back

44 B.C. Olympiad 184.1


Consuls: C. Julius C.f. Caesar (V), M.Antonius M.f.
Athenian archon: (?) Leucius
Olympic victor in the stadion race: Theodorus of Messene (II)

previous year   |   next year


    Click on the links in the lists of references to go to the sources for each event

1 ROM {1 January -R} M.Antonius speaks in the senate against the appointment of Dolabella as suffect consul.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Phil_2'79-81, '83, '99; Plut:Ant_11'2.
2 AFR << Caesar plans to found a Roman colony on the site of Carthage.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_17'833;(3.15)  Plin:HN_5'25; Plut:Caes_57'8; Appian:Pun_136; Paus_2.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; { CAH_9'446; Caesar probably did not do much more than propose the colony before he died.}
3 PEL << Caesar founds a Roman colony on the site of Corinth.
* Read Dio's account
Diod_32.27'1, '3; Strab_8'379,(6.21)  '381-382,(6.23)  17'833;(3.15)  Mela_2'48; Plin:HN_4'10; Plut:Caes_57'8; Paus_2.1'2, 3'1, '7, 5.1'2; +DioCass_43.50'3-5; Julian:Ep_28.409'D; { OCD_c.}
4 NAR << Other colonies founded by Caesar, at Forum Julii, Heracleia Pontica, Ilium, Novum Comum, Sinope and in Sicily.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_5'213,(1.6)  6'272,(2.4)  12'542,(3.6)  '546,(3.11)  13'593,(1.26)  '594-595;(1.27)  Plin:HN_3'35; Mela_2'77.
5 BAE Document: ARS_114 & CIL_add.2, 'Lex Ursonensis' - the charter of the colony of Urso in Spain. { CAH_9'445; probably compiled before the death of Caesar, but published later by Antonius.}
6 SPA Caesar sends Asinius Pollio to command his forces against Sextus Pompeius in Spain.
Appian:BCiv_4'84; { OCD_p.}
7 ROM Caesar extends the pomerium of the city of Rome.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_13.20'1, 35'1; Gell_13.14'4; +DioCass_43.50'1, 44.49'2.
8 Caesar recalls C.Antonius and other exiles.
* Read Dio's account
Strab_10'455;(2.13)  +Appian:BCiv_2'107;(↓)  +DioCass_43.50'1-2.
9 Caesar restores the statues of Pompeius.
* Read Dio's account
Vell_2.61'3; Plut:Caes_57'6, :Cic_40'4, :Mor_91'A, 205'E; Suet:Caes_75'4; Polyaen_8.23'3; +DioCass_43.49'1-2.
10 The month of Quintilis is rename July, in honour of Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.1'1; Plut:Num_19'6; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.5'2, 45.7'2; Censor:DN_22'16; Hieron:Chron_1973; Macrob:Sat_1.12'34.L 
11 The senate grants further extravagant honours to Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_2'110; NicDam_130'67; Plut:Caes_57'2-4; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106;(↓)  +DioCass_44.3'1-7'3.
12 Caesar fails to stand for a delegation from the senate.
* Read Plutarch's account
[Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'78-79; Plut:Caes_60'4-8; Appian:BCiv_2'107; Suet:Caes_78'1; +DioCass_44.8'1-4; Eutrop_6.25'1.
13 {26 January} Some of the crowd acclaim Caesar as king during a procession from the Alban Mount, but he rejects the title.
* Read Plutarch's account
#FastTr_p108; Plut:Caes_60'1-3; Suet:Caes_79'2; +DioCass_44.9'1, 10'1; { CAH_9'463.}
14 Caesar deposes the tribunes Marullus and Flavus, after they remove a diadem from his statue on the rostra.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'31; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'69-70; Vell_2.68'4-5; ValMax_5.7'2; Plut:Brut_9'8, 12'4, :Caes_61'8-10; Suet:Caes_79'1, 80'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'108, 4'93; +DioCass_44.9'2-10'4; { CAH_9'464.}
15 {January} Document: Cic:Fam_7.30 & 13.50, letters from Cicero to Curius and Acilius.
16 Caesar rejects suggestions that he should have a bodyguard.
* Read Plutarch's account
NicDam_130'80; Vell_2.57'1; Plut:Caes_57'7-8; Suet:Caes_86'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; +DioCass_44.7'4.
17 {9 February} Caesar and the senate pass a decree confirming their friendly relations with the Jews.
* Read Josephus' account
Joseph:AJ_14'211-212, #'222.
18 Caesar is appointed dictator for life (dictator perpetuus).
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_116; Joseph:AJ_14'211; Plut:Caes_57'1; Suet:Caes_76'1; Flor_2.13'91; Appian:BCiv_2'106; Gell_19.8'3; +DioCass_44.8'4, 46.17'5; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10;L  Zonar_7'13;(p109)  { CAH_9'463; OCD_c.}
19 {15 February} Antonius offers a diadem to Caesar at the festival of Lupercalia, but the crowd voice strong disapproval.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_2'84-87, 3'12, 5'38, 13'17; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'71-75; Vell_2.56'4; Plut:Caes_61'1-7, :Ant_12'1-4; Suet:Caes_79'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'109; DioCass_44.11'1-3, 45.30'1-32'4, 34'1-2, 46.5'1-3, 17'1-8, 19'1-8; +Cassiod:Chr_710; { CAH_9'464; OCD_l.}
20 Caesar allows Marullus and Flavus to return from exile, at the request of the praetor Cinna.
NicDam_130'76.
21 Caesar appoints the magistrates for the next two years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_13'24; NicDam_130'77; Plut:Caes_58'1; +DioCass_43.51'3-9; Eutrop_6.25'1.
22 Caesar appoints Octavianus to become magister equitum, when Lepidus leaves Rome.
* Read Dio's account
FastCap_p78; Plin:HN_7'147; +Appian:BCiv_3'9; +DioCass_43.51'7; { CAH_9'466; OCD_c.}
23 C.Cassius persuades M.Brutus to join him in a conspiracy against Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_2'26; Sen:Ben_2.20'1-3; Plut:Brut_7'6-10'7, 29'7, 54'3, 56'11, 57'3-6, :Caes_62'1-10, :Mor_206'E; Suet:Caes_80'1-3; Flor_2.13'92-93; +Appian:BCiv_2'111-113; +DioCass_44.11'4-13'1, 14'2, 45.41'1-2.
24 Brutus and Cassius bring together many other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_2'27; Vell_2.56'3; NicDam_130'59-66, '80-81; Sen:Ep_83'12; Plut:Cic_42'1; :Brut_11'1-12'7, :Ant_13'1-2; Suet:Caes_80'4, :Gal_3'2; +Appian:BCiv_2'113-114;(↓)  +DioCass_44.14'3-15'4; Eutrop_6.25'1; August:DeCiv_3'30.(↓) 
25 {February} Document: Cic:Fam_7.31, a letter from Cicero to Curius.
26 Antonius blocks Dolabella's election as consul.
* Read Cicero's account
~Cic:Phil_2'82-84; FastCap_p78; { OCD_d.}
27 Porcia stabs herself to prove her loyalty to her husband Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_3.2'15; Plut:Brut_13'1-11; Polyaen_8.32'1; +DioCass_44.13'1-14'1.
28 GRE << The end of a period of 14 successive leaders of the Epicurean school of philosophy at Athens.
~Suda_E'2404; { According to N.W.De Witt, Epicurus and his Philosophy pp.331-2, the school continued in a diminished form until at least the 2nd century A.D.}
28a ASI {4 March} Document: SEG_39.1290, a decree of Caesar confirming the inviolability of a temple in Sardis.
28b EGY {8 Phamenoth -E = 9 March} Document: OGIS_184, an obeisance to Isis performed by the strategus Ptolemaeus.
29 ROM Rumours about Caesar's future plans, including a long expedition to the east.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Div_2'110, :Phil_5'7; NicDam_130'68; Strab_7'298;(3.5)  Plut:Caes_58'4-10; Suet:Caes_44'3, 79'3; +Appian:BCiv_2'110; +DioCass_43.51'1-2.
30 Omens foretell the death of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Div_1'119, 2'36-37; Ovid:Met_15'761-798; Liv_fr'47;L  Vell_2.57'2-3; Plin:HN_2'98; Plut:Caes_63'1-4; Suet:Caes_81'1-3; +DioCass_44.17'1-3; Obseq_67; Hieron:Chron_1973.
31 ?? Stratagems employed by Caesar during his wars.
* Read Suetonius' account
Suet:Caes_65'1-67'2; Polyaen_8.23'17-22.
32 ?? Various sayings of Caesar, including a comment on the dictatorship of Sulla.
* Read Polyaenus' account
Quint_6.3'38, '91; Frontin:Str_4.7'1; Suet:Caes_77'1, 78'2; Polyaen_8.23'32-33; [Vict]:Epit_1'14.L 
33 ++ L. Caecilius, Cratippus, Pompeius Trogus, Q.Sextius and Theopompus are associates of Caesar.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_14'656;(2.15)  Sen:Ep_98'13; Plut:Cic_24'5-6; Just_43.5'12; Macrob:Sat_2.6'5.L 
34 ++ General comments on the brilliant and ambitious character of Caesar.
* Read Suetonius' account
Cic:Off_1'26, 3'82-85, :Fam_11.28'2, :Phil_2'116-117; Ovid:Met_15'746-759; Sen:Ep_94'65, :Ben_5.16'5, :Dial_5.30'4; Plin:HN_7'91-94, 28'21;L  Plut:Brut_55'2, :Caes_3'2-3, 15'1-17'11; Suet:Caes_45'1-75'5; Appian:BCiv_2'149-154, 4'91-92; Julian:Caes_321'B-C, 331'C-332'B.
35 {14 March} While dining at the house of Lepidus, Caesar remarks that the best kind of death is a sudden one.
* Read Suetonius' account
Plut:Caes_63'7, :Mor_206'F; #Suet:Caes_87'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'115.
36 {15 March} Julius Caesar is murdered in the senate-house by Brutus, Cassius and the other conspirators.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Div_2'23, :Phil_2'28-29, '88-89, 13'22, :AdBrut_23'4;(1.15)  [Liv]:Per_116; Ovid:Met_15'799-851, :Fast_3'697-707; NicDam_130'66, '82-97; Vell_2.58'1-2, 87'3; ValMax_1.6'13, 7'2, 4.5'6, 8.11'2; Sen:Dial_5.30'4-5; Plut:Brut_14'1-18'8, :Caes_63'5-6, 63'8-67'6, :Ant_13'2-14'1; Joseph:BJ_1'218; Suet:Caes_81'4-82'4; Flor_2.13'94-95, 17'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'115-120, '149, '153, 3'34, 4'8;(↓)  +DioCass_44.16'1-21'4, 22'2, 46.22'3-4, 47.49'4; [Vict]:VirIll_78'10,L  83'6;L  Hieron:Chron_1973; Oros_6.17'1-2; { CAH_9'468.}
37 {16 March} M.Brutus makes a speech in defence of the conspirators, who send envoys to negotiate with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.1a'2; NicDam_130'49, '98-105; Plut:Brut_18'9-14, :Caes_67'4-7, :Ant_14'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'121-125, 3'2,(↓)  '7, '54; +DioCass_44.21'3-22'2; { CAH_9'469.}
38 {17 March} The senate votes for an amnesty, and Brutus and Cassius make a show of reconciliation with Antonius and Lepidus.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, 14'2; :Phil_1'1-2, '31-32, 2'89-90; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_130'50, '106; Vell_2.58'2-4; Plut:Cic_42'2, :Brut_19'1-3, :Caes_67'8-9, :Ant_14'2-4; Suet:Tib_4'1; Flor_2.17'3-4; +Appian:BCiv_2'126-142, 3'15, '34-35, 4'94; +DioCass_44.22'3-34'7; { For a perceptive account of the rest of this year, see Syme_p97-162.}
39 {18 March} The senate authorises the publication of the full details of Caesar's will.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.59'1; Plut:Brut_19'4-5; Suet:Caes_83'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_2'136, '143; +DioCass_44.35'1-3.
40 {20 March} Caesar's funeral is followed by violent disturbances in the city of Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.10'1, :Phil_2'90-91; [Liv]:Per_116; Vell_2.59'1; ValMax_9.9'1; Quint_6.1'31; Plut:Cic_42'4, :Brut_20'1-11, :Caes_68'1-6; :Ant_14'3-4; Suet:Caes_84'1-85'1; +Appian:BCiv_2'142-148, 3'15,(↓)  '19, '35; +DioCass_44.35'1-50'4, 45.23'4; Oros_6.17'3; { CAH_9'470.}
41 ETR {20 March} The birth of Lucius, the elder brother of the poet Ovidius.
#Ovid:Tr_4.10'9-14; { exactly a year before the birth of Ovid (OCD_o).}
42 ROM C.Casca makes a public statement, denying that he took part in Caesar's murder.
+DioCass_44.52'1-3.
43 {? 22 March} Document: Cic:Fam_11.1, a letter from D.Brutus to M.Brutus and Cassius.
44 ILL Octavianus decides to return from Apollonia to Italy.
* Read Nicolaus' account
NicDam_130'38-48; Vell_2.59'5; Plut:Brut_22'1-3; +Appian:BCiv_3'9-10; +DioCass_45.3'1; { OCD_augustus.}
45 ITA Octavianus arrives at Brundisium, and takes on the name of Caesar.
* Read Nicolaus' account
[Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'51-57; Vell_2.60'1-2; Plut:Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_7'2; +Appian:BCiv_3'11; +DioCass_45.3'2-4'3; Obseq_68; [Vict]:Epit_1'2;L  Oros_6.18'1.
46 ROM Antonius implements, and allegedly falsifies, written proposals left by Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.12'1, 13'6, 16.16b'8-9, :Fam_12.1'1, :Phil_1'16-26, 2'35, '93-97, '100, 3'30, 5'11-12; Vell_2.60'4; Plut:Ant_15'1-3; Suet:Aug_35'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'5; +DioCass_44.53'1-5, 45.23'5-24'1, 47'3-4, 46.23'1-4; { CAH_9'473.}
47 Antonius seizes all of Caesar's money from the temple of Ops.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'5, 18'1, :Phil_2'35, '93, 3'30; [Cic]:AdOct_3.L 
48 {? March} Document: Cic:Fam_6.16, a letter from Pompeius Bithynicus to Cicero.
49 Brutus and Cassius leave the city of Rome, but stay in Latium.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_1'6; Plut:Brut_21'1-2, :Caes_68'7; Suet:Aug_10'1; { CAH_9'470.}
50 The provinces are redistributed: Syria is assigned to Dolabella, Macedonia to Antonius, Crete to Brutus, and Cyrenaica to Cassius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.4'4, 9'3, 15.5'2, :Phil_2'31; +Appian:BCiv_3'7-8, '16, '36, '55, 4'57;(↓)  { CAH_9'471.}
51 ETR Octavianus travels across Italy to Tarracina in Latium.
Appian:BCiv_3'12.
52 ROM Antonius passes a law to ban the creation of dictators.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'3-4, '32, 2'91, '115, 5'10; [Cic]:AdOct_3;L  { CAH_9'473.}
54 Lepidus is appointed to be pontifex maximus, in place of Caesar.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_117; Vell_2.63'1; +DioCass_44.53'6-7; { CAH_9'471; OCD_l.}
55 Octavianus arrives in Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.5'3; Vell_2.59'6; Plut:Cic_43'6, :Brut_22'3; Suet:Aug_8'2, 95'1; Plin:HN_2'98; +Appian:BCiv_3'13-14; +DioCass_45.4'4-5'2; Obseq_68; Oros_6.20'5.
56 Octavianus meets Antonius, but fails to gain his support.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'107; Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'1-4, :Mor_206'F-207'A; Flor_2.15'1-2; +Appian:BCiv_3'14-21; +DioCass_45.5'3-4.
57 {11 April} The senate formally ratifies its previous decree in favour of the Jews.
#Joseph:AJ_14'217-222.
58 Amatius (or Herophilus), the "false Marius", is put to death by Antonius, after setting up an altar to Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_14.6'1, 8'1, :Phil_1'5; [Liv]:Per_116; NicDam_128'31-35; ValMax_9.15'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'2-4, '16, '36, '57; +DioCass_44.51'1-3; { CAH_9'470.}
59 Document: Cic:Div_, Cicero's treatise "De Divinatione".
Cic:Div_2'6; { OCD_c.}
60 EGY Cleopatra leaves Rome and returns to Egypt.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.8'1, 20'2, 15.15'2; { CAH_9'471; Hölbl_p239.}
60a Antonius gives control of the island of Cyprus to Cleopatra and Arsinoē.
Strab_14'685;(6.6)  DioCass_42.35'5-6; { It is uncertain exactly when Cleopatra gained control of Cyprus: see Bennett.}
60b {22 Pharmouthi -E = April} Document: AET_9.9'A, a horoscope from Athribis.
61 SPA Sex.Pompeius defeats Asinius Pollio.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Att_15.20'3, 22'1, 16.4'1-2; Vell_2.73'2; +DioCass_45.10'1-4.
62 CIS Decimus Brutus takes command of the army in his province of Cisalpine Gaul.
Cic:Att_14.13'2.
63 ROM Antonius recalls Sex.Cloelius and other exiles.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.13'6, 13a'2, 13b'3, 14'2, 19'2, :Phil_1'3, 2'9-10, '98-99, 3'30.
64 Dolabella pulls down an altar and column, which had been erected in honour of Caesar.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.15'1, 16'2, 17a'3, '8, 19'5, :Fam_11.2'2, 12.1'1, :Phil_1'5, '30, '107.
65 Atticus refuses to donate to a fund in support of Brutus and Cassius.
Nepos:Att_8'1-4.
66 {April} Document: Cic:Att_14.1-14, letters from Cicero to Atticus.
67 ITA Antonius visits Campania, and allocates land to veterans.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_2'43, '100-107, 3'22, 8'25-26, 11'12; DioCass_45.30'2, 46.8'2; { CAH_9'473.}
68 ROM {3 May} Document: Cic:Fam_9.14 & 12.1, letters from Cicero to Dolabella and Cassius.
69 Octavianus raises money and pays 300 sesterces to every Roman citizen, according to the terms of Caesar's will.
* Read Plutarch's account
Aug:ResGest_15; Plut:Ant_16'2.
70 Many lawsuits are brought before the consuls for recovery of property from Octavianus, as the heir of Caesar.
Appian:BCiv_3'22.
71 The death of Servilius Isauricus, at the age of 90 years.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Fam_16.23'2; +DioCass_45.16'1-2; Suda_A'3213<q" Aelian:Fr_110>; { OCD_s.}
72 {May} Document: Cic:Fam_11.2, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
73 {May} Document: Cic:Att_14.15-15.8 & Cic:Fam_12.16, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from Trebonius to Cicero.
74 Document: Cic:Fam_6.16 & 16.23, letters from Cicero to Bithynicus and Tiro.
75 {1 June} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then cancels it.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_14.14'4, '6, 22'2, :Fam_11.2'3, #:Phil_1'6, 2'100, #'108-109.
76 {2 June} The comitia pass a law, which transfers command of the province of Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, for a period of 5 years.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_1'19, 2'109, 5'7; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'120-122; Vell_2.60'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'27-30; +DioCass_45.9'2-3, 22'3, 25'1-2, 46.23'4-5; { CAH_9'474.}
77 M.Antonius passes an agrarian law, which appoints seven commissioners, led by his brother Lucius.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.19'2, :Phil_5'7-9, '20-21, 6'12-15, 7'16-17, 12'20, '23, 13'37; DioCass_45.9'1; { CAH_9'474.}
78 The consuls are authorised to make a decision about land at Buthrotum.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.12'1, 14'2-3, 19'1, 16.16a'4-6, 16b'8, 16c'11, 16d'14, 16f'18.
79 ETR {7 June} Cicero meets Brutus and Cassius at Antium, after they are offered an appointment as corn commissioners.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.9'1, 10'1, #11'1-4, 12'1; +Appian:BCiv_3'6, '35,(↓)  4'57; { CAH_9'475.}
80 Cicero declines the offer of an appointment to serve on the staff of Dolabella in Syria.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.8'1, 11'4, 20'1; Plut:Cic_43'2.
81 {June} Document: Cic:Att_15.9-25 & Cic:Fam_7.21-22, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
82 {July} Document: Cic:Fam_11.29, a letter from Cicero to Oppius.
83 {11 July} Cicero decides to travel to Greece.
#Cic:Att_16.2'4, :Phil_1'6-7.
84 ROM {13 July} C.Antonius presides over the Ludi Apollinares, on behalf of M.Brutus.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.10'1, 11'2, 26'1, 16.2'3, 4'1, 5'1, :Phil_1'36, 2'31, 10'7-8; Plut:Brut_21'3-6; +Appian:BCiv_3'23-24; DioCass_47.20'2; { CAH_9'475.}
85 Document: Cic:Att_16.16a-16f, letters from Cicero to Plancus, Capito and Cupiennius about the Buthrotum affair.
86 Brutus and Cassius issue a manifesto, stating that they wish to be excused from further public duties.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1, :Fam_11.3'3, :Phil_1'8.
87 Document: Cic:Top_, the "Topica", a rhetorical treatise by Cicero.
Cic:Top_1-4, :Fam_7.19'1; { OCD_c.}
88 EGY {27 Epeiph -E = 26 July} Document: SelPap_1.40A (POxy_1629), a contract between Theon and Apollonius Arbichis at Oxyrhynchus. { This document is dated to the reign of Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV.}
89 ROM Octavianus holds the Ludi Victoriae Caesaris, during which a comet appears, and is interpreted as Julius Caesar going up to heaven.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.2'3, :Fam_11.27'7, 28'6; Prop_3.18'33-34; Ovid:Met_15'848-850; Aug:Fr_12'7; NicDam_130'108-114; Plin:HN_2'93-94; Suet:Caes_88'1, :Aug_10'1; +DioCass_45.6'4-7'1; Obseq_68; { CAH_9'475.}
90 {July} Document: Cic:Att_15.26-16.6 & Cic:Fam_7.19-20, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Trebatius.
91 MOE ?? Burebistas increases the power of the Dacians, by conquering neighbouring tribes.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_7'303,(3.11)  '304,(3.12)  '313;(5.2)  Trog:Prol_32; { OCD_b.}
92 NUM Sittius is defeated and killed by Arabio.
Appian:BCiv_4'54; { OCD_s.}
93 SPA Lepidus agrees the terms of a truce with Sex.Pompeius, which is ratified by the senate.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'39-41, 13'8-10; +Appian:BCiv_3'4, '36, '57, 4'84, '94, '96; +DioCass_45.9'4, 10'4<Lepidus>, 48.17'1; { OCD_p.}
94 ILL The Illyrians defeat Baebius, an officer of Vatinius.
~Appian:Ill_13; { MRR_2'220.}
95 SYR Bassus defeats Murcus, the general sent against him by Caesar.
* Read Appian's account
Joseph:BJ_1'217, :AJ_14'270; Appian:BCiv_3'77,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'220.}
96 ROM {1 August} Piso criticises Antonius at a meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, '7, :Fam_12.2'1, #:Phil_1'10, '14-15, 5'19; { CAH_9'476.}
96a SIC {1 August} Cicero arrives at Syracuse.
#Cic:Phil_1'7.
97 ROM {4 August} Document: Cic:Fam_11.3, a letter from Brutus and Cassius to Antonius.
98 ITA Cicero decides to return home, after being driven back by contrary winds to Leucopetra, near Rhegium.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.7'1-2, :Fam_10.1'1, 11.29'1, 12.25'3, :Phil_1'7-9; Plut:Cic_43'3; DioCass_46.3'2.
99 {17 August} M.Brutus meets Cicero at Velia.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_16.7'5, :Phil_1'9, :AdBrut_18'4,(1.10)  23'5.(1.15) 
100 {19 August} Document: Cic:Att_16.7, a letter from Cicero to Atticus.
101 GRE Cicero orders his son to stop meeting the rhetorician Gorgias.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_16.21'1-6; Plut:Cic_24'6.
102 EGY Cleopatra kills her young brother, Ptolemy XIV.
Joseph:AJ_15'89, :Ap_2'58; [Euseb]:Chron_167-169;(↓)  { OCD_p; for the date, see the notes on Ptolemy XIV by Bennett .}
103 ROM {1 September} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but Cicero decides not to attend.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'11-13, #5'19; Plut:Cic_43'4-5; { CAH_9'477.}
104 {2 September} Cicero makes a speech (the "First Philippic") at another meeting of the senate.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Phil_1'1-38, 2'6-7, #5'19, :Fam_12.2'1, 20'1, 25'3-4; { OCD_c.}
105 EGY {2 September} Caesarion, the son of Cleopatra, is offically recognised as joint king of Egypt.
DioCass_47.31'5; { See the notes on Ptolemy XV by Bennett .}
106 ROM Octavianus visits Cicero and wins some support from him.
* Read Plutarch's account
Plut:Cic_44'1, 45'1-2, :Brut_22'4-6, :Ant_16'3; +DioCass_45.15'3-4; [Vict]:VirIll_81'5.L 
107 ITA Brutus and Cassius leave Italy, without revealing their real destinations.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Fam_12.2'3, :Phil_10'8, 11'28; Nepos:Att_8'5-6; NicDam_130'135; Plut:Brut_23'1-24'1; Flor_2.17'4; +Appian:BCiv_3'24; { CAH_9'476: OCD_b.}
108 MAC Antonius is given command of the army in Macedonia, and summons it back to Brundisium.
* Read Appian's account
+Appian:BCiv_3'24-25, '37; DioCass_45.20'4, 25'1, 46.24'1-2, 25'1-3.
109 ROM Cicero offends Antonius by speaking in defence of Sicca.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.11'1, :Phil_2'3.
110 {19 September} At a meeting of the senate, Antonius rebukes Cicero in a strongly worded speech.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_10.2'1, #12.2'1, :Phil_2'1, '3, '7, '11, '17-20, '23, '28, '31, '76, #5'17-20; { CAH_9'477.}
111 Antonius prevents Octavianus from standing for election as tribune.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.60'3; Plut:Ant_16'5; +Appian:BCiv_3'31; +DioCass_45.6'1-3; { CAH_9'472.}
112 The soldiers in Rome bring about a reconciliation between Antonius and Octavianus.
* Read Appian's account
NicDam_130'115-119; Plut:Ant_16'6; +Appian:BCiv_3'32-39; +DioCass_45.7'3-8'2.
113 {? 25 September} Document: Cic:Fam_12.2, a letter from Cicero to Cassius.
114 Octavianus is accused of plotting to murder Antonius.
* Read Nicolaus' account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'5, :Fam_12.23'2; NicDam_130'123-128; Plut:Ant_16'7-8; Suet:Aug_10'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'39; +DioCass_45.8'3-4; { CAH_9'477.}
115 Document: Cic:Fam_11.2 & 11.6, letters of Cicero to and from D.Brutus.
116 {September} Document: Cic:Fam_10.1-2 & 12.20-22, letters from Cicero to Plancus and Cornificius.
117 {9 October} Antonius leaves Rome to join the legions at Brundisium.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Att_15.13'2, :Fam_12.23'2, :Phil_5'22.
118 Dolabella leaves Italy in order to take over the province of Asia.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_15.13'5, :AdBrut_19'1;(1.11)  +Appian:BCiv_3'24; +DioCass_45.15'2, 47.21'3, 29'1; { CAH_9'477.}
119 {October} Document: Cic:Fam_12.3 & 12.23, letters from Cicero to Cassius and Cornificius.
120 Document: Cic:Fam_11.27-28, letters of Cicero to and from Matius.
121 Document: Cic:Att_15.13 & Cic:Fam_16.25, letters from Cicero to Atticus and from M.Cicero Junior to Tiro.
122 GRE Brutus arrives in Athens and begins to gather money and supporters.
* Read Plutarch's account
ValMax_1.5'7; Plut:Brut_24'1-7; DioCass_47.20'4.
123 SYR Marcius Crispus, the governor of Bithynia, intervenes in Syria and besieges Bassus.
Appian:BCiv_3'77-78,(↓)  4'58;(↓)  { MRR_2'219.}
124 ROM Document: Cic:Amic_, Cicero's treatise "De Amicitia" (On Friendship). { CAH_9'477; Cicero wrote this treatise in between "De Divinatione" and "De Officiis".}
125 Antonius condemns Cn.Seius to death.
Gell_3.9'1-4; { before or at the same time as Dolabella left Italy.}
126 Octavianus brings a large number of veterans to Rome, but they refuse to fight against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'1-2, 11'6, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3, 4'3-4, 5'3, '23, '43-46; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'130-138; Aug:ResGest_1; Vell_2.61'1-2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'40-42, '58; +DioCass_45.12'1-6, 38'3, 55.24'8; { CAH_9'478.}
127 {November} Document: Cic:Att_16.8-15 & Cic:Fam_16.24, letters from Cicero to Atticus and Tiro.
128 Document: Cic:Off_, Cicero's treatise "De Officiis" (On Duties).
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_15.13'6, 16.11'4, 14'3; { OCD_c.}
129 ITA Two legions desert from Antonius to Octavianus, while marching from Brundisium to Rome.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Att_16.8'2, :Fam_11.7'2, :Phil_3'3-7, '10, 4'4-6, 5'4, '22-23, '42, '52, 12'12, 13'18; [Liv]:Per_117; NicDam_130'129, '139; Vell_2.61'2; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'43-45, '52,(↓)  '56, '67;(↓)  +DioCass_45.13'1-4, 35'3, 38'5; { CAH_9'478.}
130 ROM {24 November} Antonius summons a meeting of the senate, but then postpones it.
#Cic:Phil_3'19-20, 5'23, 13'19.
131 {28 November} Antonius holds a hurried meeting of the senate, before going to meet his troops.
#Cic:Phil_3'20-25; { CAH_9'478.}
132 Antonius formally leaves Rome, and sets off for Cisalpine Gaul.
* Read Dio's account
Cic:Phil_3'1-2, '11, '24, '31, 5'24, 13'20; +Appian:BCiv_3'46; +DioCass_45.13'5, 20'4.
133 GER Plancus founds a Roman colony at Raurica, on the river Rhine.
CIL_10.6087; { Probably after an expedition against the Rhaeti - see MRR_2'230.}
134 MAC Brutus seizes control of Macedonia.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Phil_10'24-26, 11'27; Vell_2.62'2-3; Plut:Brut_25'1-3; :Mor_694'C; Appian:Ill_13,(↓)  :BCiv_5'6; DioCass_47.20'4-21'5; { CAH_9'481.}
135 CIL >> Cassius persuades the inhabitants of Cilicia, including Tarsus, to support him.
DioCass_47.26'1-2.
136 ETR Document: Cic:Phil_2, Cicero's "Second Philippic", a passionate invective against Antonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Cic:Att_15.13'1, 16.11'1-2, :Phil_2'110; Juvenal_10'120-126; { CAH_9'477.}
137 ROM {9 December} Cicero returns to Rome.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Att_16.15'6, #:Fam_11.5'1; { CAH_9'479.}
138 Document: Cic:Fam_10.3, a letter from Cicero to Plancus.
139 Octavianus offers to use his legions to fight on behalf of the senate against Antonius.
* Read Appian's account
Vell_2.61'3; Tac:Ann_1'10; +Appian:BCiv_3'47-48, '75, '87; +DioCass_45.14'1-15'3.
140 Omens precede the outbreak of civil war between Antonius, Octavianus and their enemies.
* Read Vergilius' account
Verg:Georg_1'466-488; Plin:HN_2'99; Obseq_68.
141 CIS Decimus Brutus refuses to surrender Cisalpine Gaul to Antonius, and prepares for war.
* Read Cicero's account
Cic:Fam_11.6'2, 7'3, :Phil_3'8-12, '37, 4'7, 6'8-9, 7'24; { OCD_b.}
142 ROM {20 December} Document: Cic:Phil_3 & 4, two speeches of Cicero, to the Roman senate and people.
* Read Cicero's account
#Cic:Fam_11.6'2-3, 12.22a'3, 25'2, :Phil_5'2-3, '28-30, 6'1-2, 10'23, 14'20; { CAH_9'479.}
143 {December} Document: Cic:Fam_11.5-7 & 12.22a, letters from Cicero to Decimus Brutus and Cornificius.
144 CIS M.Antonius enters Cisalpine Gaul, and starts to besiege Decimus Brutus at Mutina.
* Read Appian's account
Cic:Phil_5'24-25, 13'20; [Liv]:Per_117; Flor_2.15'3; +Appian:BCiv_3'49; Oros_6.18'3; { CAH_9'479.}
145 ROM Document: Cic:Fam_10.4 & 16.26-27, letters from Plancus to Cicero and from Q.Cicero to Tiro.
146 ++ As a student, the geographer Strabo is taught by Aristodemus, Tyrannion and Xenarchus.
* Read Appian's account
Strab_12'548,(3.16)  14'650,(1.48)  '670,(5.4)  16'757;(2.24)  { Strabo probably received much of his education at Rome, which he first visited in 44 B.C.}

previous year   |   next year


Background
  information:
   
How to use this site   |   Sources and abbreviations   |   Geographical labels
Symbols used to describe events   |   Symbols used to describe references

This page Andrew Smith, 2023
Attalus' home page   |   16.04.23   |   Any comments?