31 B.C. Olympiad 187.2

Consuls: Imp. Caesar Divi f. (III), M. Valerius M.f. Messalla Corvinus

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1 ROM {January} Messalla is appointed to be consul in place of Antonius.
* Read Dio's account
[Tib]:PanMes_122-135; Tac:Ann_13'34; Appian:BCiv_4'38; DioCass_47.11'4, +50.10'1; { MRR_2'277.}
2 << Omens occur before the war between Octavianus and Antonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_8'381;(6.23)  Plut:Ant_60'2-7; DioCass_50.8'1-6, +10'2-6.
3 EPI << Antonius and Octavianus assemble large land and naval forces.
* Read Plutarch's account
CIL_11.623; [Liv]:Per_132; Plut:Ant_58'1-3, 61'1-6; DioCass_50.6'2-7'3; { CAH_10'55; Syme_p294-295.}
4 Octavianus sails from Brundisium to Corcyra, but is forced to withdraw by a storm.
5 PEL Agrippa attacks Methone, and kills Bogud.
* Read Strabo's account
Strab_8'359;(4.3)  +DioCass_50.11'3; Oros_6.19'6; { CAH_10'56; OCD_b.}
6 EPI Octavianus occupies a position near Actium; and Agrippa seizes Corcyra.
* Read Dio's account
[Liv]:Per_132; Plut:Ant_62'1-6; Flor_2.21'4; +DioCass_50.11'4-12'8; Oros_6.19'7; { Hölbl_p246; Syme_p295.}
7 ASI << Document: Syll_768, a letter from Octavianus to the city of Mylasa.
8 PAL Judaea is struck by a large earthquake.
~Joseph:BJ_1'370, :AJ_15'121-122.
9 EPI Antonius marches to confront Octavianus.
Plut:Ant_63'1-2; +DioCass_50.13'1-4.
10 The forces of Antonius suffer many losses from disease.
* Read Dio's account
+Vell_2.84'1; +DioCass_50.12'8; Oros_6.19'5.
11 Agrippa seizes Leucas, Patrae and Corinth.
+Vell_2.84'2; +DioCass_50.13'5.
12 Cn.Domitius deserts Antonius, but dies soon afterwards.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Vell_2.84'2; Plut:Ant_63'3-4; Tac:Ann_4'44; Suet:Ner_3'2; +DioCass_50.13'5-8, 51.2'2; { CAH_10'57; OCD_d.}
13 << Antonius takes precautions to avoid poisoning.
14 << Antonius uses debased silver coins to pay his army.
15 Sosius makes a sudden attack by sea, but is defeated by Agrippa.
16 ILL ?? Messalla defeats the Salassi.
* Read Appian's account
@  (?) [Tib]:PanMes_117-118; Strab_4'205;(6.7)  Appian:Ill_17; !DioCass_49.38'3; { ~CAH_10'169; OCD_m?34/3.}
17 PON << Adiatorix attacks the Roman colonists at Heracleia.
Strab_12'543;(3.6)  { ~CAH_10'649.}
18 PAL Herodes restarts war against the Arabs, and defeats them.
Joseph:BJ_1'371-385, :AJ_15'123-160, '402; { Smallwood_p67.}
19 PER Tiridates rebels against Phraates, and establishes himself as king of the Parthians.
Just_42.5'4-6; Trog:Prol_42; { OHIH_p173; OCD_t.}
20 ROM Maecenas governs Italy in the absence of Octavianus.
* Read Dio's account
Sen:Ep_114'6; Plin:HN_37'10; Tac:Ann_6'11; +DioCass_51.3'5; { CAH_10'74; OCD_m.}
21 EPI Q.Dellius, Amyntas, Deiotarus and others desert Antonius.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Vell_2.84'2; Seneca:Suas_1'7; Plut:Rom_17'3, :Ant_59'6-8, 63'5, :Mor_207'A; +DioCass_50.13'8, 23'1; { CAH_10'57.}
22 Cleopatra persuades Antonius to lead out his fleet for battle.
* Read Dio's account
Plut:Ant_63'6-64'4; +DioCass_50.14'3-15'4; Oros_6.19'7-8.
23 {2 September} Octavianus decisively defeats Antonius in a naval battle near Actium.
* Read Dio's account
Prop_2.16'37-42, 4.6'15-68; Hor:Od_1.37'12-21; Verg:Aen_8'675-710; ElegMaec_1'45-48; #EhrJon:Fast_Sep2; +Vell_2.85'1-86'1; Plin:HN_11'195,L  19'22,L  32'3;L  Joseph:AJ_15'109, :Ap_2'59; Plut:Ant_65'1-67'1, 68'1-3; :Brut_53'2-3; Suet:Aug_17'2, 96'2; Flor_2.21'5-8; Appian:BCiv_4'38; Paus_8.9'6; +DioCass_50.15'4-35'6; Oros_6.19'8-12; +Cassiod:Chr_723; Malal_219-220; { CAH_10'57-59.}
24 ROM {2 September} The years of Augustus as sole ruler can be counted from his victory at Actium.
* Read Dio's account
Joseph:AJ_18'26; Tac:Hist_1'1; Suet:Aug_8'3; #DioCass_51.1'1-2, 56.30'5; Vict:Caes_1'1-2; [Vict]:Epit_1'1, '30-31; { CAH_10'73.}
25 EPI The land army of Antonius surrenders to Octavianus.
* Read Plutarch's account
+Vell_2.85'6; Plut:Ant_68'4-8, 71'1; +DioCass_51.1'4-5; { Syme_p297.}
26 Antonius and Cleopatra escape by sea.
* Read Plutarch's account
Prop_3.11'51, 4.6'63-64; Verg:Aen_8'711-713; [Liv]:Per_133; Strab_17'794;(1.9)  Plut:Ant_67'2-10; Gell_2.22'23; DioCass_51.5'3, '6.
27 EGY {22 Thoth - E = 21 September} Document: AET_7.14, a contract made by a guild of linen manufacturers at Coptus.
28 EPI Octavianus punishes some of his opponents, but forgives others.
* Read Dio's account
+Vell_2.86'2; Sen:Ben_2.25'1; Appian:BCiv_4'42, '49; Paus_4.31'1, 8.8'12, 46'1-2; +DioCass_51.2'4-6, 56.38'2; { Syme_p299.}
29 Octavianus reduces and restructures the Roman armies.
Suet:Aug_49'1; +DioCass_51.3'1-4.
30 ASI Octavianus goes to Asia, after sending Agrippa to dispel unrest in Italy.
+DioCass_51.3'5-4-2; { CAH_10'61.}
31 EGY Antonius and Cleopatra arrive back in Egypt, but are deserted by their remaining allies.
* Read Plutarch's account
Strab_17'794;(1.9)  Plut:Ant_69'1-71'8; { CAH_10'59-61.}
32 Inconclusive negotiations between Antonius and Octavianus.
33 SYR Document: SEG_54.1625.C, the third letter from Octavianus to Rhosus.
34 ROM Artorius, a doctor employed by Octavianus, dies in a shipwreck.

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