Just_29.1'9, 30.1'1-3; Suda_P'3039.
14 ?? Berenice encourages the production of perfume at Alexandria and Cyrene.
15 ++ Berenice keeps a pet lion.
16 << The murder of Magas, the brother of Ptolemy, and his mother Berenice.
* Read Plutarch's account
PHaun_6'31-32; ~Polyb_5.34'1, 35'1-6, 15.25'2; ~Plut:Cleom_33'3-8; Zenob_3'94, 4'92; Just_30.1'2; { ~CAH_7.1'435; Bennett=221.}
17 THR << Byzantium imposes tolls on shipping passing through the Bosporus.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.9'1-13'6, 14'4-6.
18 ASI << An epiphany of the goddess Artemis at Magnesia.
19 The inhabitants of Magnesia consult the oracle at Delphi, and are instructed to institute games in honour of Artemis Leucophryene.
~Syll_557; { See the introduction to Austin_189.}
20 SPA Hannibal attacks the Vaccaei and captures the city of Salmantica.
* Read Livy's account
~Polyb_3.14'1; Liv_21.5'5-6; Plut:Mor_248'E-249'B; Polyaen_7.48'1; { CAH_8'32; OCD_h.}
21 PEL The Aetolians defeat Aratus and the Achaeans at Caphyae.
+Polyb_4.14'1-15'11; { CAH_7.1'474; Green_702.}
22 The Achaean assembly sends out ambassadors to seek aid from their allies, including Philippus of Macedonia.
+Polyb_4.16'1-5; { OCD_aratus.}
23 MES Hermeias punishes the inhabitants of Seleuceia for their support of Molon.
24 CIS The suffect consuls, Veturius and Lutatius, advance as far as the Alps.
25 CRE The Cnossians destroy the city of Lyttus.
Polyb_4.53'3-54'6; { CAH_7.1'476.}
26 SPA Hannibal defeats the Carpetani.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_3.14'2-10; Liv_21.5'7-17; { CAH_8'32; OCD_h.}
27 AEG Scerdilaidas and Demetrius lead an Illyrian fleet in a raid against the islands of the Cyclades.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.16'6-10, 19'7-8, 25'4; { CAH_7.1'475, CAH_8'91.}
28 PEL The Aetolians capture Cynaetha.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.16'11-18'12, 19'13-21'12, 25'4, 29'6, 9.38'8; Plut:Arat_29'4; { CAH_7.1'475.}
29 The Aetolian army leaves the Peloponnese.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.19'1-12, 9.38'8; ~Plut:Arat_47'5.
30 ASI Achaeus assumes the title of king, while marching through Phrygia.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_4.2'6, 48'12, +5.57'2-5; { CAH_7.1'434, CAH_8'525.}
31 A mutiny in the army of Achaeus.
32 ARM Antiochus subdues Arbazarnes, the ruler of "the Satrapies".
33 AEG Rhodes declares war on Byzantium.
Polyb_4.47'3-49'5; { CAH_7.1'440; Green_702.}
34 ASI Prusias seizes the Asiatic territories of Byzantium.
Polyb_4.50'1-9; { OCD_p.}
35 PEL The murder of Adeimantus, a pro-Macedonian Spartan ephor.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.22'1-24'9; Plut:Arat_48'5.
36 Philippus and his allies meet near Corinth and declare war on the Aetolians; the start of the Social War, which is the formal start of Polybius' history.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_1.1'5, 3'1-6, 2.37'1-11, 3.1'1-11, 4.1'3, +22'2-26'8; ~Plut:Arat_47'6; ~Just_29.1'10-11; { CAH_7.1'475, CAH_8'94.}
37 {? October} Scopas is elected general of the Aetolian League.
38 SYR Hermeias the minister of Antiochus is put to death.
39 AEG Peace between Rhodes and Byzantium.
* Read Polybius' account
Polyb_3.2'5, ~4.50'10-52'10; { ~CAH_7.1'440.}
40 Rhodes sends aid to Cnossus.
41 ILL An alliance between Philippus and Scerdilaidas.
+Polyb_4.29'1-7; { CAH_7.1'476; OCD_s.}
42 GRE Envoys from the allies visit various states, seeking support against the Aetolians.
43 PEL The ephors are murdered during unrest at Sparta.
+Polyb_4.34'3-35'7; { CAH_7.1'476; Green_702.}
44 CRE Philippus sends aid to the Polyrrhenians, who are fighting against Cnossus.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_4.55'1-6, 7.11'9; Plut:Arat_48'5; Trog:Prol_29; { CAH_7.1'476..}
45 PON The Rhodians help Sinope against Mithridates.
Polyb_4.56'1-9; { OCD_s.}
45a ASI {Audnaeus -M = ? December} Document: THI_31, letters from Philippus to Olympichus and Mylasa, about the sanctuary at Labraunda.
45b Document: THI_31.C & Austin_179c, two letters from Olympichus to Mylasa.
45c ?? Document: SEG_58.1220, a decree of Mylasa in honour of Olympichus.
46 == The birth of Attalus, the son of Attalus of Pergamon.
~Lucian:Macr_12; { OCD_a.}
47 AEG ?? Document: Syll_493, a decree of Histiaea in honour of Athenodorus of Rhodes.
48 CRE << Document: Austin_109B  (Syll_527), an oath taken at Drerus in Crete, promising to help Cnossus against Lyttus.
49 ROM ++ The prestige of C.Duilius in his old age.
Cic:Sen_44; CIL_6.40952; { ~OCD_d.}
50 >> Freedmen are placed in the four urban tribes of citizens.
~[Liv]:Per_20; { CAH_7.2'672.}
51 >> The construction of the Via Flaminia.
* Read Livy's account
Ennius:Ann_255; ~[Liv]:Per_20<x>; Plut:Mor_280'A; +Cassiod:Chr_534; { CAH_7.2'436; OCD_v.}
52 >> The censorship of C.Flaminius and L.Aemilius Papus.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_23.21'6, 22'3, 23'3, '5, 24.11'7; ~[Liv]:Per_20; { CAH_7.2'453; OCD_f.}
53 >> The censors introduce the Lex Metilia, a law which regulates the activities of fullers.
Plin:HN_35'197; { CAH_8'70.}
54 >> The birth of the poet Pacuvius.
~Cic:Brut_229; { OCD_p.}

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