218 B.C. Olympiad 140.3

Consuls: P. Cornelius L.f. Scipio, Ti. Sempronius C.f. Longus
Athenian archon: Chaerephon
Achaean General: Eperatus

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 EGY {27 Daesius -M = 29 Hathyr -E = January} Document: BD_89, a petition from Idomeneus about a flooded field.
2 EGY {29 Hathyr -E = January} Document: BD_123, a petition from Nicaea asking for a guardian to be appointed for her.
3 PEL << Philippus captures Psophis, an Elean stronghold.
+Polyb_4.70'1-72'10; { CAH_7.1'477.}
4 {? January} Philippus invades Elis.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.73'1-75'8, 84'2.
5 Philippus protects the Achaeans from maltreatment by Apelles.
6 Philippus subdues Triphylia.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.77'5-80'16, 82'1, 5.4'5; { CAH_7.1'477.}
7 An attempted coup by Cheilon at Sparta.
8 SYR << Inconclusive negotiations between Antiochus and Ptolemy.
* Read Polybius' account
~Polyb_5.66'1-67'13; Just_30.1'5; { CAH_7.1'436; Green_702.}
9 BAE Hannibal makes preparations for his expedition at Gades.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.33'5-34'9, 9.24'4-7, 11.2'2; Diod_26.24'1; Nepos_23.3'3; +Liv_21.21'1-22'4; Silius_3'1-414; Appian:Hisp_13, ~:Hann_4; DioCass_fr.57'1-3.
10 ROM << A debate in the Roman senate about the capture of Saguntum.
* Read Dio's account
Polyb_3.20'1-8, 4.66'9; +Liv_21.17'4, 18'1-2, 38.45'5-6; (?) Frontin:Str_1.11'4; Appian:Hisp_11; DioCass_fr.55'1-9; +Zonar_8'22;(p71-9)  { CAH_7.2'451.}
11 The senate assigns Spain and Africa to the consuls.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.40'2, 61'8, 5.1'4; +Liv_21.17'1-3, '5-9; +Appian:Hisp_14; +Eutrop_3.8'1; +Zonar_8'23;(p87)  { CAH_8'46.}
12 AFR The Carthaginians reject the ultimatum of a Roman embassy: the start of the Second Punic War.
* Read Livy's account
Ennius:Ann_258-270; Polyb_3.8'8-11, 20'9-21'10, ~29'1-33'4; Cato:Orig_4'9;L (84)  Diod_25.15'1-16'1; +Liv_21.18'1-19'5; Silius_2'270-390; Flor_1.22'7; Appian:Hisp_4, 13; Gell_10.26'3-5; DioCass_fr.55'10; +Zonar_8'22;(p81)  { CAH_8'36.}
13 SPA A Roman embassy meets a hostile response in Spain and Gaul.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_21.19'6-20'9; DioCass_fr.56'1.
14 SPA {? April} Hannibal leaves Carthago Nova.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.34'7-35'1; Diod_26.13'1; Liv_21.15'3, 22'4, 38'1, 27.39'4, 31.7'7; +Appian:Hann_4,(↓)  52; DioCass_fr.54'11; +Eutrop_3.8'2; { CAH_8'40; OCD_h.}
15 ROM The consuls for the previous year are brought to trial for unfairly dividing the booty from Illyria, and Livius is found guilty.
* Read Livy's account
Liv_22.35'3, 27.34'3-5, 29.37'9-10, '13-14; ValMax_2.9'6, 4.2'2; Frontin:Str_4.1'45; Silius_8'290-291, 15'594-597, '733-734; Plut:Fab_14'3; [Vict]:VirIll_50'1,L  '3;L  { ~OCD_l.}
16 PEL {? May} Apelles secures the election of Eperatus of Pharae as general of the Achaean League.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_4.82'2-8, 84'1, 5.1'7; ~Plut:Arat_48'1; { CAH_7.1'478.}
17 Philippus invades Elis again.
+Polyb_4.83'1-87'13; { CAH_7.1'478.}
18 PHO Antiochus defeats the Egyptian general Nicolaus near Sidon.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.1'5, 68'1-69'11.
18a EGY {27 Phamenoth -E = May} Document: SelPap_2.269A & 269B, two petitions to king Ptolemy.
19 PEL {? May} Philippus and Aratus are reconciled at the assembly of the Achaean League.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.1'1-2, '6-12; ~Plut:Arat_48'2-5; { CAH_7.1'478.}
20 CIS {31 May -R} The Romans found colonies at Placentia and Cremona.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.40'3-5; +Liv_21.25'2, 31.48'7; [Liv]:Per_20; Vell_1.14'8; Ascon_3,L  4;L  Tac:Hist_3'34; { CAH_8'525; OCD_c.}
21 SPA {? June} Hannibal crosses the river Ebro.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.35'2-3; Cic:Div_1'49; +Liv_21.22'5-23'1, 22.39'14; ValMax_1.7e'1; Silius_8'323-324, 11'144; +Zonar_8'22;(p85)  { CAH_8'40.}
22 CIS The Boii defeat the Roman praetor L.Manlius.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.40'6-14; +Liv_21.25'6-14, 22.33'7, 23.21'7, 27.21'10; ~Appian:Hann_8'
23 SIC Sempronius defeats the Carthaginian fleet at Lilybaeum.
24 GRE Philippus attacks Cephallenia.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.2'1-4'13, 16'6; { CAH_7.1'479.}
24a << The Epicurean philospher Dionysius enters into a contract with Diotimus.
24b ?? Document: THI_78, a decree of Delphi, concerning lodgings for Theban envoys.
25 ASI Attalus subdues Aeolis and Mysia.
+Polyb_5.77'2-9; { CAH_7.1'431-432; Green_702.}
26 SPA ?? Hannibal extracts silver from deep mines in Spain.
27 ++ General comments on Hannibal's conquests in Spain.
* Read Appian's account
Appian:BCiv_1'112;(↓)  DioCass_fr.54'10; Just_44.5'6.
28 {? July} Hannibal crosses the Pyrenees.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.35'2-8; Nepos_23.3'3; +Liv_21.23'3-24'1, 30'5; Frontin:Str_2.7'7; Silius_3'415-443, 4'61-62; Juvenal_10'151-153; +Appian:Hann_4; +Eutrop_3.8'2; August:DeCiv_3'19; +Oros_4.14'3; { CAH_8'40.}
29 NAR {? August} Hannibal wins over the Gauls at Iliberris.
* Read Livy's account
+Liv_21.24'2-5; ValMax_3.7e'6; +Appian:Hann_4; Polyaen_7.50'1; +Zonar_8'23.(p87) 
30 Scipio arrives at the mouth of the Rhone.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.41'2-6; +Liv_21.26'3-4; +Zonar_8'23;(p87)  { CAH_8'47.}
31 Hannibal crosses the river Rhone.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.41'7-47'5; Nepos_23.4'1; +Liv_21.26'5-31'3, 27.39'4; Frontin:Str_1.7'2; Silius_1'444-465, 4'61-62; +Zonar_8'23;(p89)  { CAH_8'47; OCD_h.}
32 Scipio returns to Italy, after discovering that he has missed Hannibal.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.49'1-4, 56'1, 61'2; +Liv_21.32'1-5, 60'1-2, 28.42'20; Silius_4'51-52, 16'632-636; Appian:Hisp_14, +:Hann_5; AmmMarc_15.10'10-11; { CAH_8'47; OCD_s.}
33 Hannibal reaches "the Island".
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.49'5-13; +Liv_21.31'4-12; Silius_1'466-476.
34 {? September} Hannibal defeats the Allobroges.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.50'1-51'13; +Liv_21.32'6-33'11.
35 SPA Cn.Scipio reaches Spain with a Roman fleet.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.76'1-4; +Liv_21.60'2-4, 25.36'14, 28.39'3-4; Vell_2.38'4, 90'2; Silius_13'671-674; Flor_1.33'3-6; +Zonar_8'23,(p93)  '25;(p101)  { OCD_s.}
36 PAL Antiochus captures several towns in Palestine, and then attacks and captures Rabbatamana in Arabia.
* Read Polybius' account
Daniel_11'10; +Polyb_5.70'1-71'12; { CAH_7.1'436; Green_503.}
37 LYC The inhabitants of Selge repel an attack by Achaeus.
38 SIC Sempronius makes preparations at Lilybaeum.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.41'2-3; +Liv_21.50'7-51'4; { CAH_8'61.}
39 EPI Philippus sails to Limnaea.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.5'1-6'6, 17'5.
40 GRE Philippus sacks Thermus, an Aetolian city.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.7'1-16'10, 18'5, '8, 7.13'3-4, 14'3; ~Plut:Arat_48'5-7; { CAH_7.1'479; Green_702.}
40a PEL Lycurgus attacks Tegea, but fails to capture the acropolis.
Syll_533; +Polyb_5.17'1-2.
41 ASI {1 September} A mutiny amongst the Gauls in Attalus' army.
+Polyb_5.78'1-6; { Dated by an eclipse of the moon.}
42 NAR {? September} Hannibal leads his army up into the Alps.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.47'4-48'12, 52'1-53'10; +Liv_21.34'1-35'9; Verg:Aen_10'11-14; Strab_4'209;(6.12)  Silius_3'477-629; +Appian:Hann_4; DioCass_fr.54'10; +Eutrop_3.8'2; Oros_4.14'3-4; +Zonar_8'23;(p93)  { OCD_h.}
43 {? September} Hannibal descends from the Alps.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.54'1-56'1; +Liv_21.35'10-37'5; Silius_3'630-645; Juvenal_10'152-153; AmmMarc_15.10'11; +Oros_4.14'4.
44 CIS {? October} Hannibal arrives in Italy, and defeats the Taurini.
* Read Livy's account
Polyb_2.24'17, +3.56'1-4, 60'1-13; Liv_21.15'3, +38'1-39'5; ValMax_7.2'3; Silius_3'646-4'50; +Appian:Hann_4-5;(↓)  DioCass_fr.54'1; Just_44.5'6; Eutrop_3.8'2; +Oros_4.14'4-5; +Zonar_8'23;(p93)  { CAH_8'47; OCD_h.}
45 SPA Cn.Scipio defeats the Carthaginian general Hanno at Cissa.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.76'5-7; +Liv_21.60'5-9; Frontin:Str_2.3'1; (?) Oros_4.14'9; +Zonar_8'25;(p103)  { CAH_8'56.}
46 Hasdrubal routs some Roman marines in a surprise attack.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.76'8-13; +Liv_21.61'1-4; +Zonar_8'25;(p103)  { CAH_8'56.}
47 PEL Philippus invades Laconia.
IG_4².1.590; +Polyb_5.17'8-24'12; { CAH_7.1'479; Green_702.}
48 SPA Scipio subdues the Ilergetes.
49 PEL Philippus puts Leontius and Apelles to death on suspicion of treason.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.25'1-29'6; ~Plut:Arat_48'7; { CAH_7.1'479-480.}
50 Lycurgus leaves Sparta for Aetolia, out of fear of the ephors.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_5.29'8-9, 91'2.
51 CIS {? November} Hannibal comes into contact with the Roman forces under P.Scipio.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.56'5-6, 61'1-65'2'; +Liv_21.39'3, 5-9; Silius_4'53-56; +Appian:Hann_5; +Eutrop_3.8'2; +Zonar_8'23.(p93) 
52 {? December} Hannibal defeats Scipio in a skirmish near the river Ticinus.
* Read Livy's account
+Polyb_3.62'1-65'11, 10.3'3-7; Nepos_23.4'1; +Liv_21.45'4-47'1; ValMax_4.5'2; Sen:Ben_3.33'1; Silius_4'57-479; Flor_1.22'10-11; +Appian:Hann_5; Ampel_46'5; DioCass_fr.57'4-6a; [Vict]:VirIll_49'4;L  +Eutrop_3.9'1; +Oros_4.14'6; Macrob:Sat_1.11'26;L  +Zonar_8'23;(p97)  { CAH_8'49; OCD_h.}
53 Scipio retreats to Placentia.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.66'1-11; +Liv_21.47'2-8; Silius_4'480-492; +Appian:Hann_5-6; DioCass_fr.54'1, 57'6b; +Zonar_8'24.(p97) 
54 Some of the inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul enter into a treaty of alliance with Hannibal.
Plut:Mor_246'C; { CAH_8'76.}
55 Scipio retreats across the river Trebia.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.67'1-68'8; +Liv_21.48'1-10; +Zonar_8'24.(p97) 
56 Sempronius joins Scipio, and defeats Hannibal's Gallic allies in a skirmish.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.68'9-69'14; +Liv_21.51'5-52'11; Silius_4'493-499; Appian:Hann_6; +Oros_4.14'7; +Zonar_8'24.(p99) 
57 {? December} Hannibal defeats the Roman consuls by the river Trebia.
* Read Polybius' account
+Polyb_3.70'1-75'3, 108'8; Nepos_23.4'2; +Liv_21.53'1-57'3; Frontin:Str_2.5'3; Silius_4'499-701; Plut:Fab_3'4; Flor_1.22'12; +Appian:Hann_6-7; Ampel_46'5; +Eutrop_3.9'1; +Oros_4.14'7; +Zonar_8'24;(p99)  { CAH_8'49; OCD_h.}
58 ROM >> The Lex Claudia puts restrictions on commercial ventures by Roman senators.
+Liv_21.63'3-4; { CAH_7.2'452; CAH_8'424..}
59 >> L.Valerius persuades M.Cato to move to Rome.
* Read Plutarch's account
Nepos:Cat_1'1; Plut:CatMai_1'1, 3'1-3, :Fr_49; [Vict]:VirIll_47'1;L  { Nepos places this before Cato first entered the Roman army (in 217 B.C.), but it may well have been later.}

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