Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum: 49.1217


Greek text:   SEG_49.1217
Date:   c. 220 B.C.
Tags:     curses ,   treaties-cities
Translated by:   S.Craven   ( lines B.14-20 by A.Chaniotis )
Format:   see key to translations

At present, the main source of information about this inscription is a thesis by Stephanie Craven, "Koinodikion: A Study of Judicial Process as a Diplomatic Tool in Hellenistic Crete" ( PDF ), which includes the Greek text and an English translation in Appendix IV.   Some aspects of the inscription have been discussed by Angelos Chaniotis, "The epigraphy of Hellenistic Crete: The nature of the evidence" ( PDF ); and he has suggested that the historical context of the treaty was the 'Lyttian War' of 220-219 B.C.

Lines A.1-6 and B.1-10, which are poorly preserved, have been omitted from this translation.

[A]   . . . has been convicted by the majority . . . he shall pay on behalf of each . . . 150 staters . . . 10 with regard to the threefold [(?) penalty] for the . . . 50 staters. Whoever also [(?) makes a transaction] . . . he shall arrange it in whichever way . . . is found. In wartime . . . the (?) matter of desertion; in peacetime, on the [(?) first month, whoever] is robbed, the laws shall (?) prevail [according to] the ordinance {diagramma}, a double portion of the stolen amount . . . according to the ordinance, of . . . The debt collectors and they themselves shall provide these things according to [(?) the ordinance.] And they shall send the money away within [(?) 20] days . . . 20 into the city from which the deserter came whom the suit is about. If they do not discover the property whence they provided it, they shall lodge information against the convicted party; if they are not able to seize him, the (?) city shall pay the fine, and the kosmoi shall pay it back into the public treasury, and they shall be free from punishment and not liable for any action and not liable to public law. If the kosmoi do not pay it, they shall owe double; and any willing person, either from the debt collectors or private citizens, shall file a suit of redemption against each according to the share and he shall inflict the penalty on the wrongdoers; he shall keep the remainder. 30 The assessment shall be made in the same way as the laws.

[B]   . . . [the Gortynians, having made the curse,] shall administer the oath for the [Knossians] to take . . . [on their] wives and [children] . . . [and their property] and the Knossians shall administer the oath to the Gortynians . . . and they shall make [(?) their respective] allies swear the oath [jointly, (?) both the Knossians and the Gortynians], sending envoys [(?) to the cities] within thirty days from the day this treaty has been confirmed. And the [kosmoi] shall utter the curse, which is written below, in every city separately, for this agreement, when the oath is sworn, [assembling] the citizens, the Gortynians in the presence of a Knossian embassy, 20 and the Knossians in the presence of a Gortynian embassy, and the allies in the presence of an embassy of Gortynians [(?) and Knossians]. The incumbent kosmoi shall make the same curse each year, in wartime, with the oath-takers being present, in peacetime, with embassies being present in the first official assembly, publicising the agreement; if they do not read out the agreement or do not make the curse, they [shall] be liable to the curse from the gods; each kosmos shall be fined individually a thousand Cretan staters. In wartime, a citizen shall bring a judicial action against the kosmos in court just as the other citizens do with contracts between each other in court; in peacetime, 30 a member of the Cretans, either a citizen against a fellow citizen or citizens of two different cities, shall bring a judicial action, either in the shared tribunal {koinodikion} or in the respective court which the cities should set up between each other for the adjudication of contracts. The Gortynian shall publicly inscribe the agreement and the oath and the curse on a stone stele and shall set it up in the shrine of Pythian Apollo.

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