57 B.C. Olympiad 180.4

Consuls: P. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Spinther, Q. Caecilius Q.f. Metellus Nepos
Athenian archon: Diocles

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} L.Cotta urges the senate to recall Cicero, but the motion is blocked by the tribune Atilius Serranus.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_5.4'2, #:RedSen_5, #:RedPop_11-12, #:Dom_68, 84, :Att_4.2'4, #:Sest_72-74, :Pis_34, :Leg_3'45;L  Ascon_11;L  { CAH_9'387.}
2 MAC {January -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.26 & Cic:Fam_5.4, letters from Cicero at Dyrrachium to Atticus and to Metellus Nepos.
3 ROM {23 January -R} Q.Fabricius proposes a bill for Cicero's recall, but Clodius dispels the assembly by violence; Q.Cicero is wounded in the fighting.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RedSen_22, #:Sest_75-78, :Mil_38; +Plut:Cic_33'3; +DioCass_39.6'1-7'3; { CAH_9'387.}
4 The tribune P.Sestius attempts to announce adverse auspices, but is wounded by Clodius' supporters.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:RedSen_6-7, 30, :RedPop_14, :Sest_79-83, 85; Schol:Bob_122;L  { OCD_s.}
5 MAC {February -R} Document: Cic:Att_3.27, a short letter from Cicero to Atticus.
6 ROM T.Milo attempts to prosecute Clodius, but is obstructed by Metellus Nepos.
* Read Dio's account
+Cic:RedSen_19, :Mil_38, 40; +Plut:Cic_33'3; +DioCass_39.7'4.
7 Milo organises a band of armed supporters, and engages in street fighting with Clodius.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:RedSen_19, :Sest_85-87; :Mil_38, :Off_2'58; Appian:BCiv_2'16; +DioCass_39.8'1; { OCD_m.}
8 Sestius gathers his own band of armed supporters.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:RedSen_20, :Sest_84-85.
9 GAL The Belgae form a coalition, in opposition to the Romans.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_2.1'1-5'3; Plut:Caes_20'4; +DioCass_39.1'1-3; Oros_6.7'11-15; { CAH_9'387.}
10 CYP << Ptolemy, king of Cyprus, commits suicide and Cato takes over the island without resistance.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_14'684;(6.6)  Vell_2.36'6, 45'5; ValMax_9.4e'1; Plut:CatMin_35'2-3, 36'1, :Brut_3'2; Flor_1.44'4-5; Appian:BCiv_2'23; DioCass_39.22'2-3; Festus:Brev_13'1; AmmMarc_14.8'15.
11 ROM Ptolemy Auletes comes to Rome, in order to seek support for his restoration as king of Egypt.
* Read Livy's account
[Liv]:Per_104; [Euseb]:Chron_167; ChronPasc_456'A; { Hölbl_p227.}
12 GAL Caesar relieves Bibrax, a town belonging to the Remi.
13 CAP Ariobarzanes persuades Gabinius, the new governor of Syria, to undertake a military expedition.
14 ROM The senate meets in Marius' temple of Virtue, and passes a decree instructing provincial governors to protect Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:Sest_116-123, 128, :Pis_34, :Planc_78, :Div_1'59; ValMax_1.7'5; Schol:Bob_136-137,L  166.L 
15 GAL Caesar defeats the Belgae by the river Axona.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_2.8'1-11'6; Plut:Caes_20'5; Appian:Gall_1'10;(23)  +DioCass_39.1'3-2'2.
16 The Suessiones, Bellovaci and other tribes surrender to Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_2.12'1-15'2; [Liv]:Per_104; +DioCass_39.2'2.
17 MAC Piso secretly orders the death of Plator of Orestis.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:HarResp_35, ~:Pis_83-84.
18 PAL Gabinius suppresses a revolt by Alexander, the son of Aristobulus; Marcus Antonius displays outstanding bravery during the fighting.
* Read Josephus' account
@  (?) Cic:Sest_71, :ProvCon_15; Joseph:BJ_1'160-166, '244, '281-282, :AJ_14'82-88, '326; Plut:Ant_3'1-3; { CAH_9'395.}
19 ROM {July -R} The praetor L.Caecilius is attacked at the Ludi Apollinares, in a protest about corn shortages.
Ascon_48;L  { CAH_9'389.}
20 The senate meets in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and summons citizens from throughout Italy to vote on a motion for the recall of Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:RedSen_24-27, :RedPop_15-16, :Dom_14-15, :Sest_128-130, :ProvCon_22, :Pis_34-35, :Leg_3'45;L  +DioCass_39.8'2.
21 Pompeius supports the campaign for Cicero's recall.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:RedSen_29, :RedPop_16, :Dom_30, 69, :Pis_34, :Mil_39; +Plut:Cic_33'3; Schol:Bob_122.L 
23 PER << Phraates, king of Parthia, is murdered by his sons.
DioCass_39.56'2; { OCD_arsacids; OHIH_p172.}
24 ROM {4 August -R} The citizens meet in a centuriate assembly, and vote in favour of Cicero's recall.
* Read Cicero's account
+Cic:RedSen_27-28, :RedPop_16-17, #:Att_4.1'4, :Dom_4-5, 75, 90, :Pis_35-36; [Liv]:Per_104; Vell_2.45'3; Ascon_3;L (↓)  +Plut:Cic_33'4; ~Appian:BCiv_2'16; +DioCass_39.8'2-3; [Vict]:VirIll_81'4;L  +Cassiod:Chr_697; { CAH_9'389; OCD_c.}
25 ITA {5 August -R} Cicero arrives at Brundisium.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_4.1'4, #:Sest_131.
26 ROM Cn.Plancius is elected tribune.
27 GAL The Nervii make a surprise attack on Caesar's army, but they are defeated with heavy losses.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_2.15'3-28'3; [Liv]:Per_104; ValMax_3.2'19; Plut:Caes_20'6-10; Flor_1.45'4; Appian:Gall_1'11;(23)  +DioCass_39.3'1-2; Oros_6.7'16; { CAH_9'388.}
28 PAL Alexander surrenders to Gabinius, who re-organises the government of Judaea.
* Read Josephus' account
~Joseph:BJ_1'167-170, 7'171; :AJ_14'89-91;
29 ROM {4 September -R} Cicero receives an enthusiastic welcome on his return to Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_4.1'4-5; :Dom_75-76, :Sest_131, :Pis_51-52; Vell_2.45'3; +Plut:Cic_33'5; Appian:BCiv_2'16; +DioCass_39.9'1; ChronPasc_456'A; { OCD_c.}
30 ROM {5 September -R} Document: Cic:RedSen & Cic:RedPop, Cicero's speeches of thanks to the Roman senate and people.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_4.1'5, :Planc_74; +DioCass_39.9'1; Schol:Bob_108-110.
31 {7 September -R} The senate appoints Pompeius to be commissioner for the grain supply, at the proposal of Cicero.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_4.1'6-7, :Dom_3-31; [Liv]:Per_104; Plut:Pomp_49'6-9; Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.9'2-3, 54.1'3; { CAH_9'389-390; OCD_p.}
32 Document: Cic:Att_4.1, a letter from Cicero to Atticus, describing his triumphant return to Rome.
33 {29 September -R} Document: Cic:Dom, Cicero's speech against Clodius, in defence of his right to rebuild his house at Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_4.2'2-4; Cic:HarResp_12-13; Vell_2.45'3; Ascon_13-14;L (↓)  Plut:Cic_33'4; Appian:BCiv_2'16; +DioCass_39.11'1-3; { OCD_c.}
34 GAL Caesar attacks the Atuatuci, and forces them to surrender.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_2.29'1-33'7, 5.27'2; +DioCass_39.4'1-4.
35 The Veneti and other tribes surrender to P.Crassus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_2.34'1; Plut:Caes_20'6; { CAH_9'388.}
36 ROM {October -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.2, a letter from Cicero to Atticus, describing plans for the rebuilding of his property.
37 Dion, the leader of a delegation from Alexandria, is murdered, allegedly at the instigation of Ptolemy.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:HarResp_34, :Cael_18, 23-24, 51-55; { CAH_9'392=56?; Hölbl_p228.}
37a EGY ++ Topsius of Alexandria, the brother of Dion, is a famous wrestler.
38 << Document: BD_52, a report of a disturbance, and complaints against Hermaiscus. { During the joint reign of Cleopatra and Berenice.}
39 The death of Cleopatra, the mother of Berenice.
[Euseb]:Chron_167; { Hölbl_p227; Bennett.}
40 SYR Antiochus is summoned to be the consort of Berenice, but dies before reaching Egypt.
[Euseb]:Chron_261;(↓)  { ~Hölbl_p227.}
41 Gabinius prevents Philippus from going to Egypt; regarded by some as the end of the Seleucid dynasty.
[Euseb]:Chron_261,(↓)  263; Hieron:Chron_1924.
42 ROM Clodius stands as a candidate to be aedile for the following year.
43 {23 November -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.3, describing violent attacks by Clodius on Cicero and his workmen, and retaliation by Milo.
44 GAL Caesar establishes his army's winter quarters amongst the tribes of Gaul.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_2.35'1-3; +DioCass_39.5'1.
45 Caesar appoints Cavarinus as king of the Senones, and Tasgetius as king of the Carnutes.
* Read Caesar's account
~Caes:BGall_5.25'2-3, 54'2.
46 ROM The senate decrees a public thanksgiving of fifteen days for Caesar's victories in Gaul.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BGall_2.34'4; Plut:Caes_21'1-2; +DioCass_39.5'1.
47 ILL Caesar visits Illyricum.
48 ALP Ser.Galba is driven out of the Alps by the Veragri.
* Read Caesar's account
~Caes:BGall_3.1'1-6'5, 8.50'4; +DioCass_39.5'2-4; Oros_6.8'1-5.
48a EGY {1 Choiak -E = December} The completion of building work in the temple of Horus at Edfu.
49 ROM Document: Cic:QFr_2.1, a letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus, describing a meeting of the senate.
50 Document: Cic:Fam_5.17, a letter from Cicero to P.Sittius.
51 == Cornelius Spinther changes his gens in order to become an augur.
52 == The floruit of the orator M.Calidius.
53 == The consul Lentulus, named Spinther after his resemblance to an actor, displays vases and other works of art.
ValMax_9.14'4; Plin:HN_7'54, 34'44, 36'59.
54 == Ptolemy borrows money from Rabirius Postumus, during his stay at Rome.
Cic:RabPost_4-12; { Hölbl_p228.}
55 CYP == Cato scrupulously collects the wealth of Cyprus, in order to remove it to Rome.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Dom_23; ValMax_4.3'2; Lucan_3'164; Plut:CatMin_36'2-38'4, :Brut_3'1-4; DioCass_39.22'2-4.
56 == Cato sells poison, while disposing of the assets of the kingdom of Cyprus.
Seneca:Contr_6'4;L  Plin:HN_29'96.L 
57 MAC == Piso, as proconsul, plunders the province of Macedonia, and loses part of his army.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Sest_71, :Pis_38-48, 53, 84-88; Ascon_12;L  { MRR_2'138-139.}
58 GLT ?? Deiotarus expands his power, and dominates the other tetrarchs of Galatia.
Cic:HarResp_29; [Caes]:BAlex_67'1; { By 58/57 B.C., Deiotarus was resisting attempts to restrict his power.}

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