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OGIS: 764


PERGAMON HONOURS DIODOROS PASPAROS

Greek text:   (A) MDAIA[A]_32.4 ,    (B) MDAIA[A]_35.2 ,    (C) IvP_2.256 ,    (D) MDAIA[A]_29.1 ,    (E-G) MDAIA[A]_32.8  
Date:   c. 69 B.C.  
Tags:     buildings ,   gymnasiarchs
Format:   see key to translations

Diodoros Pasparos (?) - statue head found at Pergamon These inscriptions, which record exceptional 'god-like' honours voted to a citizen of Pergamon, were previously dated to the late 2nd century B.C., but C.P.Jones has shown convincing reasons for a later date; his arguments are restated in "Diodoros Pasparos Revisited" ( Google Books ).

For an assessment of the honours awarded to Diodoros, see T.C.Brennan, in " Diplomats and Diplomacy in the Roman World", pp.171-174 ( Google Books ). The  heroön that was built for him at Pergamon is described by C.Genovese, "Per eterna memoria e immortalità di un benefattore: L' Heroon di Diodoro Pasparo a Pergamo" ( academia.edu ).

The best preserved decrees are shown here in their approximate chronological order, as established by A.Chankowski, "La procédure législative à Pergame au Ier siècle av. J.-C." ( Persée ).  They are numbers 1, 3, 5, 6, and 11 in Chankowski's list.  Inscription D is the only one that was printed in OGIS - at a time when its connection to the other decrees in honour of Diodoros had not yet been recognised. 


[A]   . . . [he (?) remained] for many years, [and regarding his own interests as less important than what] was advantageous to his fatherland, [he accomplished] the greatest [benefits both publicly for the city and (?) privately] for each of the residents of the province; [and he took thought concerning (?) relief from contracts for loans] and concerning a low rate of interest, seeing that out of all the [debtors, some were already completely ruined], some had lost their livelihood, [and the rest were in great difficulty because] large amounts of interest were being exacted; and he freed [the residents of the province] from the seizure of persons that occurred . . . [and from the] stationing of soldiers during the winter, so that the city [might remain] undisturbed [in the future or (?) at least] there might be some respite from the impositions; and similarly [he released the city from the] expense of those things 10 and from the . . . of accounts [and from all] demands [(?) for taxes] apart from the tribute, so that [the city (?) might be unburdened] in this also, and might be [released] from void bonds [that were (?) agreed] through force and necessity; and he [restored] the possessions of those who were killed by Mithridates . . . in the war, which resulted in unbearable danger for the city; seeing that the benefits [accomplished] by him are great and have brought safety not only to the city of [those who received his] benefactions, but also to the whole province, the people considered that his return to his fatherland [should be] an object of prayer, and enacted a decree which was fitting for [his] virtue and his deeds; and the people gave thanks to the gods, and offered [the finest possible sacrifices] to them; and after welcoming him with all enthusiasm, the people decided to honour this man, who is adorned with [unsurpassable] virtue, 20 with the greatest honours [that lead on] to everlasting fame.  

Therefore with good fortune and for the safety of the city, it is resolved by [the council and] the people to praise Diodoros because of what has been mentioned above; and [because], inheriting the role of benefactor [from his] ancestors and serving the state excellently, he has brought about the greatest [benefits] for his fatherland, it is resolved also to crown him with a golden crown [for valour] and with a gilded statue and another statue on horseback and another colossal statue of bronze, representing him being crowned by the people, and another statue on horseback, and with a statue of marble; these statues shall be set up in whichever of the temples and the public places he decides; the gilded statues shall be placed on marble pillars, and the bronze statues likewise on marble bases, and the marble statue shall be placed in the shrine which will be constructed, with the following inscription on them: "the people honoured Diodoros son of Herōides, 30 the hereditary priest of Zeus the Greatest and chief priest, who inherited the role of benefactor from his ancestors and has provided many great benefits to his fatherland"; a stele shall be set up next to whichever of the statues he wishes - or the marble statue - and this decree shall be inscribed on it; and he shall be invited to privileged seating at all the festivals - the biennial festivals and the Panathenaia - and at the other games; and he shall burn incense at the council meetings and the formal assemblies,  [whenever] he happens to be present; the eighth day of the month of Apollonios, when he entered the city after his embassy, shall be held as sacred; and a hereditary tribe shall be named after him, with the title Pasparēis; and a priest of Diodoros shall be appointed at the elections, whenever the other priests of benefactors are appointed, and his name shall be written in the headings of contracts, after the priest of Manius - 40 this honour shall be preserved for all time; his precinct shall be. . . in Philetaireia, with the name Diodoreion, in which a shrine of white . . . marble shall be constructed, and the marble statue shall be set up there; on the day when the shrine is dedicated, a procession shall be conducted from the prytaneion to his precinct; the prytaneis and the priests and the gymnasiarch with the deputy [gymnasiarch and the ephebes] and the paidonomoi with the boys shall go in procession, and [Diodoros and his] children shall join in the procession; as fine a sacrifice as possible shall be offered. . . of the boys and the ephebes and the men . . . the meat from the [sacrifice] shall be distributed as prizes . . . on the same day [every] year . . . 50 enjoying old age . . . leaving his successors . . . [his] fate . . . [in the] agora in Philetaireia . . .

[B]   [A motion brought to the council and] the people [by the generals]; since the remembrance of good men for their virtue . . . [that] not only at the present time [benefactors may each have] a fitting [and appropriate] reward of gratitude, but also for all time . . . [to receive] the glory of those who are honoured for their benefactions, as an incentive to the [other citizens, in order that many may be eager to imitate them]; Diodoros Pasparos son of Herōides, the chief priest and hereditary priest [of Zeus the Greatest, who has given many demonstrations of his] goodwill and [has enhanced his virtue], inherited from his ancestors and maintained by his forefathers, [by his unceasingly] fine and glorious deeds [on behalf his fatherland], observing that the honour shown [by the people towards its] benefactors remained undiminished, not only in previous [times always exhibited his] zeal [concerning the] interests of his fatherland, as along with the inheritance of his family 10 [he took on all the] goodwill towards the city [that was displayed] by his ancestors, but [also on the most critical and urgent occasions] he assisted in accomplishing the greatest services to his fatherland, [acting as] envoy . . . and because of the respect he was given by the Roman leaders owing to his excellent character, he brought about [the greatest benefits] for the city; therefore also the people, for his previous [excellent] achievements [on behalf of his fatherland, and for what] he has continually accomplished for the concord of the state . . . [the people], recognising that he is most piously disposed towards the gods, and besides shows [all zeal and honourable conduct and dignity] towards men, honoured him with the appropriate and fitting [honours] . . . safely, that because of his reverence towards the gods, [presiding over the sacred rites and reviving in a fine manner the] traditional customs and practices, he performed everything in them . . . fitting that the chief-priestly honour of his abounding . . . 20 decreed by the citizens with all eagerness . . . 

[C]   . . . [with good fortune, it is resolved by the] council and the people to praise him for [the reasons stated above, and because, having inherited the role of benefactor from his ancestors, and] always [being (?) eager] to say and do something conducive to concord . . . [and to crown] him with an eternal golden crown for valour and with a [statue . . . and with a (?) portrait  [statue], which shall be set up . . . [next to the] statues of Asklapon, transposing the . . . [the (?) statue] that was decreed for him by the city . . . 10  [and the inscription on the statue shall be as follows] : The people [honoured] Diodoros Pasparos son of Herōides, the chief priest and hereditary priest [of Zeus the Greatest], who acted as gymnasiarch in the 'crowned' games at the [twenty-ninth] Nikephoria in a fine and dignified manner, and provided for the training [of the youths and ephebes] honourably [and justly, and] conducted himself [magnificently and] magnanimously in placing [oil] . . . and having dedicated the money from which . . . and a sacrifice shall be offered to him [near to the] statue . . . and the gymnasiarch and the deputy gymnasiarch [shall give shares] of the meat from all [the sacrifice as prizes to the ephebes and the youths for the races and the (?) armed contests]; and on the same day in each month . . . his statue along with the other [statues . . . and his statue shall be dressed with a headband, whenever the other] statues are given headbands; [and his statue] shall be crowned, [whenever the other statues are crowned; and he himself shall be crowned] with the eternal crown for valour at the Hermaia . . . 20 after Herōides his father, and . . . the prytanis should offer the sacrifice . . . to his statue that stands in the . . .

[D]   . . . and towards the pressing [needs] of the [city] . . . oil for anointing to be provided for the older men and the free boys throughout the whole [day] . . . [and he ordered olive oil] to be put out [throughout the whole year] for those who anoint themselves in the festival gymnasium, [from his own resources] . . . and when according to tradition the mysteries [were due to be held] for the great gods the Kabeiroi . . . on the day that was appropriate for the initiation of the ephebes to be performed . . . [and he did not allow them] to pay all the cost related to the ceremony by themselves, [but he bore the expense on his own, so that he paid the appropriate cost to perform] a two-fold sacrifice to gods, and the [money] that was collected because of the initiation . . . and he was the first and only one [to perform] 10 all the other customary rites . . . him to be adorned with good . . . and [he gave a share of] the same things to the Romans who were initiated . . . [and] to the theoroi who came to the Nikephoria, both to the initiated and [to the uninitiated . . . and to the other foreigners who were present] and to all the magistrates and councillors and to the victors [in 'crowned' games . . . and] to the instructors and to all the other citizens who were assembled [for the rites of the great gods the Kabeiroi, wishing no-one to be deprived of] participation in the sacred rites that were performed by him; and on the fifth day [of . . .,  when yet other sacrifices were presented] by him, [he took care of] the offering that was due to be made to Aristonidas . . . [providing] an exceptional [example] to others; for [he gave a dinner] to the participants with the meat from the [sacrificial victims] in the [Kabeiria, and to those who exercised] in the gymnasium of the youths, both citizens and foreigners, and to the senate [and . . . and to all the other magistrates] and to the Romans who were staying here and to the free boys; [and thinking] that statues [ought . . . to be dedicated] of the [god king Eumenes and the god Attalos and of Philetairos] Euergetes and of king Attalos Philometor 20 because of the people's [gratitude] towards those who were its benefactors . . . [and he not only] took on [all the remaining cost because there was need] of more money, but also . . . [and after taking care] of these matters in as fine a manner as he could, and offering [as fine] a sacrifice [as possible] to them, [he gave shares of the meat from the sacrifice as prizes to the ephebes] and the youths for the races and the armed contests; and wishing . . . to follow [the customary procedures in accordance with tradition], and to restore the traditions that had fallen into disuse because of the critical times, for the sake of. . . performed by him during his time as gymnasiarch, along with the other things in which he sought glory . . . [and announcing] that he would perform a 'ram-slaughter' {kriobolia} as a competition between the ephebes . . . [and he provided a ram, as fine as possible, with gilded] horns so that it might be captured by the youths and sacrificed . . . [and he distributed the meat] from the sacrifice as prizes to the ephebes and the youths for the races and the [armed contests, and he chose the day], thinking that the eighth of the month of Apollonios would be [best] - 30 the day on which after successfully completing [the embassy] in Rome . . . he entered our city, and having decreed that this day would remain holy throughout all time, [accepted] the other things [that had been written and what] had been recorded in the decree [that was enacted in the] year of Aristoboulos son of Bion, also called Teuthras; and . . . for the statue of him that was dedicated [in the exedra of the gymnasium], and after a sacrifice was offered by the city, [he gave a share of the meat from it to the gymnasiums for the races of the] boys and the ephebes and the men and for the armed contests, when the . . . had been distributed for the prizes . . . who were staying there. And when the youths acted as was fitting and showed their gratitude to him because [he had taken care of] their training [and education], and they honourably dedicated the statue that had been decreed by them in the exedra, where the [statue] of Philetairos [is situated] . . . to be provided by him at the time of the dedication of the statue as fine a sacrifice as possible, [and when] spiced [oil] had been put out [for anointing throughout the whole day], both the races and the armed contests to be held, preferring . . . and after offering sacrifices, as fine as possible, to Philetairos and king Attalos Philometor and his [father the god Eumenes on the altar erected] by the youths to perform what was due to be done in the previous month [on the day that was decreed . . . 40 he held a gymnastic contest, putting out] spiced [oil for anointing], and accomplished it magnificently, especially in the award of prizes and in [provision of dinner]; and he demonstrated [his goodwill towards the city] both with the statue of king Ptolemaios set up in the colonnade and . . . he held the race and the torch-races in an appropriate way, and when [the festival] . . . was due to be held in the current month, for which the provision of sacrifices was put to contract so that there might be [a feast with the meat from the sacrificial victims, he came forward] and paid the full cost [from his own] money.  

He wished in this matter also to have a reputation [among the citizens] that was in line with what he had done previously [throughout his life], and he aspired to have a decree proclaimed about this matter and about [the sacrifice] that would be offered to [Athena Nikephoros and] to Asklepios, and after the decree was approved on the fourth day he brought two bulls from his personal property and successfully sacrificed them [to the god king Attalos and Philetairos] Euergetes and king Attalos Philometor Euergetes, and from the sacrifices he performed the races [and armed contests] . . . giving a share of the meat from the sacrifices to the ephebes and their instructors; and on the fifth day similarly, after he had brought [two bulls and successfully sacrificed them], he performed a torch-race and from these sacrifices likewise he gave a share to the same persons. And on the sixth day, 50 [after bringing two cows, as fine as possible], and sacrificing them to Athena Nikephoros, likewise he gave a share of the meat and held a gymnastic contest . . . extremely fine prizes, worthy of their honour towards the gods and the benefactors . . . [as was] fitting, and in this also he took full account of what was appropriate concerning the city; and on the seventh day, [after providing two bulls and successfully sacrificing them] to Asklepios from his own resources, he distributed the meat from the sacrifice to the runners in the torch-race . . . he divided the meat from the sacrifice for prizes; and what required the greatest care . . .  [and wishing that the people] should remain [free from the burden of these expenses], he dedicated and consecrated . . . drachmas of silver . . . the repair and maintenance of it . . . [so that it should never] be lacking for the four gymnasiums . . .

[E] {col. i}   When the [generals] brought a motion [to the council and the people] about Diodoros [Pasparos son of Herōides, the chief priest and hereditary] priest of Zeus the Greatest . . .

* * *

[Because] the existing wrestling arena was far smaller than what was suitable for the gymnasium, 20 [he promised] to construct another one from his own resources, and to build a marble exedra in front of it and likewise a marble bath-place beside it; and he repainted the ceiling on it and secured the surrounds of the walls with wooden boards; for which the people, acknowledging his magnificence and magnanimity, decided, in addition to the fine and splendid [honours] that had previously been given to him, to vote for further honours, worthy of his unceasing benefactions to the [city], so that the report may be handed down to our children's children of Diodoros' zeal for what is good and advantageous concerning his fatherland - zeal that he inherited from his ancestors - and of the  [rewards] given to him by the people in gratitude for his upright actions; 30 with good fortune it is resolved by the council and the people to praise him for what has been mentioned above, and because, having inherited a magnificent and reputable attitude, he has missed no opportunity . . . things that contribute to the benefit of the city, and to crown him with a [golden] crown for valour; and that an exedra shall be constructed for him in the gymnasium of the youths, where the first room is as one enters the stoa from the direction of the sundial; the wall shall be dismantled and columns and doorposts of marble shall be inserted instead, and likewise the decoration on them and the plinth, and the [ceiling] shall be repainted and a parapet of the same [stone] placed in the exedra; this and the other tasks shall be let out 40 in accordance with the specifications presented by the architect; in the exedra a marble statue shall be dedicated to Diodoros, so that in the place which he [so honourably] took care of, taking on [the expense] of a large amount of money for the purpose of its repair and maintenance - in this place he also may [through this] statue be enthroned with the [gods] in the palaistra; in front of the statue [there shall be] an inscription, that the people honoured [Diodoros] Pasparos [son of Herōides], the chief priest and hereditary priest of [Zeus the Greatest, who] inherited the role of benefactor of his fatherland from his ancestors, [on account of all his honourable conduct] and his goodwill towards the city, [because he acted as gymnasiarch of the] youths and the older men [in a fine manner] in the 'crowned' games at the [twenty]-ninth [Nikephoria], 50 when they were held for the first time [after the] war [against Mithridates]; and throughout the year he put out oil for anointing in basins for the older men [and the youths, during the] morning [and the afternoon] . . .

[F] {col. ii}   A motion put forward [by the generals; since Diodoros son of Herōides, the hereditary priest of Zeus] the Greatest and chief priest, [has continually in all matters] offered his [good services], and in the best way he has always been [the cause] of some benefit for his fatherland; he has surpassed himself in his zeal and honourable conduct in regard to public affairs, considering that [all danger] and hardship should be endured to bring advantage to the people and the soil that bore him; from this his noble character has been  demonstrated with genuine accomplishments, and because the people observed that he was continually enhancing the virtue that he inherited from his ancestors, and that he was exhibiting his goodwill towards the citizens through many great benefactions; and not only as previously 10  by saying and doing what was advantageous concerning the citizens did he manage affairs well both at home and abroad, undertaking foreign journeys and dangers on their behalf, but also from the time when he returned from Rome, he has taken not even the slightest time to take care of his [personal] livelihood, but has [spent] all this time in concern for public affairs and has assisted the city in [many] great matters, [due to the] respect in which he is held by the Roman leaders; the people [considered it] necessary and right [not] to be found wanting itself in showing gratitude in return, recognising that there is no greater incentive for [good] men than an everlasting reputation, and gave him a share of this reputation 20 through the honours that were voted for him previously, with the shrines and statues and the honours devoted to him for the purpose of immortality; and now the people wish that, through the honours that it has in mind and is eager to implement, he should not be deprived of any mark of glory which previous benefactors of the city have received, because Diodoros has contributed as much as these men towards the safety of the citizens; therefore the people has decided, acknowledging his zeal concerning the public interest and his honourable conduct in all matters, that in the prytaneion the sacred herald shall offer prayers to Diodoros Pasparos son of Herōides immediately after Manius Aquillius, and similarly he shall offer prayers in the biennial games and the festivals that are held by the people, when the libations are made in the theatre, that just as he did from the Roman leaders, so also Diodoros may request blessings for the people from the gods; and he shall burn incense at the biennial games and the festivals, 30 in the theatre when the libations are made, going forward at the biennial games with the priest of Dionysos, and going forward at the festivals with the agonothetes; and he shall be crowned throughout in the theatre at the festivals and the biennial games and the other games, while the sacred herald shall proclaim the honours that have previously been decreed for him; and the prytanis shall take care of these matters in the prytaneion for all time, and the priest of Dionysos shall take care of them at the festivals, and the secretary of the people shall take care of them at the other games, so that, just as he has been a good guardian of the city at other times, so now also, having been deemed worthy of god-like honours, he may be still more strenuous in his zeal, 40 because he receives the appropriate rewards for his benefactions; therefore with good fortune it is resolved by the council and the people that the afore-mentioned honours shall be given to Diodoros Pasparos son of Herōides, which shall be preserved for ever more, for the prosperity and peace of the city . . .

[G]   Since the generals have brought a motion to the council and the people about the citizens maintaining for all time their gratitude to those who have been benefactors of the city, by decreeing privileges for each of them as is fitting for what they have done, and about Diodoros Pasparos son of Herōides the gymnasiarch, who has given many great demonstrations on the most critical and urgent occasions 50 of his dignity and goodwill towards his fatherland, and has, through the deeds unceasingly accomplished by him in the service of the city, enhanced the virtue and zeal concerning the interests of the people that he inherited from his ancestors, always saying and doing something that contributes to fine and glorious outcomes for his fatherland, therefore the people, observing his superlative munificence and dignity, and choosing to give an appropriate (?) recompense for what he has previously done for his fatherland throughout his whole life in an excellent manner and what he has accomplished almost every day for the safety and concord of the state, has decided, in addition to the honours given to him previously, to decree other even more splendid honours, so that the righteousness and virtue of Diodoros, 60 and the gratitude of the people for what has been mentioned above, which has been managed by him as an outstanding benefactor, may be remembered for ever more; and since, when the gymnasium of the youths was completely ruined, he became as it were its second founder and very honourably took care of its decoration and its repair and maintenance, taking on the expense of a large amount of money, it has decided to consecrate in the gymnasium a marble statue of him, and to construct an exedra of marble with a parapet on it also made of marble, in the way that is described specifically by the decree itself; and Diodoros, maintaining the merit that he inherited from his ancestors and in all matters seeking to imitate the attitude of his forefathers towards everything that is good, has come forward to the assembly during the elections, 70 and said that he would accept the honour and would take responsibility for it himself, releasing the city from the expense of it and paying for the cost from his own resources, because he wished to put the works out to contract in accordance with the aforesaid instructions; [therefore (?) the generals have] proposed and introduced [this decree] . . .

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