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Translations of Hellenistic Inscriptions: 99


DECREES IN HONOUR OF GREEK DOCTORS

Peter Green calls these inscriptions "a most moving record of service over and above the call of duty ... [Public physicians] did, again and again, provide their services free of charge when they were under no obligation to do so, and this fact is commemorated with especial gratitude" ('Alexander to Actium', pp.495-6). But free, or cheap, medical treatment during this period seems to have been due to doctors' generosity, rather than public policy; most scholars have concluded that it was never the intention to provide free healthcare to all citizens.

The island of Kos was particularly associated with medical training, and neighbouring states around the Aegean Sea benefitted from this. By the second century B.C., many Greek cities, both large and small, were employing public doctors, and commemorating their good service in decrees. Most of the doctors honoured in the decrees were clearly public doctors, although a few, like Athenagoras of Larisa ( P ), achieved prominence by acting as private doctors to important personages.

All the inscriptions about ancient Greek doctors have been collected and translated into French by E.Samama ( Google Books ); and the role of the public doctors is analysed by N.Massar ( Persée ). In English, there is a useful article on the doctors of Kos by D.Bosnakis ( academia.edu ) , and the doctors' service during wartime is discussed by A.Chaniotis ( Google Books ). German translations of most of the inscriptions are available on the Inscriptiones Graecae website, and links to these translations are shown in the heading of each inscription.

For an explanation of the format, see the key to translations.   There is an alphabetical list of doctors at the end of the translations, including some who are mentioned in inscriptions translated elsewhere.


[A]   Greek text: SEG_41.680 ,     IG_12.4.1.109 (+ German translation) ,     Samama_137
  Date: first half of 2nd century B.C.

Onasandros of Kos

The Greeks had specific words to describe public and private practice as a doctor, but as this decree shows, the two roles were not incompatible. Halasarna, which issued the decree, was a town on the island of Kos, acting as a deme (borough) of the city of Kos.

When Philiskos was monarchos, on the twenty-third day of the month of Panemos, as proposed by the naopoiai Nikarchos son of Teisias, Ariston son of Charmylos and Philonidas son of Didymarchos: since the doctor Onasandros son of Onesimos, who learned the craft of medicine from Antipatros son of Dioskouridas, accompanying his teacher while he was the public doctor with us, behaved irreproachably towards everyone and voluntarily provided the services of his medical craft to those citizens of the deme who requested it; and when he was established as assistant to the public doctor for many years, he displayed still more his expertise in the craft of medicine and the orderliness of his personal life, shirking no discomfort or expense so as not to leave anything undone that might be advantageous to the citizens of the deme; and when his teacher was appointed to the post of doctor in the city of Kos, Onasandros decided at first to work with his teacher as his assistant, and after many of the citizens implored him, in view of his previously recognised expertise in the craft of medicine and the orderly conduct of his life, he showed himself to be eager and assiduous in coming to their aid, and as far as he could he was responsible for saving them, as was particularly acknowledged by those who made requests to him; and when he decided to open a medical practice on his own and to serve as a private doctor in the city of Kos, and some of those who used him made payments, yet he did not demand money from any of the citizens of the deme who asked for him on account of his expertise in the craft of medicine, nor did he remind them that he received payments, although he could have made a significant amount of money from such patients, because many of the citizens of the deme who were using him were in dangerous illnesses with unusual treatments; but he always considered his personal profit as less important, and eagerly came to their aid; and in the rest of his life he did no harm to anyone and showed himself worthy not only of his profession but also of his goodwill towards the citizens of the deme; therefore, so that the citizens of the deme may be seen to honour not only citizens who are good and kindly disposed but also those of the residents who behave zealously and honourably towards the community on every occasion, and so that Onasandros, being rewarded with appropriate honours, may yet more eagerly provide his services to the citizens of the deme, it is resolved by the deme of Halasarna to praise the doctor Onasandros son of Onesimos for the good attitude that he has towards all the citizens of the deme and for his expertise in the craft of medicine; and he shall be able to share in all the sacred rites that the citizens of the deme share in. The naopoiai [shall pay] for the stele and the inscription from the money kept for the gods, and they shall set up the stele in the temple of Apollo beside the stele of his teacher Antipatros.   Votes ratifying the recommendation of the naopoiai: in favour, 248; against, none.

[B]   Greek text:   TitCal_test.XXIV , TitCal_78 ,     IG_12.4.1.163 (+ German translation) ,     Samama_152
  Date:   early 2nd century B.C.

Antipatros of Kos

Antipatros was a prominent doctor on the islands of Kos and Kalymna. As well as the following decree, which consists of part of the original decree from Kalymna and the response from Kos, he was also honoured in Halasarna alongside his pupil Onasandros ( IG_12.4.1.108 ). For the date of this decree, see C.V.Crowther in Chiron 29, 1999 p.292 ( Google Books ).

. . . he brought about [the safe recovery of many] of the citizens [and resident foreigners] . . . [he saved those] who were afflicted [by disease from the greatest] dangers, and in all other matters he provided [assistance] both publicly and privately to those who met him; [therefore, so that] the people of Kalymna may be seen [both to render thanks to their benefactors] and to make a [permanent] memorial of them, [and so that many others] may be eager to adopt [the same attitude, it is resolved] to praise Antipatros [son of Dioskouridas] . . .

. . . [concerning the matters for which the Kalymnians have have sent a decree and . . . as a messenger and the crown with which they have honoured the doctor] Antipatros son of Dioskouridas, [and they request that we should make] proclamation of the award of the crown [at the Dionysia] and the great Asklepieia, [and that we should provide a place] for the erection of a stele in the temple of [Asklepios]; it is resolved to reply to them that the people [praises] them for honouring good doctors, [and] the proclamation of the award of the crown shall be made as they request; the presidents who are appointed when the erection of the stele takes place, together with the priest, shall provide a place for it, wherever seems suitable to them; and they shall also take care of the proclamation of the award of the crown, together with the agonothete.

[C]   Greek text:   SEG_27.513 ,     IG_12.4.1.101 (+ German translation) ,     Samama_130
  Date:   c. 197/6 B.C.

Anaxippos of Kos

This decree was issued by Aigele, another deme on the island of Kos. For the date, see C.Habicht in Chiron 30, 2000 p.314 ( Google Books ).

When Eutychidas was monarchos, on the first day of the month of Alseios, it was resolved by the deme of Aigele: since Anaxippos son of Alexandros, who has been established by the assembly as a doctor for many years, has conducted himself in a praiseworthy manner with respect to both the craft of medicine and his personal life, and he saved many of the citizens who were beset by serious illnesses and great danger, lacking nothing in his honourable conduct; therefore, in order that the deme may be seen to render suitable thanks to those who choose to be its benefactors, and in future men may show themselves much more eager to do what is beneficial to the deme, it is resolved by the deme of Aigele to praise Anaxippos for his zeal and [the care that he has continually] provided . . .

[D]   Greek text:   IG_12.1.1032 ,     Samama_118
  Date:   2nd century B.C.

Menokritos of Samos

This decree was issued by Brykous, a deme on the island of Karpathos. Based on the translation by E.M.Craik in "The Dorian Aegean" ( Google Books ).

. . . as proposed by . . . of Brykous, the son of Melanthios: since Menokritos of Samos, the son of Metrodoros, having been in the public service for over twenty years, has continued assiduously and zealously tending everyone, and has shown himself irreproachable, both in his professional skill and in his behaviour generally; and since, when an epidemic of pestilence broke out and many victims were at risk of death - not only among the local people but also foreigners in residence - by showing extreme assiduity and perseverance he was responsible for our survival (and before his contract with us, when he was living in Rhodes, he saved the lives of many of the citizens of the deme whose condition had become dangerous, without accepting a fee; and continued to be kindly and upright on his visits [to] everyone who lived in the township); therefore, in order that the deme of Brykous may be seen to be grateful and to honour good doctors, this decree being passed, it is resolved by the deme to praise Menokritos of Samos, the son of Metrodoros, and to crown him with a golden crown, and to announce at the festival of Asklepieia that, "The deme of Brykous honours Menokritos of Samos, the son of Metrodoros, and crowns him with a golden crown, on account of his professional skill and his excellent qualities." Menokritos shall be able to attend all the festivals that the citizens of Brykous hold. The treasurer shall pay the cost of the crown. After the approval of this decree, the deme shall immediately appoint a man; and the man who is appointed shall request at a meeting of the whole people {of Rhodes} that the crown should be awarded and that a stone stele should be erected in the temple of Poseidon Porthmios, on which should be inscribed the decree of the deme of Brykous honouring Menokritos of Samos, the son of Metrodoros. [The treasurer shall give] money for the cost [of the crown and the stele.   . . . of Brykous was appointed].

[E]   Greek text:   IG_12.7.231 ,     Samama_161
  Date:   2nd/1st century B.C.

Ouliades of Samos

This decree was issued by Minoa, a Samian colony on the island of Amorgos.

. . . he applied the good conduct [and] zeal appropriate to the craft of medicine, and won admiration by doing [what was (?) needed] by everyone, as befitted a noble man who was keen to follow the best aspirations; [therefore it is resolved] by the people of the Samians [in Minoa to praise the doctor] Ouliades [of Samos], the son of Ouliades, [because he] has conducted himself in a manner worthy of the [city] that received him [and of the] craft [of medicine, and he has ably provided safe recovery] for the sick, and] has behaved blamelessly [in all matters]; with respect [to honours], he shall [be (?) given proxeny and (?) freedom from taxes, and in addition to] this all the privileges [that are held by] proxenoi [and] benefactors of the city, [and] access to the council and the people second only to [sacred matters] . . .

[F]   Greek text:   IG_11.4.775 ,     Samama_106
  Date:   early 2nd century B.C.

Nikandros of Halikarnassos

It was resolved by the council and people {of Delos}, as proposed by Telemnestos son of Aristeides: since the doctor Nikandros of Halikarnassos, the son of Parmeniskos, has continually shown himself a good man concerning the temple and people of Delos; and he has provided assistance both publicly and privately to those of the Delians who met him in . . . [and] in the craft of medicine he has conducted himself honourably towards those who have need of him; therefore it is resolved by the council and the [people] that Nikandros of Halikarnassos, the son of Parmeniskos, shall be made a proxenos and benefactor [of the] temple and the Delians, both himself and his descendants; they shall be granted the right to own land and buildings in Delos, and privileged seating at games, and access to the council and the people second only to sacred matters; they shall be granted by the [people] . . .

[G]   Greek text:   ClaraRhodos_10.37 ,     IG_12.4.1.164 (+ German translation) ,     Samama_135
  Date:   c. 195 B.C.

Philippos of Kos

In addition to the following decree, another inscription, found on the island of Delos ( see THI_63 ), mentions that money was allocated for setting up a statue of Philippos the doctor.

[It was resolved by the council and people {of Kos}, as recommended by the presidents: concerning the matters for which the Delians] have sent [a decree and] (?) Kynthiadas [as an envoy], and they request that we should make a proclamation of the honours with which they have honoured Philippos the doctor at the Asklepieia in the gymnastic contest, and, in order that there should be a memorial of this for all time, that we should inscribe the decree containing the honours on a stele and set it up in the temple of Asklepios, and their envoy spoke in accordance with what was written in the decree; therefore, so that the people may be seen to comply with the request of the Delians, and to join with its own citizens in celebrating the honours that they have been granted by other cities, and in making their honours manifest, it is resolved to make the proclamation for the Delians as they request; and the presidents and the agonothete shall take care of the proclamation; and the pōlētai shall let out a contract for the decree in which Philippos has been honoured by the Delians, to be inscribed on a stone stele and set up in the temple of Asklepios; the presidents shall provide a place for it; the treasurers shall pay for the cost of it from the funds allocated to work contracted out by the pōlētai; the envoy shall be invited to hospitality in the prytaneion, and the treasurers shall give him fifty drachmas for a sacrifice from the money already provided.

[H]   Greek text:   IG_12.sup.249 ,     Samama_163
  Date:   2nd century B.C.

Heroïdes of Andros

This inscription was found on the island of Andros

In honour of the doctor Heroïdes son of Neon.

In the year of Menandros as archon, on the 28th day of the month of Artemision, as proposed by Mnesikles son of Demeas: since Heroïdes son of Neon has been a good man since his youth, and being keen to follow the best aspirations he has devoted himself to the craft of medicine, in which he has persevered strenuously and has behaved in a seemly manner, worthy both of his medical craft and of our city; and when he was away from here for a long time and residing in a foreign land, he was highly esteemed and was honoured with decrees and citizenship by the league of the Aetolians and the city of Stratos, as the decrees bear witness for him; and when he came back to us and made . . . and decision . . .

[I]   Greek text:   SEG_47.1280 , IG_12.6.1.151 ,     IG_12.4.1.138 (+ German translation) ,     Samama_124
  Date: after 241 B.C.

Philistos of Kos

This inscription was found in Kos, but it contains a decree issued by another state - perhaps by the island of Paros. In this decree, there is no suggestion that Philistos travelled abroad, but he is honoured for his treatment of foreign visitors to his own island. It was not unknown for envoys to die on such visits: see OGIS_36.

When the [god was . . .] on the thirteenth day of the month of Apatourion, when the assembly was legally gathered for the elections and Kallisthenes son of Timosthenes was president, it was resolved by the people, as proposed by Melanthos son of Emprepon: concerning the matters of which Alkiades son of Molpos gave formal notice, that the the doctor Philistos of Kos, the son of Nikarchos, who has provided assistance to many of the citizens, should be praised and crowned, as seems fit to the council and people, and he should be given proxeny; since Philistos of Kos, the son of Nikarchos, who is a doctor, has continually provided every assistance with respect to the craft of medicine, and has [very honourably] saved [many] of the citizens who suffered from dangerous [illnesses] while residing [in Kos - some of them] were sent [by] the people as theoroi, and others were visiting [Kos] in a private capacity - and [he provides much assistance] to other citizens [who visit] Kos, lacking nothing [in his eagerness] to help to arrange things [well for them and always] complying with every request that anyone makes [to him]; therefore, so that we may be seen to render suitable gratitude to those who choose to be our benefactors, it is resolved to praise Philistos of Kos, the son of Nikarchos, and to crown him with a golden crown in the [contest of] tragedians at the Dionysia . . .

[J]   Greek text:   IC_2.3.3 ,     IG_12.4.1.171 (+ German translation) ,     Samama_136
  Date:   2nd half of 2nd century B.C.

Kallippos of Kos

This inscription, which was found in the temple of Asklepios in Kos, contains a decree of the city of Aptera in Crete.

Decree of the Apteraians.

It was resolved by the council and the people, as proposed by Sosos son of Abdias: since Kallippos of Kos, the son of Aristokritos, who was sent as a doctor by his city, has conducted himself in a manner worthy of both our cities, both in his personal life and in his medical craft, lacking nothing in zeal; and he has saved many of the citizens from serious illnesses; therefore, so that the people may be seen to honour good men, it is resolved by the council and the people to praise the doctor Kallippos of Kos, the son of Aristokritos, and to crown him with a golden crown on account of his virtue and his goodwill towards the people. The people shall give him three hundred staters for the crown and travel expenses. In order that the Koans may abide by their good intentions, the kosmoi shall seal [a copy of the decree] with the public seal and send it to them; and [they shall request] the Koans, who are friends of our city, to take [care] that the award of the crown [is announced] in the first [contest at the] Dionysia [and at the] great Asklepieia, [and to give] a place for a stele in the most prominent [place in the temple] of Asklepios, on which [the decree] of the people may be inscribed. Kallippos shall be made[ a proxenos] and benefactor [of the city] of Aptara, [both himself and his descendants].

[K]   Greek text:   IC_1.22.4C ,     Samama_176
  Date:   early 2nd century B.C.

(name lost) of Kasos

This decree was issued by the city of Olous in Crete.

. . . kindly towards the city, and when he was summoned back home and was about to leave, because a hard time had befallen us, with many urgent needs on account of the fatalities and the plague that befell us, we entreated him to remain and not to leave us at the most critical time; being persuaded by this, he devoted himself yet more to his medical craft and saved as many invalids as possible by his care; therefore, so that our city may show gratitude to good men, it is resolved to praise him and to crown him with a golden crown as prescribed by law on account of his virtue and the goodwill that he has continually shown towards our city; he shall be made a proxenos and benefactor and citizen, both himself and his family, sharing in all the privileges that are shared by other proxenoi and benefactors and citizens; he and his family shall have freedom from all taxes and the right to sail into and out of the city both in war and in peacetime, inviolably and without formality, both by land and by sea. This decree shall be inscribed in the temple of Zeus Tallaios and in the temple of Asklepios. The decree shall be sent to Kasos, and the Kasians shall be requested to provide a place in the temple of Apollo Temenitas, so that we may inscribe it on a stone stele and place it there.

[L]   Greek text:   IKPerge_12 ,     Samama_341
  Date:   2nd century B.C.

Asklepiades of Perge

There were several cities called Seleukeia; the one that honoured Asklepiades was probably Seleukeia in Pamphylia. The decree of Seleukeia has been translated into French by G.Ekatomati, "Contrats d'entreprise dans le milieu médical et responsabilité contractuelle", pp.22-23 ( PDF ).

These [cities] honoured the doctor Asklepiades of Perge, the son of Myron.

It was resolved by the people and council {of Perge}: since Asklepiades of Perge, the son of Myron, a distinguished citizen of ours, has undertaken the craft of medicine and has given great displays of his expertise; and through his lectures in the gymnasium he has set forth in them much useful advice, appertaining to the health of the citizens; and he has taken care of invalids in a manner worthy of himself and of his ancestors; and he conducts himself in a fine and seemly manner, which is in accordance with his profession; and while he has been abroad he has achieved much that is consistent with honour and glory, and he has shown that the cities bear witness to him through their decrees and public letters, and he has informed us about the honours accruing to him from the cities; therefore it is resolved that Asklepiades shall be praised for these matters and for his good reputation, and that he shall be given a copy of this decree, sealed with the public seal.

Decree of the Seleukeians

It was resolved by the council and people of Seleukeia, as recommended by the prytaneis: since the doctor Asklepiades son of Myron is a good man and is eager to do what is consistent with virtue and glory; and previously on a salary on one thousand drachmas for many years he gave great demonstrations of his good care, displaying exceptional expertise in the craft of medicine; and he saved many of the citizens and residents in the city who were dangerously ill by applying the appropriate treatments with all zeal; and in the practice of surgery he gave clear proof of his proficiency by achieving [many] unexpected cures; [and in his] lectures he set forth much guidance that contributes to health, and received praise for this; and his behaviour was worthy [of the craft of medicine] and of both our cities, [maintaining] the trust that was placed in him without reproach, through his [(?) care for the invalids]; on account of this, being deemed worthy [of testimony] from the people, he was not only honoured with appropriate [honours], but also he was given citizenship, [along with his wife and] children; and now he retains [the same good attitude] and even surpasses it in his [good services towards us]; therefore the people, maintaining its [(?) policy of gratitude], thinks that it ought not [to leave] his [good attitude] unrecorded; and it is resolved to praise [Asklepiades son of Myron] and to crown him in the gymnastic [contest at the (?) Seleukeia] with a golden crown and a [bronze statue; and the] herald shall proclaim that [the people of] S[eleukeia] . . .

[M]   Greek text:   IG_9.1².3.750 ,     Samama_67
  Date:   200-150 B.C.

Menophantos of Hyrkanis

Menophantos was a native of the city of Hyrkanis in Lydia; at some point this city had received Macedonian settlers. The decree of Amphissa in his honour was forwarded to two neighbouring cities, so that they could ensure his safety during his journey from Amphissa. In the inscription, the decree is preceded by the end of a separate decree.

. . . [and all the other honours], in the same way as is given to the other proxenoi and [benefactors] of the city. When Lysiponos . . . was leader of the council . . . [Guarantors] of the proxeny: Lysiponos and Charixenos.

With [good] fortune.   [The] magistrates and the city of Amphissa to the magistrates [and the council] and the city of Skarpheia, greetings. We have sent to your city a copy of the honours given by our city to Menephantos son of Artemidoros, a Macedonian of Hyrkanis, [as] Menophantos himself requested of us. The twenty-sixth day of the month of Amon; from the law-drafters {nomographoi}. Since the doctor Menephantos son of Artemidoros, a Macedonian of Hyrkanis, who was summoned by the city with an embassy, and has contracted to work on his own as a doctor, has skilfully treated illnesses whenever they occur and has been irreproachable in his zeal to save those in danger by his own ability with the favour of the gods, maintaining the trust that was placed in him concerning the safety of the community without change and with goodwill towards everyone; and the conduct of his life during the whole time of his residence has been well-ordered and temperate, in a manner worthy of the city and his profession, and also of his own advanced age; and when he was leaving the city on account of what happened to him [from his] (?) relatives, he came [into] the assembly of the people and said [with] all goodwill that he had taken fitting care of it; therefore it is resolved by the people to praise him for the . . . as much as possible, and to give him citizens to escort him, [in order that he may (?) travel] in safety to wherever he chooses; and [to send] a copy of the proxeny that was granted to him with good [fortune] to the city of Skarpheia and also to the city of Opous.

The Amphissans granted to Menephantos son of Artemidoros, a Macedonian of Hyrkanis, both for himself and for his descendants, proxeny, citizenship on an equal basis, the right to own land and buildings, the right of pasturage, safety in war and in peacetime, and all the other honours that are held by other proxenoi and benefactors of the city. When Antigenes son of Bion was leader of the council.   Guarantor: . . . son of ...ason.

[N]   Greek text:   IG_9.2.11 ,     Samama_77
  Date:   c. 160/59 B.C.

Glaukos of Hypata

The name of the city that issued this decree has been lost; it was possibly Metropolis in Thessaly.

[The] tagoi and city [of . . .] to the magistrates and city [of Hypata, greetings]. We have sent you a copy of the honours given by our city to Glaukos son of Eudoros, your citizen, so that you may know about it.

When Alexippos of Larisa, the son of Hippolochos, was general, on the second day of the month of Aphrios, in a lawful assembly, with . . . Lykos son of (?) Theodotos acting as president of [the assembly] of tagoi, it was resolved by the city: since Glaukos of Hypata, the son of Eudoros, a noble man, [when he arrived] in our city and stayed here for a long [time], conducted himself during his stay here in a sober and seemly fashion, as befits a good man, and . . . in a manner worthy of our city and the city of Hypata; and he provided his services irreproachably [in respect to] his own craft of medicine, both [privately] and publicly, devoting [himself] unstintingly to any requests and lacking nothing in zeal and [honourable conduct]; therefore, so that it may be clear to everyone that our city is able to render gratitude to [good] men, it is resolved to grant to him, [both for himself and for his descendants], proxeny and citizenship [and] security both in war and in peacetime . . . [and] all [the other] honours [that are granted to other] proxenoi and [benefactors] . . . this decree shall be inscribed . . .

[O]   Greek text:   IG_9.2.69
  Date:   c. 130 B.C.

Metrodoros of Pelinna

Metrodoros is the earliest recorded horse-doctor, although almost certainly there were horse-doctors in existence before his time - see K.Fischer, "Ancient Veterinary Medicine: A survey of Greek and Latin sources and some recent scholarship" ( academia.edu ). The decree in his honour was issued by Lamia in Thessaly, a region that was famous for horse-rearing. The translation is adapted from M.Scarborough, " A New Edition of IG IX,2 69" ( ZPE 2015, academia.edu ).

With good [fortune]: when Timasitheos son of . . . was general of the Thessalians, [and the tagoi] in Lamia were Philon son of Euboulidas, Ageas son of Nikodamos, Kleomenes son of . . . on the second day of [the month] Thyos, with Philon acting as president of the assembly of tagoi, as proposed by Pyrrhias son of Euboulidas: since Metrodoros of Pelinna, the son of Andromenes, being a horse-doctor and having dwelled in our city and made his dwelling and residence here for a long time, as it was appropriate for a noble and good man, and since he aided those of the citizens who met him through the business which he practiced, without pay, leaving no zeal and generosity to be desired, and when he was asked to do the work he undertook it for the advantage of the city; and since Pyrrhias said that it was necessary that his goodwill be repaid to him, it is resolved by the city to praise Metrodoros of Pelinna, the son of Andromenes, for his residence and for his generosity [in regards to his] practice, and that there be given to him and to his descendants proxeny, citizenship, equality in taxation, the right of holding land and household, and security and inviolability, both in war and in peace, both by land and by sea, for all time, and the other privileges that are given by the city to other proxenoi and benefactors. The guarantor of the proxeny is Satyros son of Rhybas.

[P]   Greek text:   SEG_48.1109 ,     IG_12.4.1.55 (+ German translation) ,     Samama_139
  Date:   168 B.C.

Athenagoras of Larisa

Cn.Octavius was commander of the Roman fleet during the war against Perseus. The doctors of such prominent men possessed much influence, and by issuing this decree the city of Kos demonstrated its continuing support for the Romans; see K.Buraselis, "Kos Between Hellenism and Rome", pp.14-15 ( Google Books ).

[It was resolved] by the council and people, as recommended by the presidents: since Athenagoras of Larisa in Thessaly, the son of Strachys, who is the doctor of the praetor Gnaeus Octavius son of Gnaeus, is well disposed towards the populace of the Koans [because of their] kinship and the zeal of the Koans [towards the] Thessalians . . . useful . . .

[Q]   Greek text:   IScM_1.26 ,     Samama_98
  Date:   2nd century B.C.

Diokles of Kyzikos

This decree was issued by the city of Istros, on the coast of the Black Sea, which possessed all the attributes of a typical Hellenistic city despite its remote situation. For a commentary on the decree, see M.Dana, "Éducation et culture à Istros. Nouvelles considérations", pp.199-201 ( academia.edu ).

[When] Hestiaios son of Mikkalion was priest, in the month of Taureon, it was resolved by the council and the people, with Eupolemos son of Kleomedon acting as the monthly president, as proposed by the archons: since the doctor Diokles of Kyzikos, the son of Artemidoros, on being summoned by the people gave many lectures [and] explanatory talks, all of which [were well received]; and on account of this, at the request [of the archons] he acted as public doctor . . .

[R]   Greek text:   IG_5.1.1145 ,     Samama_35
  Date: 73/2 B.C.

Damiadas of Sparta

In this decree from a slightly later period, which was issued by Gytheion in Laconia, the doctor is honoured as a generous benefactor of all the residents in the city, including slaves. The translation is adapted from H.Horstmanshoff, "The Ancient Physician: Craftsman or Scientist?", page 191 ( PDF ).

. . . [the . . . shall inscribe] a copy of this [decree on] a stone [stele] and [set it up in the most conspicuous] place in the agora; [the title shall be as follows]: "Damiadas of Lakedaimon, [the son of ...kles], a servant of Asklepios."

[Since Damiadas of Lakedaimon, the son] of ...kles, [when we] wrote [to] him as it had been voted, [requesting that he come] to us to practise as a doctor, because [he] showed himself second to none in the craft of medicine as well as in excellence of life, [regarded our] magistrates and city with the greatest respect, and came to stay with us; and having contracted for the work as he was invited to by the people, he resided amongst us for two years; and in the practice of his craft [he did] what was just to those in need, lacking nothing in zeal and honourable conduct, so as to treat everyone on an equal basis, both [the needy and] the rich, both slaves and freemen. [And in his] conduct and his residence here, in what he did he conducted himself without offence, and was worthy of the craft which he performed, and worthy of his own [fatherland] and of our city. And he conducted [himself] without reproach in everything, behaving liberally towards [all as] befits a wise and educated man. [And] in the year when Biadas was general, in the month of Laphrios, seeing the city [in difficulty] because of a lack of income, he informed the people that he would provide his medical services free of charge for [the rest] of the year, exceeding the requirements of justice [and] giving a [great] demonstration of nobility and goodness and of kindness toward our [state]. [Because of these things, the] people, showing gratitude to Damiadas for everything [he had done], and having been inspired with benevolence in view of [his] being devoted to our city and performing every sort of [good thing in the craft of medicine and] in all spheres of life, has [made] him a proxenos and benefactor of our city. [And] he shall have the right to own land and buildings, [and] all the other privileges and honours [which] belong to the other proxenoi and benefactors [of the city. The ephors] during the year when Biadas is general shall inscribe this award of proxeny [on] a stone stele and set it up in the most [conspicuous] place in the agora, so that [there may be a clear memorial] to all of Damiadas' nobility and of our city's goodwill towards our benefactors. If the ephors do not set [it] up as has been prescribed, they shall be subject to prosecution [by Damiadas] and by any other persons so wishing for an indivisible fine of two [thousand] drachmas, and the prosecutor shall not be liable to challenge in court.


Alphabetical list of Hellenistic doctors

  ( This is not a comprehensive list of all known doctors. )

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