44 B.C. Olympiad 184.1

Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (V), M.Antonius M.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Leucius
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene (II)

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    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} M.Antonius speaks in the senate against the appointment of Dolabella as suffect consul.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Phil_2'79-81, '83, '99; Plut:Ant_11'2.
2 AFR << Caesar plans to found a Roman colony on the site of Carthage.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_17'833;(3.15)  Plin:HN_5'25; Plut:Caes_57'8; Appian:Pun_136; Paus_2.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; { CAH_9'446; Caesar probably did not do much more than propose the colony before he died.}
3 PEL << Caesar founds a Roman colony on the site of Corinth.
* Read Dio's account
Diod_32.27'1, '3; Strab_8'379,(6.21)  '381-382,(6.23)  17'833;(3.15)  Mela_2'48; Plin:HN_4'10; Plut:Caes_57'8; Paus_2.1'2, 3'1, '7, 5.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; Julian:Ep_28.409'D; { OCD_c.}
4 NAR << Other colonies founded by Caesar, at Forum Julii, Heracleia Pontica, Ilium, Novum Comum, Sinope and in Sicily.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_5'213,(1.6)  6'272,(2.4)  12'542,(3.6)  '546,(3.11)  13'593,(1.26)  '594-595;(1.27)  Plin:HN_3'35; Mela_2'77.
5 BAE Document: ARS_114 & CIL_add.2, 'Lex Ursonensis' - the charter of the colony of Urso in Spain. { CAH_9'445; probably compiled before the death of Caesar, but published later by Antonius.}
6 SPA Caesar sends Asinius Pollio to command his forces against Sextus Pompeius in Spain.
Appian:BCiv_4'84; { OCD_p.}
7 ROM Caesar extends the pomerium of the city of Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_13.20'1, 35'1; Gell_13.14'4; +DioCass_43.50'1, 44.49'2.
8 Caesar recalls C.Antonius and other exiles.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_10'455;(2.13)  +Appian:BCiv_2'107;(↓)  +DioCass_43.50'1-2.
9 Caesar restores the statues of Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
Vell_2.61'3; Plut:Caes_57'6, :Cic_40'4, :Mor_91'A, 205'E; Suet:Caes_75'4; Polyaen_8.23'3; +DioCass_43.49'1-2.
10 The month of Quintilis is rename July, in honour of Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.1'1; Plut:Num_19'6; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.5'2, 45.7'2; Censor:DN_22'16; Hieron:Chron_1973; Macrob:Sat_1.12'34.L 
11 The senate grants further extravagant honours to Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_2'110; NicDam_130'67; Plut:Caes_57'2-4; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.3'1-7'3.
12 Caesar fails to stand for a delegation from the senate.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'78-79; Plut:Caes_60'4-8; Appian:BCiv_2'107; Suet:Caes_78'1; +DioCass_44.8'1-4; Eutrop_6.25'1.
13 {26 January} Some of the crowd acclaim Caesar as king during a procession from the Alban Mount, but he rejects the title.
* Read Plutarch's account
#FastTr_p108; Plut:Caes_60'1-3; Suet:Caes_79'2; +DioCass_44.9'1, 10'1; { CAH_9'463.}
14 Caesar deposes the tribunes Marullus and Flavus, after they remove a diadem from his statue on the rostra.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'31; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'69-70; Vell_2.68'4-5; ValMax_5.7'2; Plut:Brut_9'8, 12'4, :Caes_61'8-10; Suet:Caes_79'1, 80'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'108, 4'93; +DioCass_44.9'2-10'4; { CAH_9'464.}
15 {January} Document: Cic:Fam_7.30 & 13.50, letters from Cicero to Curius and Acilius.
16 Caesar rejects suggestions that he should have a bodyguard.
* Read Plutarch's account
NicDam_130'80; Vell_2.57'1; Plut:Caes_57'7-8; Suet:Caes_86'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; +DioCass_44.7'4.
17 {9 February} Caesar and the senate pass a decree confirming their friendly relations with the Jews.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:AJ_14'211-212, #'222.
18 Caesar is appointed dictator for life (dictator perpetuus).
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_116; Joseph:AJ_14'211; Plut:Caes_57'1; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106; Gell_19.8'3; +DioCass_44.8'4, 46.17'5; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10;L  Zonar_7'13;(p109)  { CAH_9'463; OCD_c.}
19 {15 February} Antonius offers a diadem to Caesar at the festival of Lupercalia, but the crowd voice strong disapproval.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_2'84-87, 3'12, 5'38, 13'17; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'71-75; Vell_2.56'4; Plut:Caes_61'1-7, :Ant_12'1-4; Suet:Caes_79'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; DioCass_44.11'1-3, 45.30'1-32'4, 34'1-2, 46.5'1-3, 17'1-8, 19'1-8; +Cassiod:Chr_710; { CAH_9'464; OCD_l.}
20 Caesar allows Marullus and Flavus to return from exile, at the request of the praetor Cinna.
21 Caesar appoints the magistrates for the next two years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'24; NicDam_130'77; Plut:Caes_58'1; +DioCass_43.51'3-9; Eutrop_6.25'1.
22 Caesar appoints Octavianus to become magister equitum, when Lepidus leaves Rome.
* Read Dio's account
FastCap_p78; Plin:HN_7'147; +Appian:BCiv_3'9; +DioCass_43.51'7; { CAH_9'466; OCD_c.}
23 C.Cassius persuades M.Brutus to join him in a conspiracy against Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_2'26; Sen:Ben_2.20'1-3; Plut:Brut_7'6-10'7, 29'7, 54'3, 56'11, 57'3-6, :Caes_62'1-10, :Mor_206'E; Suet:Caes_80'1-3; Flor_2.13'92-93; +Appian:BCiv_2'111-113; +DioCass_44.11'4-13'1, 14'2, 45.41'1-2.
24 Brutus and Cassius bring together many other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_2'27; Vell_2.56'3; NicDam_130'59-66, '80-81; Sen:Ep_83'12; Plut:Cic_42'1; :Brut_11'1-12'7, :Ant_13'1-2; Suet:Caes_80'4, :Gal_3'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'113-114;(↓)  +DioCass_44.14'3-15'4; Eutrop_6.25'1; August:DeCiv_3'30.(↓) 
25 {February} Document: Cic:Fam_7.31, a letter from Cicero to Curius.
26 Antonius blocks Dolabella's election as consul.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:Phil_2'82-84; FastCap_p78; { OCD_d.}
27 Porcia stabs herself to prove her loyalty to her husband Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_3.2'15; Plut:Brut_13'1-11; Polyaen_8.32'1; +DioCass_44.13'1-14'1.
28 GRE << The end of a period of 14 successive leaders of the Epicurean school of philosophy at Athens.
~Suda_E'2404; { According to N.W.De Witt, Epicurus and his Philosophy pp.331-2, the school continued in a diminished form until at least the 2nd century A.D.}
28a ASI {4 March} Document: SEG_39.1290, a decree of Caesar confirming the inviolability of a temple in Sardis.
28b EGY {8 Phamenoth -E = 9 March} Document: OGIS_184, an obeisance to Isis performed by the strategus Ptolemaeus.
29 ROM Rumours about Caesar's future plans, including a long expedition to the east.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Div_2'110, :Phil_5'7; NicDam_130'68; Strab_7'298;(3.5)  Plut:Caes_58'4-10; Suet:Caes_44'3, 79'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'110; +DioCass_43.51'1-2.
30 Omens foretell the death of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Div_1'119, 2'36-37; Ovid:Met_15'761-798; Liv_fr'47;L  Vell_2.57'2-3; Plin:HN_2'98; Plut:Caes_63'1-4; Suet:Caes_81'1-3; +DioCass_44.17'1-3; Obseq_67; Hieron:Chron_1973.
31 ?? Stratagems employed by Caesar during his wars.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_65'1-67'2; Polyaen_8.23'17-22.
32 ?? Various sayings of Caesar, including a comment on the dictatorship of Sulla.
* Read Polyaenus' account
Quint_6.3'38, '91; Frontin:Str_4.7'1; Suet:Caes_77'1, 78'2; Polyaen_8.23'32-33; [Vict]:Epit_1'14.L 
33 ++ L. Caecilius, Cratippus, Pompeius Trogus, Q.Sextius and Theopompus are associates of Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_14'656;(2.15)  Sen:Ep_98'13; Plut:Cic_24'5-6; Just_43.5'12; Macrob:Sat_2.6'5.L 
34 ++ General comments on the brilliant and ambitious character of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Off_1'26, 3'82-85, :Fam_11.28'2, :Phil_2'116-117; Ovid:Met_15'746-759; Sen:Ep_94'65, :Ben_5.16'5, :Dial_5.30'4; Plin:HN_7'91-94, 28'21;L  Plut:Brut_55'2, :Caes_3'2-3, 15'1-17'11; Suet:Caes_45'1-75'5; Appian:BCiv_2'149-154, 4'91-92; Julian:Caes_321'B-C, 331'C-332'B.
35 {14 March} While dining at the house of Lepidus, Caesar remarks that the best kind of death is a sudden one.
* Read Suetonius' account
Plut:Caes_63'7, :Mor_206'F; #Suet:Caes_87'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'115.
36 {15 March} Julius Caesar is murdered in the senate-house by Brutus, Cassius and the other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Div_2'23, :Phil_2'28-29, '88-89, 13'22, :AdBrut_23'4;(1.15)  [Liv]:Per_116; Ovid:Met_15'799-851, :Fast_3'697-707; NicDam_130'66, '82-97; Vell_2.58'1-2, 87'3; ValMax_1.6'13, 7'2, 4.5'6, 8.11'2; Sen:Dial_5.30'4-5; Plut:Brut_14'1-18'8, :Caes_63'5-6, 63'8-67'6, :Ant_13'2-14'1; Joseph:BJ_1'218; Suet:Caes_81'4-82'4; Flor_2.13'94-95, 17'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'115-120, '149, '153, 3'34, 4'8;(↓)  +DioCass_44.16'1-21'4, 22'2, 46.22'3-4, 47.49'4; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10,L  83'6;L  Hieron:Chron_1973; Oros_6.17'1-2; { CAH_9'468.}
37 {16 March} M.Brutus makes a speech in defence of the conspirators, who send envoys to negotiate with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.1a'2; NicDam_130'49, '98-105; Plut:Brut_18'9-14, :Caes_67'4-7, :Ant_14'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'121-125, 3'2,(↓)  '7, '54; +DioCass_44.21'3-22'2; { CAH_9'469.}
38 {17 March} The senate votes for an amnesty, and Brutus and Cassius make a show of reconciliation with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, 14'2; :Phil_1'1-2, '31-32, 2'89-90; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'50, '106; Vell_2.58'2-4; Plut:Cic_42'2, :Brut_19'1-3, :Caes_67'8-9, :Ant_14'2-4; Suet:Tib_4'1; Flor_2.17'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_2'126-142, 3'15, '34-35, 4'94; +DioCass_44.22'3-34'7; { For a perceptive account of the rest of this year, see Syme_p97-162.}
39 {18 March} The senate authorises the publication of the full details of Caesar's will.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.59'1; Plut:Brut_19'4-5; Suet:Caes_83'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'136, '143; +DioCass_44.35'1-3.
40 {20 March} Caesar's funeral is followed by violent disturbances in the city of Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Phil_2'90-91; [Liv]:Per_116; Vell_2.59'1; ValMax_9.9'1; Quint_6.1'31; Plut:Cic_42'4, :Brut_20'1-11, :Caes_68'1-6; :Ant_14'3-4; Suet:Caes_84'1-85'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'142-148, 3'15,(↓)  '19, '35; +DioCass_44.35'1-50'4, 45.23'4; Oros_6.17'3; { CAH_9'470.}
41 ETR {20 March} The birth of Lucius, the elder brother of the poet Ovidius.
#Ovid:Tr_4.10'9-14; { exactly a year before the birth of Ovid (OCD_o).}
42 ROM C.Casca makes a public statement, denying that he took part in Caesar's murder.
43 {? 22 March} Document: Cic:Fam_11.1, a letter from D.Brutus to M.Brutus and Cassius.
44 ILL Octavianus decides to return from Apollonia to Italy.
* Read Nicolaus' account
NicDam_130'38-48; Vell_2.59'5; Plut:Brut_22'1-3; +Appian:BCiv_3'9-10; +DioCass_45.3'1; { OCD_augustus.}
45 ITA Octavianus arrives at Brundisium, and takes on the name of Caesar.
* Read Nicolaus' account
[Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'51-57; Vell_2.60'1-2; Plut:Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_7'2; +Appian:BCiv_3'11; +DioCass_45.3'2-4'3; Obseq_68; [Vict]:Epit_1'2;L  Oros_6.18'1.
46 ROM Antonius implements, and allegedly falsifies, written proposals left by Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.12'1, 13'6, 16.16b'8-9, :Fam_12.1'1, :Phil_1'16-26, 2'35, '93-97, '100, 3'30, 5'11-12; Vell_2.60'4; Plut:Ant_15'1-3; Suet:Aug_35'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'5; +DioCass_44.53'1-5, 45.23'5-24'1, 47'3-4, 46.23'1-4; { CAH_9'473.}
47 Antonius seizes all of Caesar's money from the temple of Ops.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'5, 18'1, :Phil_2'35, '93, 3'30; [Cic]:AdOct_3.L 
48 {? March} Document: Cic:Fam_6.16, a letter from Pompeius Bithynicus to Cicero.
49 Brutus and Cassius leave the city of Rome, but stay in Latium.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_1'6; Plut:Brut_21'1-2, :Caes_68'7; Suet:Aug_10'1; { CAH_9'470.}
50 The provinces are redistributed: Syria is assigned to Dolabella, Macedonia to Antonius, Crete to Brutus, and Cyrenaica to Cassius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.4'4, 9'3, 15.5'2, :Phil_2'31; +Appian:BCiv_3'7-8, '16, '36, '55, 4'57;(↓)  { CAH_9'471.}
51 ETR Octavianus travels across Italy to Tarracina in Latium.
52 ROM Antonius passes a law to ban the creation of dictators.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'3-4, '32, 2'91, '115, 5'10; [Cic]:AdOct_3;L  { CAH_9'473.}
54 Lepidus is appointed to be pontifex maximus, in place of Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_117; Vell_2.63'1; +DioCass_44.53'6-7; { CAH_9'471; OCD_l.}
55 Octavianus arrives in Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.5'3; Vell_2.59'6; Plut:Cic_43'6, :Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_8'2, 95'1; Plin:HN_2'98; +Appian:BCiv_3'13-14; +DioCass_45.4'4-5'2; Obseq_68; Oros_6.20'5.
56 Octavianus meets Antonius, but fails to gain his support.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'107; Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'1-4, :Mor_206'F-207'A; Flor_2.15'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_3'14-21; +DioCass_45.5'3-4.
57 {11 April} The senate formally ratifies its previous decree in favour of the Jews.
58 Amatius (or Herophilus), the "false Marius", is put to death by Antonius, after setting up an altar to Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.6'1, 8'1, :Phil_1'5; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_128'31-35; ValMax_9.15'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'2-4, '16, '36, '57; +DioCass_44.51'1-3; { CAH_9'470.}
59 Document: Cic:Div_, Cicero's treatise "De Divinatione".
Cic:Div_2'6; { OCD_c.}
60 EGY Cleopatra leaves Rome and returns to Egypt.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.8'1, 20'2, 15.15'2; { CAH_9'471; Hölbl_p239.}
60a Antonius gives control of the island of Cyprus to Cleopatra and Arsinoē.
Strab_14'685;(6.6)  DioCass_42.35'5-6; { It is uncertain exactly when Cleopatra gained control of Cyprus: see Bennett.}
60b {22 Pharmouthi -E = April} Document: AET_9.9'A, a horoscope from Athribis.
61 SPA Sex.Pompeius defeats Asinius Pollio.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_15.20'3, 22'1, 16.4'1-2; Vell_2.73'2; +DioCass_45.10'1-4.
62 CIS Decimus Brutus takes command of the army in his province of Cisalpine Gaul.
63 ROM Antonius recalls Sex.Cloelius and other exiles.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.13'6, 13a'2, 13b'3, 14'2, 19'2, :Phil_1'3, 2'9-10, '98-99, 3'30.
64 Dolabella pulls down an altar and column, which had been erected in honour of Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.15'1, 16'2, 17a'3, '8, 19'5, :Fam_11.2'2, 12.1'1, :Phil_1'5, '30, '107.
65 Atticus refuses to donate to a fund in support of Brutus and Cassius.
66 {April} Document: Cic:Att_14.1-14, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
67 ITA Antonius visits Campania, and allocates land to veterans.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_2'43, '100-107, 3'22, 8'25-26, 11'12; DioCass_45.30'2, 46.8'2; { CAH_9'473.}
68 ROM {3 May} Document: Cic:Fam_9.14 & 12.1, letters from Cicero to Dolabella and Cassius.
69 Octavianus raises money and pays 300 sesterces to every Roman citizen, according to the terms of Caesar's will.
* Read Plutarch's account
Aug:ResGest_15; Plut:Ant_16'2.
70 Many lawsuits are brought before the consuls for recovery of property from Octavianus, as the heir of Caesar.
71 The death of Servilius Isauricus, at the age of 90 years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_16.23'2; +DioCass_45.16'1-2; Suda_A'3213<q" Aelian:Fr_110>; { OCD_s.}
72 {May} Document: Cic:Fam_11.2, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
73 {May} Document: Cic:Att_14.15-15.8 & Cic:Fam_12.16, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from Trebonius to Cicero.
74 Document: Cic:Fam_6.16 & 16.23, letters from Cicero to Bithynicus and Tiro.
75 {1 June} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then cancels it.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'4, '6, 22'2, :Fam_11.2'3, #:Phil_1'6, 2'100, #'108-109.
76 {2 June} The comitia pass a law, which transfers command of the province of Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, for a period of 5 years.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_1'19, 2'109, 5'7; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'120-122; Vell_2.60'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'27-30; +DioCass_45.9'2-3, 22'3, 25'1-2, 46.23'4-5; { CAH_9'474.}
77 M.Antonius passes an agrarian law, which appoints seven commissioners, led by his brother Lucius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_5'7-9, '20-21, 6'12-15, 7'16-17, 12'20, '23, 13'37; DioCass_45.9'1; { CAH_9'474.}
78 The consuls are authorised to make a decision about land at Buthrotum.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.12'1, 14'2-3, 19'1, 16.16a'4-6, 16b'8, 16c'11, 16d'14, 16f'18.
79 ETR {7 June} Cicero meets Brutus and Cassius at Antium, after they are offered an appointment as corn commissioners.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.9'1, 10'1, #11'1-4, 12'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'6, '35,(↓)  4'57; { CAH_9'475.}
80 Cicero declines the offer of an appointment to serve on the staff of Dolabella in Syria.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.8'1, 11'4, 20'1; Plut:Cic_43'2.
81 {June} Document: Cic:Att_15.9-25 & Cic:Fam_7.21-22, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
82 {July} Document: Cic:Fam_11.29, a letter from Cicero to Oppius.
83 {11 July} Cicero decides to travel to Greece.
#Cic:Att_16.2'4, :Phil_1'6-7.
84 ROM {13 July} C.Antonius presides over the Ludi Apollinares, on behalf of M.Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.10'1, 11'2, 26'1, 16.2'3, 4'1, 5'1, :Phil_1'36, 2'31, 10'7-8; Plut:Brut_21'3-6; +Appian:BCiv_3'23-24; DioCass_47.20'2; { CAH_9'475.}
85 Document: Cic:Att_16.16a-16f, letters from Cicero to Plancus, Capito and Cupiennius about the Buthrotum affair.
86 Brutus and Cassius issue a manifesto, stating that they wish to be excused from further public duties.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1, :Fam_11.3'3, :Phil_1'8.
87 Document: Cic:Top_, the "Topica", a rhetorical treatise by Cicero.
Cic:Top_1-4, :Fam_7.19'1; { OCD_c.}
88 EGY {27 Epeiph -E = 26 July} Document: SelPap_1.40A (POxy_1629), a contract between Theon and Apollonius Arbichis at Oxyrhynchus. { This document is dated to the reign of Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV.}
89 ROM Octavianus holds the Ludi Victoriae Caesaris, during which a comet appears, and is interpreted as Julius Caesar going up to heaven.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.2'3, :Fam_11.27'7, 28'6; Prop_3.18'33-34; Ovid:Met_15'848-850; Aug:Fr_12'7; NicDam_130'108-114; Plin:HN_2'93-94; Suet:Caes_88'1, :Aug_10'1; +DioCass_45.6'4-7'1; Obseq_68; { CAH_9'475.}
90 {July} Document: Cic:Att_15.26-16.6 & Cic:Fam_7.19-20, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
91 MOE ?? Burebistas increases the power of the Dacians, by conquering neighbouring tribes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_7'303,(3.11)  '304,(3.12)  '313;(5.2)  Trog:Prol_32; { OCD_b.}
92 NUM Sittius is defeated and killed by Arabio.
Appian:BCiv_4'54; { OCD_s.}
93 SPA Lepidus agrees the terms of a truce with Sex.Pompeius, which is ratified by the senate.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'39-41, 13'8-10; +Appian:BCiv_3'4, '36, '57, 4'84, '94, '96; +DioCass_45.9'4, 10'4<Lepidus>, 48.17'1; { OCD_p.}
94 ILL The Illyrians defeat Baebius, an officer of Vatinius.
~Appian:Ill_13; { MRR_2'220.}
95 SYR Bassus defeats Murcus, the general sent against him by Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Joseph:BJ_1'217, :AJ_14'270; Appian:BCiv_3'77,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'220.}
96 ROM {1 August} Piso criticises Antonius at a meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, '7, :Fam_12.2'1, #:Phil_1'10, '14-15, 5'19; { CAH_9'476.}
96a SIC {1 August} Cicero arrives at Syracuse.
97 ROM {4 August} Document: Cic:Fam_11.3, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
98 ITA Cicero decides to return home, after being driven back by contrary winds to Leucopetra, near Rhegium.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1-2, :Fam_10.1'1, 11.29'1, 12.25'3, :Phil_1'7-9; Plut:Cic_43'3; DioCass_46.3'2.
99 {17 August} M.Brutus meets Cicero at Velia.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, :Phil_1'9, :AdBrut_18'4,(1.10)  23'5.(1.15) 
100 {19 August} Document: Cic:Att_16.7, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
101 GRE Cicero orders his son to stop meeting the rhetorician Gorgias.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_16.21'1-6; Plut:Cic_24'6.
102 EGY Cleopatra kills her young brother, Ptolemy XIV.
Joseph:AJ_15'89, :Ap_2'58; [Euseb]:Chron_167-169;(↓)  { OCD_p; for the date, see the notes on Ptolemy XIV by Bennett .}
103 ROM {1 September} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but Cicero decides not to attend.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'11-13, #5'19; Plut:Cic_43'4-5; { CAH_9'477.}
104 {2 September} Cicero makes a speech (the "First Philippic") at another meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'1-38, 2'6-7, #5'19, :Fam_12.2'1, 20'1, 25'3-4; { OCD_c.}
105 EGY {2 September} Caesarion, the son of Cleopatra, is offically recognised as joint king of Egypt.
DioCass_47.31'5; { See the notes on Ptolemy XV by Bennett .}
106 ROM Octavianus visits Cicero and wins some support from him.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Cic_44'1, 45'1-2, :Brut_22'4-6, :Ant_16'3; +DioCass_45.15'3-4; [Vict]:VirIll_81'5.L 
107 ITA Brutus and Cassius leave Italy, without revealing their real destinations.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_12.2'3, :Phil_10'8, 11'28; Nepos:Att_8'5-6; NicDam_130'135; Plut:Brut_23'1-24'1; Flor_2.17'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'24; { CAH_9'476: OCD_b.}
108 MAC Antonius is given command of the army in Macedonia, and summons it back to Brundisium.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:BCiv_3'24-25, '37; DioCass_45.20'4, 25'1, 46.24'1-2, 25'1-3.
109 ROM Cicero offends Antonius by speaking in defence of Sicca.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.11'1, :Phil_2'3.
110 {19 September} At a meeting of the senate, Antonius rebukes Cicero in a strongly worded speech.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_10.2'1, #12.2'1, :Phil_2'1, '3, '7, '11, '17-20, '23, '28, '31, '76, #5'17-20; { CAH_9'477.}
111 Antonius prevents Octavianus from standing for election as tribune.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'31; +DioCass_45.6'1-3; { CAH_9'472.}
112 The soldiers in Rome bring about a reconciliation between Antonius and Octavianus.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'115-119; Plut:Ant_16'6; +Appian:BCiv_3'32-39; +DioCass_45.7'3-8'2.
113 {? 25 September} Document: Cic:Fam_12.2, a letter from Cicero to Cassius.
114 Octavianus is accused of plotting to murder Antonius.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'5, :Fam_12.23'2; NicDam_130'123-128; Plut:Ant_16'7-8; Suet:Aug_10'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'39; +DioCass_45.8'3-4; { CAH_9'477.}
115 Document: Cic:Fam_11.2 & 11.6, letters of Cicero to and from D.Brutus.
116 {September} Document: Cic:Fam_10.1-2 & 12.20-22, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Cornificius.
117 {9 October} Antonius leaves Rome to join the legions at Brundisium.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_15.13'2, :Fam_12.23'2, :Phil_5'22.
118 Dolabella leaves Italy in order to take over the province of Asia.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.13'5, :AdBrut_19'1;(1.11)  +Appian:BCiv_3'24; +DioCass_45.15'2, 47.21'3, 29'1; { CAH_9'477.}
119 {October} Document: Cic:Fam_12.3 & 12.23, letters from Cicero to Cassius and Cornificius.
120 Document: Cic:Fam_11.27-28, letters of Cicero to and from Matius.
121 Document: Cic:Att_15.13 & Cic:Fam_16.25, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from M.Cicero Junior to Tiro.
122 GRE Brutus arrives in Athens and begins to gather money and supporters.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_1.5'7; Plut:Brut_24'1-7; DioCass_47.20'4.
123 SYR Marcius Crispus, the governor of Bithynia, intervenes in Syria and besieges Bassus.
Appian:BCiv_3'77-78,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'219.}
124 ROM Document: Cic:Amic_, Cicero's treatise "De Amicitia" (On Friendship). { CAH_9'477; Cicero wrote this treatise in between "De Divinatione" and "De Officiis".}
125 Antonius condemns Cn.Seius to death.
Gell_3.9'1-4; { before or at the same time as Dolabella left Italy.}
126 Octavianus brings a large number of veterans to Rome, but they refuse to fight against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'1-2, 11'6, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3, 4'3-4, 5'3, '23, '43-46; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'130-138; Aug:ResGest_1; Vell_2.61'1-2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'40-42, '58; +DioCass_45.12'1-6, 38'3, 55.24'8; { CAH_9'478.}
127 {November} Document: Cic:Att_16.8-15 & Cic:Fam_16.24, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Tiro.
128 Document: Cic:Off_, Cicero's treatise "De Officiis" (On Duties).
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'4, 14'3; { OCD_c.}
129 ITA Two legions desert from Antonius to Octavianus, while marching from Brundisium to Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'2, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3-7, '10, 4'4-6, 5'4, '22-23, '42, '52, 12'12, 13'18; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'129, '139; Vell_2.61'2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'43-45, '52,(↓)  '56, '67;(↓)  +DioCass_45.13'1-4, 35'3, 38'5; { CAH_9'478.}
130 ROM {24 November} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then postpones it.
#Cic:Phil_3'19-20, 5'23, 13'19.
131 {28 November} Antonius holds a hurried meeting of the senate, before going to meet his troops.
#Cic:Phil_3'20-25; { CAH_9'478.}
132 Antonius formally leaves Rome, and sets off for Cisalpine Gaul.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_3'1-2, '11, '24, '31, 5'24, 13'20; +Appian:BCiv_3'46; +DioCass_45.13'5, 20'4.
133 GER Plancus founds a Roman colony at Raurica, on the river Rhine.
CIL_10.6087; { Probably after an expedition against the Rhaeti - see MRR_2'230.}
134 MAC Brutus seizes control of Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_10'24-26, 11'27; Vell_2.62'2-3; Plut:Brut_25'1-3; :Mor_694'C; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  :BCiv_5'6; DioCass_47.20'4-21'5; { CAH_9'481.}
135 CIL >> Cassius persuades the inhabitants of Cilicia, including Tarsus, to support him.
136 ETR Document: Cic:Phil_2, Cicero's "Second Philippic", a passionate invective against Antonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.13'1, 16.11'1-2, :Phil_2'110; Juvenal_10'120-126; { CAH_9'477.}
137 ROM {9 December} Cicero returns to Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.15'6, #:Fam_11.5'1; { CAH_9'479.}
138 Document: Cic:Fam_10.3, a letter from Cicero to Plancus.
139 Octavianus offers to use his legions to fight on behalf of the senate against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.61'3; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'47-48, '75, '87; +DioCass_45.14'1-15'3.
140 Omens precede the outbreak of civil war between Antonius, Octavianus and their enemies.
* Read Vergilius' account
Verg:Georg_1'466-488; Plin:HN_2'99; Obseq_68.
141 CIS Decimus Brutus refuses to surrender Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, and prepares for war.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_11.6'2, 7'3, :Phil_3'8-12, '37, 4'7, 6'8-9, 7'24; { OCD_b.}
142 ROM {20 December} Document: Cic:Phil_3 & 4, two speeches of Cicero, to the Roman senate and people.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_11.6'2-3, 12.22a'3, 25'2, :Phil_5'2-3, '28-30, 6'1-2, 10'23, 14'20; { CAH_9'479.}
143 {December} Document: Cic:Fam_11.5-7 & 12.22a, letters from Cicero to Decimus Brutus and Cornificius.
144 CIS M.Antonius enters Cisalpine Gaul, and starts to besiege Decimus Brutus at Mutina.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'24-25, 13'20; [Liv]:Per_117; Flor_2.15'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'49; Oros_6.18'3; { CAH_9'479.}
145 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_10.4 & 16.26-27, letters from Plancus to Cicero and from Q.Cicero to Tiro.
146 ++ As a student, the geographer Strabo is taught by Aristodemus, Tyrannion and Xenarchus.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_12'548,(3.16)  14'650,(1.48)  '670,(5.4)  16'757;(2.24)  { Strabo probably received much of his education at Rome, which he first visited in 44 B.C.}

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