54 B.C. Olympiad 181.3

Consuls: L. Domitius Cn.f. Ahenobarbus, Ap. Claudius Ap.f. Pulcher
Athenian archon: Zenon

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {January -R} Document: Cic:Fam_5.8, a letter from Cicero to M.Crassus.
2 Document: Cic:Planc, Cicero's speech in defence of Cn.Plancius, against a charge of bribery in the recent election for aediles.
Plut:Cic_25'1; Schol:Bob_152-169; { OCD_p; MRR_2'152; the elections had been delayed from the previous year (Cic:Planc_49).}
3 {February -R} Document: Cic:QFr_2.10-12, three letters from Cicero to his brother Quintus.
4 SYR << The Parthian exiles, Mithridates and Orsanes, escape from Syria, or are released by Gabinius.
* Read Josephus' account
~Joseph:BJ_1'178, :AJ_14'103.
5 ILL Caesar demands hostages from the Pirustae, after they make a raid on Illyria.
6 ITA Crassus sails from Brundisium with his army, and proceeds through Galatia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Div_2'84; ~Plut:Crass_17'1-2.
7 ROM {April -R} Document: Cic:Fam_7.5, a letter from Cicero to Caesar, recommending Trebatius.
8 The consul Domitius unsuccessfully attempts to curtail Caesar's command in Gaul.
Suet:Ner_2'2; { CAH_9'401.}
9 GAL << Caesar writes a work about linguistics, "De Analogia".
Suet:Caes_56'5; Fronto:Ep_2'p28; { OCD_c.}
10 Caesar constructs a new fleet in preparation for another invasion of Britain.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.1'1-4, 2'1-3; +DioCass_40.1'1; Oros_6.9'3; Bede_1'2.
11 ITA {May -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.14 & Cic:Fam_7.6 & Cic:QFr_2.13 , letters from Cicero to Atticus, Trebatius and his brother Quintus.
12 GAL Caesar settles a dispute amongst the Treveri, and kills Dumnorix, a leader of the Aedui, after he tries to escape.
13 BRI Caesar sails over to Britain, and lands there without resistance.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.8'1-6; Flor_1.45'18; Athen_6.273'b; +DioCass_40.1'2-2'1; Oros_6.9'4; Nennius_20.
14 The Britons take refuge in a camp within a wood, but they are overwhelmed by the Romans.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.9'1-7; +DioCass_40.2'2.
15 ROM {June -R} Document: Cic:Fam_7.7 & Cic:QFr_2.14, letters from Cicero to Trebatius and to his brother Quintus.
16 {28 June -R} M.Scaurus returns to Rome from Sardinia.
17 Julius Caesar pays 100 million sesterces to buy the site for his forum.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_4.16'8; Plin:HN_36'103; Suet:Caes_26'2; { CAH_9'406-407.}
18 {4 July -R} C.Cato is prosecuted twice for disrupting elections, but Calvus and Scaurus speak in his defence and he is acquitted.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_4.15'4, 16'5; Seneca:Contr_7.4'7;L  #Ascon_18; Quint_12.6'1; { OCD_c.}
19 {6 July -R} Scaurus is summoned to trial by Triarius, on a charge of extortion.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_4.16'6; Ascon_18-20.
20 M.Cato attempts to stop corruption in the elections for new consuls.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_4.16'2-3, :QFr_2.15'4, 16'2, 3.2'3; Plut:CatMin_44'3-14; Suet:Caes_73'1; (?) Appian:BCiv_2'19; { CAH_9'401.}
20a EGY {14 Epeiph -E = July} Work starts on building the new temple of Hathor at Dendera.
21 BRI Caesar's fleet is damaged in a storm.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.10'1-11'7; Suet:Caes_25'2; +DioCass_40.2'3; Oros_6.9'4; Bede_1'2.
22 ROM {July -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.15-16 & Cic:QFr_2.15, letters from Cicero to Atticus and to his brother Quintus.
23 Cicero and Calvus defend Messius on a charge of bribery.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_4.15'9; Seneca:Contr_7.4'8.L 
24 GAL M.Antonius goes from Egypt to join Caesar in Gaul.
~Cic:Phil_2'48; { ~OCD_a.}
25 SYR After the arrival of Crassus in Syria, Gabinius sails back to Rome, accompanied the writer Timagenes.
* Read Josephus' account
~Joseph:BJ_1'179, :AJ_14'104; Appian:Syr_51;(↓)  Suda_T'588.
26 MES Crassus invades Mesopotamia, but then withdraws back to Syria.
* Read Dio's account
Plut:Crass_17'2-4; +DioCass_40.12'1-13'4.
27 BRI Cassivellaunus is appointed to lead the Britons; he assembles an army and attacks the Romans with his chariots.
* Read Caesar's account
Caes:BGall_5.11'8-9, +15'1-16'4; +DioCass_40.2'3-4; Oros_6.9'5; Bede_1'2; { OCD_c.}
28 Caesar's cavalry defeats the Britons.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.17'1-5; +DioCass_40.3'1; Oros_6.9'5; Bede_1'2.
29 ROM {August -R} Vatinius is prosecuted by Calvus, but Cicero is persuaded by Caesar to speak in his defence.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:QFr_2.16'3, :Fam_1.9'19; [Sall]:Cic_7; ValMax_4.2'4; Seneca:Contr_7.4'6;L  +Ascon_18; Quint_6.3'60, 12.6'1; Tac:Dial_39'5; Schol:Bob_145,L  160;L  { OCD_v.}
30 BRI Caesar crosses the river Thames at a ford, despite the sharpened stakes placed there by the Britons.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.18'1-5; Polyaen_8.23'5; +DioCass_40.3'1-2; Oros_6.9'6-7; Bede_1'2; Nennius_20.
31 The Trinovantes and other British tribes surrender to Caesar.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.19'1-21'1; Oros_6.9'8; Bede_1'2; Nennius_20.
32 ROM {August -R} Julia, the daughter of Caesar and wife of Pompeius, dies in childbirth.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_7.9'1, :QFr_3.1'17, '25; [Liv]:Per_106; Vell_2.47'2; Sen:Dial_6.14'3; Lucan_1'111-120; Plut:Caes_23'5-7, :Pomp_53'1-7; Flor_2.13'13; Appian:BCiv_2'19; +DioCass_39.64'1; { CAH_9'402; OCD_j.}
33 {August -R} Document: Cic:Fam_7.8 & Cic:QFr_2.16, letters from Cicero to Trebatius and to his brother Quintus.
34 {2 September -R} Scaurus is prosecuted for extortion, but he is acquitted, after Cicero and others speak in his defence.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Scaur_1-50, :Att_4.15'9, #17'4, (?) :QFr_3.6'3; ValMax_3.6'7, 8.1'10; #Ascon_18, 20, 28-29; Tac:Dial_39'5; { OCD_s.}
35 BRI Caesar captures the main stronghold of Cassivellaunus.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.21'2-6; Flor_1.45'18; +DioCass_40.3'2; Oros_6.9'9; Bede_1'2; { OCD_cas.}
36 The Britons agree terms with Caesar, and promise to hand over hostages to him.
* Read Caesar's account
Cic:Att_4.18'5; +Caes:BGall_5.22'1-5; Diod_5.21'2; Strab_4'200;(5.3)  Plut:Caes_23'4; Suet:Caes_25'2; +DioCass_40.3'2; Festus:Brev_6'3; Eutrop_6.17'3; Nennius_20.
37 ROM {20 September -R} Gabinius returns to Rome, where he tries to avoid attention.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:QFr_3.1'15; +Ascon_1;L  +DioCass_39.62'1; { CAH_9'401.}
38 BRI {25 September -R} Caesar leaves Britain, and sails back to Gaul.
* Read Caesar's account
#Cic:Att_4.18'5; +Caes:BGall_5.23'1-6; Flor_1.45'19; +DioCass_40.4'1.
39 General comments on Caesar's invasion of Britain.
* Read Strabo's account
Caes:BGall_7.67'1; [Liv]:Per_105; Strab_2'115,(5.8)  4'200;(5.3)  Tac:Agr_13'2, :Ann_12'34; Suet:Caes_25'2; DioCass_60.19'5, 62.4'1; [Vict]:VirIll_78'4.
40 ROM {September -R} Document: Cic:QFr_3.1, a letter from Cicero to his brother Quintus, replying to several letters sent by Quintus from Britain.
41 Gabinius is prosecuted for illegally invading Egypt, but he is acquitted through bribery and the influence of Pompeius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:QFr_3.1'15, '24, 2'1, 3'3, 4'1-2, 7'1; :Att_4.18'1-4; ValMax_8.1'3; Appian:Syr_51; DioCass_39.55'4, +62'2-3; Schol:Bob_177;L  { CAH_9'401.}
42 ROM Public opinion at Rome turns against Gabinius, and he is even blamed for a severe flood.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:QFr_3.5'8; +DioCass_39.60'1-4, 61'3-4; { CAH_9'401-402.}
43 Cicero starts to write his philosophical dialogue about the Republic.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_4.16'2-3, :QFr_3.5'1-2.
44 {October -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.17-18 & Cic:Fam_7.9 & Cic:QFr_3.2-5, letters from Cicero to Atticus, to Trebatius, and to his brother Quintus.
45 {2 November -R} The triumph of Pomptinus, for his victory over the Allobroges seven years earlier.
* Read Dio's account
#Cic:QFr_3.4'6, :Att_4.18'4; +FastTr_p108; +DioCass_39.65'1-2.
46 SYR P.Crassus brings some Gallic cavalry to join his father's army.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Crass_17'4, '6; { CAH_9'402.}
47 ROM The elections for new consuls are postponed to the end of the year.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_4.18'3, :QFr_3.6'4, 7'3.
48 {November -R} Document: Cic:Att_4.19 & Cic:Fam_7.16-17 & Cic:QFr_3.6, letters from Cicero to Atticus, to Trebatius, and to his brother Quintus.
49 GAL Cotta and Sabinus are ambushed and their army is destroyed by Ambiorix, the leader of the Eburones.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.24'1-37'7; [Liv]:Per_106; Lucan_1'429; Frontin:Str_3.17'6; Plut:Caes_24'1-2; Flor_1.45'7-8; Appian:BCiv_2'150;(↓)  +DioCass_40.4'2-6'3; Eutrop_6.17'3; Oros_6.10'1; { CAH_9'402.}
50 Ambiorix besieges Q.Cicero in his winter camp in the territory of the Nervii.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.38'1-44'13; [Liv]:Per_106; Plut:Caes_24'3; +DioCass_40.7'1-8'2; Oros_6.10'2-5.
51 Caesar defeats the rebel Gauls, and forces them to abandon the siege of Q.Cicero's camp.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.45'1-52'6; [Liv]:Per_106; Frontin:Str_3.17'6; Plut:Caes_24'4-7; (?) Suet:Caes_58'1; Polyaen_8.23'6, '7, '23; +DioCass_40.9'1-10'3; Oros_6.10'6-9.
52 Labienus defeats and kills Indutiomarus, the leader of the Treveri.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.55'1-58'7; Flor_1.45'7-8; +DioCass_40.11'1-2; Oros_6.10'10-11.
53 Caesar spends the winter in Gaul, in order to quell further unrest.
* Read Caesar's account
+Caes:BGall_5.53'1-54'5; Plut:Caes_25'1; +DioCass_40.11'2; Oros_6.10'12.
54 ROM {December -R} Document: Cic:Fam_1.9 & 7.10 & Cic:QFr_3.7, letters from Cicero to Lentulus Spinther, to Trebatius, and to his brother Quintus.
55 ITA == Iron raining in Lucania is taken as an omen of disaster for Crassus' army.
56 ROM == General remarks on Cato's conduct as praetor.
* Read Plutarch's account
Sen:Ep_104'30; Plut:CatMin_44'1-2, 45'1-7; DioCass_38.7'6; { MRR_2'151.}
56a == T.Ligarius, as quaestor, is a loyal supporter of Caesar.
Cic:Lig_35-36; { MRR_2'152.}
57 == Document: Cic:RabPost_, Cicero's speech in defence of Rabirius Postumus. { OCD_r.}
58 << Document: Cic:Fam_13.40, a letter from Cicero to Q.Ancharius, governor of Macedonia. { MRR_2'153.}
59 == Document: [Sall]:Cic_, a supposed invective of Sallustius against Cicero. { After the trial of Vatinius, and before the death of Crassus.}
60 << Catullus is reconciled with Caesar.
61 == The death of the poet Catullus.
!Hieron:Chron_1959; { OCD_c.}
62 == Document: [Verg]:Cat_, the Catalepton and other juvenile poems of Vergilius.
[Suet]:Verg_17-18; { According to Suetonius, Vergilius was 16 years old when he started writing these poems.}
63 == Curio is a successful and popular orator.
64 == Octavianus shows signs of great promise, while only nine years old.
65 ++ General comments on the career of the actor Aesopus.
Cic:Tusc_4'55, :Off_1'114; ValMax_8.10'2; Plin:HN_10'141-142,L  35'163; Fronto:Ep_2'p68; { Aesopus made his last public appearance at the games of Pompeius in 55 B.C.}
66 ?? L.Gellius investigates accusations that his son has attempted to murder him, but decides that he is innocent.
ValMax_5.9'1; { ~OCD_g; Gellius is last mentioned by Cicero as alive in 55 B.C.}

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