90 B.C. Olympiad 172.3

Consuls: L. Julius L.f. Caesar, P. Rutilius L.f. Lupus
Athenian archon: Medeius

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM Q.Varius passes the Lex Varia, which sets up a commission to punish those found guilty of aiding the Italians.
* Read Appian's account
ValMax_8.6'4; Ascon_22;L  ~Appian:BCiv_1'37; { CAH_9'114; OCD_v.}
2 Bestia, Cotta, and Memmius are found guilty under the Lex Varia, and go into exile.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:DeOr_3'11, ~:Brut_304-305; Sen:Dial_12.16'7; ~Appian:BCiv_1'37.
3 Other trials under the Lex Varia, including the acquittal of M.Antonius and M.Scaurus.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Sest_101, :Scaur_fr'e, :Tusc_2'57; Ascon_22,L  73;L (↓)  Quint_5.12'10; [Vict]:VirIll_72'11; { OCD_caepio.}
4 CIS Q.Sertorius, as quaestor in Cisalpine Gaul, collects supplies for the Romans.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sall:Hist_1'77; Plut:Sert_4'1-5; { MRR_2'20.}
5 ETR << The Italians adopt a new constitution, and set their capital at Corfinium, which they rename Italica.
* Read Strabo's account
~Diod_37.2'4-7; Strab_5'241;(4.2)  Vell_2.16'4; { OCD_c.}
6 ROM The Romans send both consuls to fight against the Italians, and assign legates to each of them.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Font_43; +Appian:BCiv_1'40.
7 ETR Cn.Pompeius is defeated by the Italians near Mount Falernus.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:BCiv_1'47; ~Oros_5.18'10; { CAH_9'120.}
8 ITA The Samnites under Vettius Scato defeat L.Caesar.
* Read Livy's account
+[Liv]:Per_73; +Appian:BCiv_1'41; +Oros_5.18'11.
9 Marius Egnatius captures Venafrum.
+Appian:BCiv_1'41; { CAH_9'120.}
10 ETR C.Perperna is stripped of his command after being defeated by P.Presentaeus.
11 ITA M.Lamponius defeats the Romans under Crassus and drives them back to Grumentum.
* Read Frontinus' account
~Diod_37.23'1; Frontin:Str_2.4'16; +Appian:BCiv_1'41; { CAH_9'120.}
12 The Samnites under C.Papius capture Nola, along with Stabiae, Surrentum, Salernum, and other towns.
* Read Appian's account
+[Liv]:Per_73; +Appian:BCiv_1'42; { CAH_9'120.}
13 ITA L.Caesar is forced to withdraw from Acerrae, which is being besieged by C.Papius.
+Appian:BCiv_1'42; { CAH_9'121.}
14 ETR {June 11 -R} Vettius Scato defeats and kills P.Rutilius by the river Tolenus, but a counter-attack by C.Marius stops him advancing further.
* Read Appian's account
Macrob:Sat_6.4'15<q"L  Sisenna>; +[Liv]:Per_73; #Ovid:Fast_6'563-566; Vell_2.16'4; Flor_2.6'11-12; +Appian:BCiv_1'43; DioCass_fr.98'1-2; +Obseq_55; Eutrop_5.3'2; +Oros_5.18'11-13; { CAH_9'121; OCD_v.}
15 Sulpicius defeats the Paeligni.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Brut_304; +[Liv]:Per_73.
16 Q.Caepio is appointed to share the command against the Marsi with C.Marius.
* Read Livy's account
+[Liv]:Per_73; +Appian:BCiv_1'44.
17 Caepio is defeated and killed by Poppaedius.
* Read Appian's account
CIL_1.708; +[Liv]:Per_73; Flor_2.6'11; +Appian:BCiv_1'44; Eutrop_5.3'2; +Oros_5.18'14; { CAH_9'121; OCD_c.}
18 CHE ?? Mithridates fights against the Sarmatae and Bastarnae.
~Plut:Mor_324'C; { This is dated, explicitly but probably incorrectly, to the time of the Marsic War.}
19 PON A Roman commission led by M'.Aquillius restores Nicomedes to the throne of Bithynia, and Ariobarzanes to the throne of Cappadocia.
* Read Appian's account
~[Liv]:Per_74; Memn_22'5; ~Appian:Mith_11, 56;(↓)  ~Just_38.3'4; { CAH_9'143; OCD_n.}
20 Mithridates orders the murder of Socrates, the brother of Nicomedes.
Just_38.5'8; { CAH_9'143.}
21 ITA L.Caesar is defeated by Marius Egnatius near Teanum.
22 A Cretan makes an offer of betrayal to L.Caesar.
23 L.Caesar defeats the Samnites; the news of this victory is received with relief at Rome.
* Read Livy's account
+[Liv]:Per_73; +Oros_5.18'14-15; { OCD_c.}
24 The Italians besiege Pinna, which remains loyal to Rome.
[Cic]:RhetHer_2'45; ~Diod_37.19'3-20'1.
25 The Samnites capture Aesernia.
* Read Livy's account
Diod_37.19'1-2; +[Liv]:Per_73; Strab_5'238;(3.10)  +Appian:BCiv_1'41; +Oros_5.18'14; { CAH_9'121; OCD_vettius.}
26 ETR C.Marius defeats the Marsi and kills over 6,000 of them.
* Read Appian's account
~[Liv]:Per_73; Plut:Mar_33'3; +Appian:BCiv_1'45-46; +Oros_5.18'15; { CAH_9'121.}
27 The Picentes raid Roman territory, and put their prisoners to death.
* Read Dio's account
~Diod_37.16'1; DioCass_fr.98'3; +Obseq_55.
28 NAR C.Caecilius defeats the Salluvii.
29 ETR Pompeius defeats the Italians near Firmum.
* Read Appian's account
~[Liv]:Per_74; +Appian:BCiv_1'47; +Oros_5.18'17; { CAH_9'122; OCD_p.}
30 Further indecisive fighting between C.Marius and the Marsi under Poppaedius; Marius refuses to be drawn into a full-scale battle.
* Read Plutarch's account
~Diod_37.15'1-3; ~[Liv]:Per_74; Plut:Mar_33'3-6.
31 A.Plotius defeats the Umbrians.
* Read Livy's account
~[Liv]:Per_74; +Oros_5.18'17.
32 L.Porcius defeats the Etruscans.
* Read Livy's account
~[Liv]:Per_74; Flor_2.6'13; +Oros_5.18'17; { CAH_9'122.}
33 ROM The Lex Julia grants Roman citizenship to those Italians who have not joined in the revolt.
* Read Appian's account
CIL_1.709; Cic:Balb_21; [Liv]:Per_80; Strab_5'241;(4.2)  Vell_2.16'4; ~Appian:BCiv_1'49; Gell_4.4'3; { CAH_9'123; OCD_caesar.}
34 Metellus Pius is elected praetor in preference to more senior candidates.
[Vict]:VirIll_63'3; { MRR_2'24.}
35 == The tribune C.Carbo speaks out against the policies of M.Drusus.
Cic:Orat_213-214;L  { MRR_2'20.}
36 == L.Caesar restores the temple of Juno Sospita, in response to a dream reported by Caecilia.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Div_1'4, '99, 2'136; +Obseq_55.
37 == Cicero finds many orators to listen to at Rome, even after the outbreak of war, and learns about law from Q.Scaevola.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:Brut_305, :Amic_1, :Phil_8'31; Plut:Cic_3'1.
38 ?? Scaurus pays an enormous sum to buy an eminent grammarian called Daphnis.
39 ?? A saying of Scaurus, about the philosopher Ariston.
40 ++ The character of M.Aemilius Scaurus, who by his own efforts became one of the most powerful men in Roman politics.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Scaur_fr'f; Ascon_22-23;L (↓)  Plin:HN_36'116; Plut:Mor_318'C; { ~OCD_s.}
41 ++ The historian Cn.Aufidius and the lawyer C.Drusus overcome blindness to achieve distinction in their fields.
Cic:Tusc_5'112; ValMax_8.7'4; { Aufidius was quaestor in 119 B.C. and praetor in 107 B.C.; Drusus was probably the brother of M.Drusus, consul in 112 B.C.}
42 ++ Laelia the daughter of C.Laelius is as eloquent as her father.
Quint_1.1'6; { According to Cicero, DeOr_3'45, Laelia was still alive in 91 B.C..}
43 ?? The scholar L.Aelius Stilo is given the surname Praeconinus, because his father was a herald.
Plin:HN_33'29; { He was born about 150 B.C. - OCD.}
44 ++ Aristodemus of Nysa is one of the teachers of Cn.Pompeius Magnus.
45 ROM Document: CIL_1.708, the epitaph of C.Sergius, killed in battle with Q.Caepio.
46 AEG ?? Document: CIL_1.705, an inscription in honour of C.Julius Caesar at Delos.
47 GRE ?? T.Albucius studies philosophy in exile, at Athens.

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