55 B.C. Olympiad 181.2

Consuls: Cn. Pompeius Cn.f. Magnus (II), M. Licinius P.f. Crassus (II)
Athenian archon: Aristoxenus

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {January -R} Pompeius and Crassus are elected as consuls, after an interregnum.
* Read Dio's account
+Plut:CatMin_42'1, :Crass_15'4; +Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.31'1-2.
2 The other elections are disrupted by violence, during which Pompeius is splattered with blood; Vatinius is elected as praetor, while Cato is rejected.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_4.6'4; Sen:Dial_2.1'3, 12.13'5, :Ben_5.17'2, :Ep_118'4; +Plut:CatMin_42'1-7, 50'3, +:Pomp_52'3, 53'3-4; Appian:BCiv_2'17;(↓)  +DioCass_39.32'1-3; AmmMarc_28.4'21; { CAH_9'397.}
2a EGY {1 Tybi -E = January} Document: AET_9.7'A, recording the visit of a strategos to the temple of Djeser-set.
3 SYR << Gabinius advances towards Mesopotamia, in order to attack the Parthians.
* Read Dio's account
Joseph:BJ_1'175, :AJ_14'98; Appian:Syr_51; DioCass_39.56'1-2; Movses_2'16; { CAH_9'271.}
4 Pompeius sends a letter authorising Gabinius to assist Ptolemy's return to Egypt by force.
* Read Dio's account
Lucan_8'448-449, '518-519, 9'1028-1029; Aelian:NA_12'6; +DioCass_39.55'3, 56'3, 42.2'4, 5'3; { CAH_9'272.}
5 ROM Cato is put in prison after opposing the measures of the tribune Trebonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_105; Sen:Dial_2.1'3; +Plut:CatMin_43'2-6; +DioCass_39.34'2-4.
6 The Lex Trebonia assigns the provinces of Spain and Syria to the current consuls.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_105; Vell_2.46'2, 48'1; +Plut:CatMin_43'1, '7, +:Pomp_52'4, :Crass_15'5-16'2, 35'2; Flor_2.13'12; +Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.33'1-35'5; Eutrop_6.18'1; Oros_6.13'1; { CAH_9'398; OCD_t.}
7 Caesar's command in Gaul is extended for a further five years.
* Read Dio's account
Caes:BGall_8.53'1; Cic:Phil_2'24; Vell_2.46'2; +Plut:CatMin_43'8-10, +:Pomp_52'4, :Crass_15'5; +Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.36'1-2; { OCD_c; according to Dio, this happened later on the same day as the Lex Trebonia.}
8 {11 February -R} The senate passes a decree against bribery.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:QFr_2.8'3; +DioCass_39.37'1.
8a Crassus passes the Lex Licinia de Sodaliciis, a law banning illegal associations in elections.
Cic:Planc_36-48, :Fam_8.2'1; Schol:Bob_150,L  +152, 160;L 
9 Document: Cic:QFr_2.8, a letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus, describing his meetings with Pompeius and Crassus.
10 EGY Gabinius invades Egypt, defeats Archelaus and reinstates Ptolemy as king.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_4.10'1, :Pis_48-50, :RabPost_19-21, 34, :Phil_2'48; Strab_12'558;(3.34)  ValMax_9.1e'6; Joseph:BJ_1'175, :AJ_14'98-99; Plut:Ant_3'4-4'6; Appian:Syr_51; Athen_5.206'c-d; +DioCass_39.55'1-3, 56'3-5, 58'1-3, 45.26'4; Schol:Bob_168;L  { CAH_9'272; Bennett.}
11 Ptolemy kills his daughter Berenice.
Strab_17'796;(1.11)  [Euseb]:Chron_167;(↓)  { CAH_9'320.}
12 Gabinius leaves behind Roman soldiers in Egypt.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BCiv_3.103'5, 110'6; DioCass_42.5'4; { CAH_9'390.}
13 The Roman banker Rabirius Postumus is put in charge of the financial affairs of Egypt, as dioecetes.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:RabPost_22-40; BD_52A; Suet:Claud_16'2; { CAH_9'272.}
14 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_5.12, a letter from Cicero to L.Lucceius.
15 {April -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.6 & 4.9-10, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
16 {April -R} Cato leaves the theatre during the Floralia, to avoid seeing naked women on stage.
ValMax_2.10'8; Sen:Ep_97'8; Mart_1.epist; { When C.Messius was aedile (MRR_2'148).}
17 GER Two German tribes, the Usipetes and Tencteri, cross the Rhine and invade the territory of the Menapii.
* Read Caesar's account
~Caes:BGall_4.1'1-6'5; Plut:Caes_22'1; DioCass_39.47'1.
18 The Germans agree to withdraw under the terms of a truce with Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.7'1-11'6; DioCass_39.47'2.
19 ROM Cicero and some of the Syrians demand that Gabinius should be prosecuted for his invasion of Egypt.
20 Piso returns from Macedonia to Rome.
21 GER Some of the Germans break the truce; their elders visit Caesar to apologise and to ask for the renewal of the truce.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.12'1-13'6; Plut:Caes_22'2-3; Appian:Gall_18'1, '3-4;(24a)  DioCass_39.47'3-48'1.
22 Caesar attacks the German camp by surprise, and slaughters everyone inside it, including the women and children.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.14'1-15'5; [Liv]:Per_105; Plut:CatMin_51'1, :Caes_22'5; Appian:Gall_1'12,(24b)  18'1;(24a)  ~DioCass_39.48'2; Oros_6.8'23.
23 ROM {26 June -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.11, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
24 PAL Gabinius defeats Alexander, the son of Aristobulus, in a battle near Mount Tabor.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'176-178, :AJ_14'100-102; { CAH_9'273.}
25 ROM The consuls propose a law to curtail spending on luxury, but the law is successfully opposed by Hortensius.
26 GER Caesar constructs a bridge over the Rhine, and briefly crosses over to the east of the river.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.16'1-19'4; Diod_5.25'4; [Liv]:Per_105; Plut:Caes_22'6-23'1; Suet:Caes_25'2; Flor_1.45'15; Appian:Gall_1'12-13;(25b)  ~DioCass_39.48'3-5; Eutrop_6.17'3; Hieron:Chron_1961; Oros_6.9'1; { CAH_9'400.}
27 SPA Metellus Nepos is unable to suppress a rebellion led by the Vaccaei.
+DioCass_39.54'1-2; { MRR_2'149.}
28 PER Orodes defeats Mithridates, and establishes himself as king of Parthia.
* Read Justin's account
Plut:Crass_21'7; Just_42.4'1-4; { OCD_o; OHIH_p172<54/3?>.}
29 BRI C.Volusenus sails across to Britain, to gather information about the island for Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.20'1-22'6; Diod_3.38'2-3; Quint_7.4'2; Suet:Caes_58'1.
30 ROM {August -R} Document: Cic:Pis, Cicero's speech condemning Piso's conduct in Macedonia.
Ascon_1-2,L  14;L  { OCD_c.}
31 {August -R} Pompeius holds magnificent games to celebrate the opening of his theatre and the dedication of the temple of Venus Victrix.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Off_2'57; +Ascon_1,L  16;L  ValMax_2.4'6; Sen:Dial_10.13'6-7; Plin:HN_7'34, '158, 8'20-21, '53, '64, '70, 36'41, '115; Plut:Brut_14'2, :Pomp_40'9, +52'5; Tert:DeSpect_10; +DioCass_39.38'1-6; ChronPasc_456'A; { CAH_9'400.}
31a T.Ampius Balbus fail to be elected as consul, despite the support of Pompeius.
Schol:Bob_156;L  { MRR_2'129.}
32 Document: Cic:Fam_7.1, a letter from Cicero to M.Marius.
33 BRI Julius Caesar lands in Britain, despite resistance from British forces as his army disembarks.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.23'1-27'7; Strab_4'199;(5.2)  ValMax_3.2'23b; Plut:Caes_16'5-7, 23'2-4; Tac:Dial_17'4-5; Suet:Caes_47'1; Flor_1.45'16-17; Appian:Gall_1'13,(25b)  :BCiv_2'150; +DioCass_39.50'1-51'3; Julian:Caes_321'A; Oros_6.9'2; Nennius_19; Bede_1'2.
34 ARA Gabinius attacks the Nabataeans.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:BJ_1'178, :AJ_14'103; { CAH_9'273.}
35 BRI Caesar's ships are damaged by a high tide on the coast of Britain.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.28'1-29'4; Strab_4'200;(5.3)  Flor_1.45'17; +DioCass_39.52'1; Oros_6.9'2; Nennius_19; Bede_1'2.
36 The British gather fresh forces to attack Caesar, but he overcomes them in battle.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_4.30'1-35'3; Appian:Gall_19'1;(25a)  +DioCass_39.52'1-3; Bede_1'2.
37 {September} Caesar leaves Britain, after demanding hostages.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BGall_4.36'1-4; Strab_4'200;(5.3)  +DioCass_39.52'3-53'2; Nennius_19; Bede_1'2; { Shortly before the autumn equinox.}
38 GAL Caesar makes a punitive raid against the Morini and Menapii.
39 ROM << Document: Lucr_, Lucretius' poem "De Rerum Natura".
40 {October} The death of the poet Lucretius.
* Read Suetonius' account
#[Suet]:Verg_6; Hieron:Chron_1923; { OCD_l<55 or 51>; this is said to have been on the same day as Vergilius' fifteenth birthday.}
41 CIS Vergilius moves from Cremona to Mediolanum.
* Read Suetonius' account
+[Suet]:Verg_6-7; Hieron:Chron_1964.
42 ROM The senate decrees a public thanksgiving of twenty days for Caesar's victories, despite the opposition of Cato.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Caes:BGall_4.38'5; Plut:CatMin_51'1-5, :Caes_22'4, :Crass_37'3; Appian:Gall_18'2;(24a)  { CAH_9'400.}
43 Document: Cic:DeOr_, Cicero's treatise on rhetoric, "De Oratore".
Cic:Att_4.13'2; { OCD_c.}
43a ?? Crassus is accused by Plotius of an improper relationship with the Vestal virgin Licinia.
43b ?? Crassus and Hortensius are named as heirs of L.Minucius Basilus, but his will is alleged to have been forged.
Cic:Off_3'73-75; ValMax_9.4'1.
43c ?? A retort of Crassus, after being mocked by Domitius about the death of his pet fish.
Aelian:NA_8'4; Plut:Mor_89'A, 811'A, 976'A.
43d ?? Sarcastic comments of Cicero about Crassus.
44 Crassus estimates his wealth before leaving Rome; the total is 7,100 talents.
45 {November -R} Crassus musters an army despite the opposition of the tribunes, and leaves Rome for the east.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_4.13'2, :Fam_1.9'20, :Div_1'29-30; Caes:BGall_6.1'2; Vell_2.46'3; Lucan_3'126-127; Plin:HN_15'83;L  Plut:Cic_26'1, :Crass_16'3-6, +:Pomp_52'5; Flor_1.46'1-3; Appian:BCiv_2'18; +DioCass_39.39'1-7; { CAH_9'400.}
46 {November -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.13, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
47 Document: Cic:QFr_2.9, a letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus.
48 == Pompeius passes a law about the selection of juries.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Pis_94, :Phil_1'20; Ascon_17;L  { CAH_9'398.}
49 == The senators support a proposal made by Pompeius, as consul, about extortion.
50 == Helvius Mancia, in the trial of L.Libo before the censors, bitterly criticises Pompeius' earlier ruthlessness.
ValMax_6.2'8; { The censors for this year were M.Valerius Messalla and P.Servilius Vatia Isauricus (MMR_2'147).}
51 == Document: Catull_11 & 29 & 55 & 113, four poems by Catullus.
52 ?? Aristodemus of Nysa gives lessons on grammar to the sons of Pompeius.
Strab_14'650;(1.48)  { Pompeius' sons were born in about 79 and 67 B.C.}
53 << Cato gives his wife Marcia to his friend Hortensius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_11'515;(9.1)  Lucan_2'329-33, '339, '344-345; Quint_3.5'11, '13, 10.5'13; Plut:CatMin_25'1-13; Appian:BCiv_2'99;(↓)  Tert:Apol_39'12; { The date is uncertain, but it was probably after Cato's return from Cyprus.}
54 SAR == An alleged plot against Bostar by M.Scaurus, as propraetor in Sardinia.
Cic:Scaur_fr'h-i, 'o, 5-13; Ascon_18; { MRR_2'149.}
55 ARM << Artavasdes becomes king of Armenia, after the death of Tigranes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_11'532;(14.15)  Lucian:Macr_15; Movses_2'22-23.

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