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Translations of Hellenistic Inscriptions: 123


KALYMNA HONOURS JUDGES FROM IASOS

Greek text:   TitCal_test.XVI ,   TitCal_61
Date:   (A) c. 250-220 B.C. ,   (B) late 3rd century B.C.
Tags:     foreign_judges
Translated by:   C.Crowther
Format:   see key to translations

The practice of using 'foreign judges' was widespread in the Hellenistic world, and in some cases a city would repeatedly call on judges from the same city; as Kalymna did from Iasos, starting from the early 3rd century B.C. ( TitCal_9 ). By the time of these two inscriptions, the custom was well established; A was found at Iasos, and B was found at Kalymna.

The dates of the inscriptions have been discussed by C.Crowther, "Foreign Courts on Kalymna in the Third Century B.C." ( JAC 9, 1994); he suggests that the king mentioned in inscription A, line 46, was either Antigonos Gonatas or Antigonos Doson. In inscription A, one of the judges seems the be the father of a judge mentioned in B ( Kephalos and Drakon ).


[A]   [When . . . was stephanephoros and . . . was secretary, on the sixth] day of the month: Eumolpos son of Molpos [was president]; as proposed [by the prytaneis] Messeneus son of Dion, appointed by . . . son of (?) Mygalos, Hermon son of My´stros, appointed by ...ratos son of Promachos, Eumolpos son of Molpos, Leon son of ...ippos, appointed by Aristophanes son of Noumenios, [Demeas] son of Stesiochos, Herakleitos son of Artemidoros, Demophon [son of] Prytanis, Damon son of Onphalion:   whereas the judges [who] were sent to Kalymna bring back a decree from the people of the Kalymnians 10 in which it has been written that the people of the Kalymnians crowns the people with a gold crown for its virtue and goodwill towards it, and also crowns the judges who were sent with a golden crown for their nobility - Kleandros son of Diodoros, Leon son of Euboulos, Kephalos son of Drakon, Theodoros son of Noumenios, Leon son of Drakontides - and in connection with these things requests that the people take responsibility for the announcement of the city's crown and the crown of the judges in the theatre at the Dionysia festival,   that it be resolved by the people {of Iasos}: the agonothetes shall announce the city's crown 20 and that of the judges, on the first day of the dithyrambic contest; the judges who were sent out shall also be praised, since by showing themselves worthy of the people they have won honours for the city; in order that this decree and the decree from the Kalymnians may [also] be inscribed [in] the most conspicuous position, as the Kalymnians request, [the] neopoiai shall take responsibility for the inscription of both decrees in the sanctuary of Zeus or Artemis; and also the judges who were sent out shall [be invited] to the prytaneion.

30 Resolved by the council and the people, as proposed by the presidents:   whereas the people of the Iasians has continued to be well-disposed and [friendly] to the people of the Kalymnians both on previous occasions and now, when the people is sending an embassy and requesting it to provide five judges, who on their arrival will do their best to reconcile those of the citizens who are in dispute, and if not, will decide between them by vote, it has sent fine and noble men, who on their arrival made every effort so that the citizens having had their differences with one another resolved might live in the city in harmony {homonoia}; [and of the] more [than 3]50 cases that were registered with the court, 40 they settled the greatest number by conciliation, [persuading] the disputants, so that the city might not be thrown into greater turmoil if the affairs were decided by vote; they also settled some other cases by arbitration in a manner advantageous to both parties; ten cases having been brought [before the] court they gave their judgments by vote in accordance both with the edict [of the] king and the laws, being incorruptible [in relation to all of] the disputants;   in order, therefore, that the people of the Kalymnians may [be seen] to be returning gratitude to its benefactors and many [men] may choose both to speak and to act in the best interests of the [people] of Kalymna, 50 knowing that [honours] worthy of their benefactions will be accorded to them, that it be resolved by the [council] and the people {of Kalymna}: to praise the people of the Iasians for its [virtue] and the goodwill which it continues to have towards the people of Kalymna and to crown it with a golden crown of five [gold staters]; and to praise also the [judges] who were sent out for their nobility - Kleandros [son of Diodoros], Leon son of Euboulos, Kephalos son of Drakon, [Theodoros son of] Noumenios, Leon son of Drakontides - [and] to [crown] them with a golden crown [of the value set by the law of] five [gold staters; 60 the right to own property at Kalymna and] citizenship shall also be given to them and their descendants, [and exemption from all taxes; the presidents shall] allot them to a tribe; they [shall have] also seats of honour in the [games and priority in approaching the] assembly after sacred [and royal affairs have been dealt with].

[B]   [Resolved by the] council and the people, as proposed by the presidents:   [whereas] Euelpidas son of Aration, having approached [the] council and the people emphasises that the people [of the] Iasians both continued to show every goodwill to the people of the Kalymnians in the previous period, and now, when we [are] sending an envoy to it to ask it to provide as judges five men, who on their arrival at Kalymna will above all try to reconcile those of the citizens who are in [dispute], 10 and, if not, [will] make a decision between them, it has [sent] fine and noble men, who showed all zeal for the reconciliation of the citizens [with one] another so that they should live in the city in harmony;   in order [therefore that the] people of the Kalymnians may be seen to be returning thanks to [its] benefactors and many men may choose both to speak and to act in the best interests of [the people] of Kalymna, knowing that honours worthy of their benefactions [will be made available to] them, that it be resolved by the council and the people {of Kalymna}: to praise the people of the Iasians 20 for the virtue [and goodwill] that it continues to have towards the people [of Kalymna] and to crown it with a golden [crown] of the weight specified by the law; to praise [also the judges] sent to us - Hekataios [son of Theodoros, Lys]andros son of Aristokritos, Autokles [son of (?) Leon], ...aïskos son of Theodotos, Drakon son of Kephalos - [because, when there] was a large number of substantial lawsuits, both private and public, [dating back] over a period of several years, they resolved [the] majority of them well and advantageously for the people, 30 and decided the others by judgment justly and in accordance with the laws, being incorruptible, which [having] happened resulted in the establishment of harmony among the citizens; and to crown them [with a golden] crown of the value set by the law; and also to give citizenship to Hekataios son of Theodoros [and] ...aïskos son of Theodotos and their descendants; [and] since [Lysa]ndros son of Aristokritos, Autokles [son of (?) Leon] and [Drakon] son of Kephalos already possess citizenship through their forefathers, they [shall] also be proxenoi 40 . . .

inscription 124


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