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Umbrian Tablets of Iguvium


The Tablets of Iguvium form the largest surviving body of text in a local Italic language, before Latin superseded the other languages. Because the Umbrian language is similar to Latin, scholars have been able to establish the meaning of most of the text. The tablets are an important source of information about the ancient religious rituals of Italy; see I. Rosenzweig, "Ritual and Cults of Pre-Roman Iguvium" ( PDF ).

It is difficult to date the tablets accurately; but it is generally agreed that the earlier tablets (1-4) belong to the late 3rd or the 2nd century, and the later tablets (6-7) belong to the early 1st century B.C.

This English translation is by J.W. Poultney, "The Bronze Tables of Iguvium" ( archive.org ). A tranliteration of the Umbrian text along with an Italian translation can be found at IRDAU: Le Tavole di Gubbio.


Contents:



[1a]   Commence this ceremony by observing the birds, those from in front, and those from behind. Before the Trebulan Gate sacrifice three oxen to Jupiter Grabovius. Present grain-offerings, place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice either with wine or with mead, for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. Pray each portion in a murmur with offerings of fat and grain.

Behind the Trebulan Gate sacrifice three pregnant sows to Trebus Jovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. Take up the under-parts, present grain-offerings, sacrifice with mead, 10 and pray in a murmur with offerings of fat and grain. 

Before the Tesenacan Gate sacrifice three oxen; sacrifice to Mars Grabovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. Present grain-offerings, place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice with mead, and pray in a murmur with offerings of fat and grain. 

Behind the Tesenacan Gate sacrifice three sucking pigs to Fisus Sancius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. Sacrifice with mead, take up the under-parts, present grain-offerings, present a mefa cake and a libation. Sacrifice to Fisovius, sacrifice for the Fisian Mount. Move the loaned and the consecrated bowls, two loaned, two consecrated, in the ceremony for the state of Iguvium. Pray in a murmur with offerings of fat and grain.

20 Before the Veian Gate sacrifice three oxen with white foreheads to Vofionus Grabovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. Place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice either with wine or with mead, present grain-offerings, and pray in a murmur with offerings of fat and grain. 

Behind the Veian Gate sacrifice three lambs to Tefer Jovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. Sacrifice at the rear of the altar, sacrifice seated, sacrifice the victims for burial, present grain-offerings, sacrifice with mead, and pray silently with offerings of fat and grain. When you have made the presentation of the lambs, offer a pig-persondro, and to it add a libation separately. Sacrifice to Tefer Jovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. At your right foot make a mound for the bowl. 30 When you have presented this persondro, then offer a pig-persondro, to Stabilis Jovius, upon it add a libation, for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. At your left foot make a mound for the bowl. Sacrifice with mead. When you have presented the pig-persondra, then distribute the erus of the lambs. Grind the grain sitting and pray sitting, with the ground grain

[1b]   At the Grove of Jupiter, while they are placing on a platter the remains of the sheep, sacrifice three bull-calves to Mars Hodius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. Place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice with mead, present grain-offerings, and pray in a murmur with offerings of fat and grain. At the Grove of Coredius sacrifice three bull-calves to Hondus Serfius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. Place the ribs on a tray, present grain-offerings, add a twisted cake, sacrifice either with wine or with mead, and pray in a murmur with offerings of fat and grain. Then the mound will have been purified. If there is any interruption of these rites, they shall be invalid: take an observation of the birds, return to the Trebulan Gate, and perform the rite anew.

10 When you wish to perform a lustration of the people, go to observe the birds, those from in front and those from behind. When you have returned, take a stole, then place fire in the carrier. When you have placed the fire in the carrier, then demand a parra in the west for yourself and for the state of Iguvium. The augur shall make his announcement in the direction of the augural seats. Go to the sacrifice by the Augural Way. The prinuati shall go along; they shall hold the wands of a puniceatus. When you come to Acedonia, then pronounce banishment on the Tadinate state, the Tadinate tribe, the Tuscan, the Narcan name, the Iapudic name: "If anyone is caught, bring him to that place to which it is the law, do with him that which is the law." When the prinuati shall be standing at the boundary, then say: "Arrange yourselves in priestly ranks and military ranks, men of Iguvium." 20 Then make the circuit around them with the victims and the fire. When you have made the circuit, pray. Then say: "Go, men of Iguvium." Make the circuit three times, pray three times, say: "Go, men of Iguvium" three times. Then the prinuati shall return; by the same road shall the prinuati return.

At Fontuli sacrifice three boars, red or black, to Serfus Martius. Place the ribs on a tray, present grain-offerings, sacrifice with mead, and pray silently with offerings of fat and grain.

At Rubinia sacrifice three pigs, red or black, to Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius. Sacrifice the victims upon the ground, present grain-offerings, move the consecrated bowls, divide the black and the white vessels, sacrifice with mead, 30 and pray silently with offerings of fat and grain. 

At Trans Sanctam sacrifice three heifer-calves to Tursa Serfia of Serfus Martius. Sacrifice the victims upon the ground, present grain-offerings, sacrifice with mead, and pray silently with offerings of fat and grain. When you have made the presentation, the order shall be called to the place where they have sacrificed the boars, to distribute the erus. When the erus has been distributed, the instruction shall be passed back to Rubinia to distribute the erus. Then the instruction shall be passed to Trans Sanctam to distribute the erus. Then return to Rubinia and pray with the whole and the ground grain. Then move the consecrated bowls and divide the vessels. Then return to Trans Sanctam and pray with the whole and the ground grain. Then the sacrifice will have been completed.

40 When he has made the circuit around the people for the third time, the adfertor shall chase a heifer fit for sacrifice, above the Comitium, and the prinuati shall chase two. Below the Forum of Semonia they shall catch them. These three heifers he shall sacrifice at Acedonia to Tursa Jovia. He shall present grain-offerings and sacrifice with mead. He shall sacrifice the victims upon the ground, and pray silently with offerings of fat and grain. Lucius Tetteius, son of Titus, approved the foregoing in his quaestorship.

[2a]   When for the augural section of the Atiedian Brotherhood in taking the auspices the response turns out unfavourably, perform the following sacrifices for the Atiedian Brothers. Proclaim these sacrifices thus: "If for the augural section of the Atiedian Brotherhood in taking the auspices the response hath turned out for ill, bring it to pass that it be as not intended." Offer an additional sacrifice of a young pig to Vesticius Sancius, an ox brought from away to Jupiter, and a victim brought from away to Spector. Offer to Jovius one ram from the temple-property, to be buried. Present grain-offerings, sacrifice with mead, and pray silently with offerings of fat and grain. When you have made the presentation, present one pig-persondro to Dicamnus Jovius. Make a mound in a separate place for the bowl. When you have presented the pig persondro, distribute the erus. 10 Then grind the grain and pray with the ground grain. To Ahtus Jupiter sacrifice upon the ground a sheep brought from away. Present grain-offerings and sacrifice with mead. To Ahtus Mars sacrifice a young boar brought from away. Present grain-offerings, add spelt-cakes to the parts cut off, sacrifice the victim upon the ground, and sacrifice with mead. Sacrifice across the Via Equina. Sacrifice a victim brought from away, to the Ancites. 

The Hondia: the day for the sacrifice of the dog is appointed for the final period of the Cerealia occurring between moons. If he desires to perform it, the adfertor is required, after having observed the birds, to perform it at the full moon. He shall bring the things pertaining to the Hondia; he shall bring the dog, grain, a strusla cake, a ficla cake, mead, wine, ground salt, a maniple, wet and dry vessels, and unguent. He shall place fire on the altar; 20 he shall perform the sacrifice with mead. He shall slay in honour of Hondus Jovius an unblemished dog from the temple-property for the gens Petronia among the Atiedian Brothers. The sacrifice shall be performed upon the ground. He shall take the under-parts of the dog; he shall take the lower limbs. He shall roast the sacrificial pieces on a sufficient number of spits; he shall place a sufficient number of roasting-pans under the spits. He shall watch the ground. He shall present grain-offerings with mead, pour a libation, and dance the tripudium, offering wine at each turning. Nine times he shall dance the tripudium. "I invoke thee with mead, I invoke thee with wine," he shall say. He shall take the spits and the boiled portions. That which he carries last with it he shall carry the fat-drippings at the same time. He shall pray with a libation upon the ground. He shall cut off two pieces of the dog as burnt-offerings, and a third as an erus. At the same spot he shall cut the fat-drippings. He shall add a strusla cake and a ficla cake. He shall make the presentation of the dog. He shall pray with the portion around the dog's foot; 30 he shall pray with the uncut portion; he shall pray with the vempersondro ; he shall place the under-parts over at the side ; he shall pray with vessels of whichever type he desires. He shall pour a libation, dance the tripudium, approach the altar, and stop. He shall place the under-parts at the back. The liver, which is the erus, he shall carry in his hand. He shall go to the Obelisk. He shall bring mead in two bowls; he shall bring the spits, the smearing-sticks not yet used, the vessels wet and dry, and the unguent. He shall pour a libation from a bowl to Hondus Jovius for the gens Petronia among the Atiedian Brothers. With the ceremonial spits he shall pray on the other side of the Obelisk. At the same spot he shall pray with the smearing-sticks. With the ceremonial vessels wet and dry he shall pray at the Obelisk. He shall pour a libation and dance the tripudium. He shall anoint the Obelisk, pray with the ceremonial unguent, and wash his hands away from the altar. He shall return to the altar; at the altar he shall pray silently with ceremonial wine. 40 He whose duty it is shall carry and distribute the erus. He shall distribute the wine and mead. He shall grind a portion of the strusla cake, the ficla cake, and the limbs. He shall extinguish the fire with a bowl of mead. He shall pray with the whole and the ground grains. He shall stand up and take away the things which remain. The sacrifice shall have been completed. The dog shall be buried at the altar. Lucius Tetteius, son of Titus, approved the foregoing in his quaestorship

[2b]   At the decurial festival of Semo choose a pig and a he-goat. The decuviae and the quincurial families are twelve. Say: "For the decuvia Atiedias and for the Second Atiedias, for the Clavernii and for the Second Clavernii, for the Cureias and for the Second Cureias, for the Satani and for the Second Satani, for the Peiersias and for the Second Peiersias, for the Talenas and for the Second Talenas, for the Museias and for the Second Museias, for the Juvescani and for the Second Juvescani, for the Casilas, for the Second Casilas, and for the Third Casilas, and for the Peraznanii." Sacrifice to Jupiter Arsmo. Consecrate the pig brought from away and without blemish, which has been selected, and pronounce it free from blemish. Present grain-offerings and pronounce upon them as upon a victim fit for sacrifice, without blemish. 10 Sacrifice either with mead or with wine. Slay the victim in honour of Sancius with incense. Consecrate and pronounce upon the he-goat brought from away and without blemish, which has been selected. Slay it outside and present it in the temple. Carry it there; carry the fire there on a board, and add to it the parts cut off from the goat. Bring the persondro with incense, with a mefa cake, and with the prepared libation. Bring mead in a flask, in a second flask bring wine, in a third flask bring water. Bring dark meal, bring the vempersondra, bring a maniple, and bring additional mead. When you have come into the temple, make the presentation of the goat. Offer a preliminary prayer to Jupiter Sancius with incense. Pray with the vempersondra and pray with the vessels. Dance the tripudium, approach the altar and stop. Place the vessels at the back. 20 Pray with the ranum, pray with the mead, pray with the wine, pray with the water. Then distribute the erus.

When you wish to sacrifice a votive bull-calf, dedicate it to Jupiter on the same day. When you dedicate it, hold a disk in your hand. Use the following words: "Jupiter Sancius, to thee I dedicate this votive bull-calf." Three times declare it fit for presentation, three times pronounce it a votive offering. Sacrifice it to Jupiter for the gens Lucia among the Atiedian Brothers. While you are slaying it, wear a stole on your right shoulder. When you have slain it, place the stole upon the mefa cake. While you are presenting it, wear the stole on your right shoulder. Present grain-offerings and sacrifice with mead. 

[3]   Sacrifice is required to be performed in the final period of the regular bimonthly festival. First purify the jar in the grove. Then the Brothers, rising in groups of five, shall elect an auctor who shall be in accord with the customs of the Brothers in assembly. Then the auctor shall sit on the stone seat in the meeting-place. The auctor shall designate a young pig and a sheep, the groups of five shall inspect them, 10 then the groups of five rising shall accept the young pig and the sheep. Then they shall go by the accustomed way to the field. On the way load the fire with incense with a prayer. They shall lift and carry the young pig and the sheep on a litter. Set up the litter in the field. Then the sacrifice shall take place. First attach a fork to the litter. Then insert the lattice frame. Then place the kettle upon the carrier ; on the same put the chopping-board ; on the same put the under-board. Fasten the kettle with three bronze nails ; fasten the chopping-board with three additional bronze nails ; 20 fasten the under-board with two bronze nails. Then go into the grove for the sacrifice. When you reach the grove, call them there to the ceremony. In the grove place fire upon the altar. The young pig without blemish, which has been selected, slay first in honour of Jupiter, at the right of the altar, for the Atiedian Brothers, for the fire-carriers the symbols of the college, 30 for the state of Iguvium, for the tribe of Iguvium. Pronounce the day solemn. Then slay the unblemished sheep, which has been chosen, in honour of Pomonus Poplicus. Announce that the day is solemn. Use the accustomed words in connection with the sheep, for the Atiedian Brothers, for the fire-carriers the symbols of the college, for the state of Iguvium, for the tribe of Iguvium. Place the young pig's ribs on a tray. With it make grain-offerings. Sacrifice the sheep upon the ground, for burial. Cut off two pieces of it at the side of the altar as burnt-offerings ; present them upon a turf-altar. Add a strusla cake. Then on the other side of the altar cut off two pieces as burnt-offerings ; present them at the statue to Pomonus Poplicus. [4]   Add the phallic portion of the same strusla cake. Then at the third side of the altar cut off three pieces as burnt-offerings ; present them from the top of the altar toward the statue, to Vesona of Pomonus Poplicus. Likewise add a comb-cake. From the same bowls make the presentation to Pomonus and Vesona. At the altar and at the statue, with the uncut portions, the chopped meat, the vempersondra, and the uncooked under-parts stretch forth the hands, pray, approach the altar, and stop. With the ceremonial vessels, wet and dry, 10 pray at the statue, to Pomonus Poplicus and Vesona of Pomonus Poplicus. With the smearing-sticks pray to Pomonus Poplicus and Vesona of Pomonus Poplicus at their respective statues. Then anoint the statues and distribute the erus of each deity. Then kneeling apart at the right side from the altar you yourself shall present at the altar from a cup a libation and a mefa cake, to Purdovif, and pronounce the offering perfect. Then kneeling offer at the bottom of the statue a libation and persondro from a cup to Hula. Then kneeling offer at the top of the statue a solemn libation and persondro from a cup to Tursa. 20 Then go select a cover ; place it upon the persondro. Then offer ceremonial circlet-cakes from sealed vessels. Then with the remaining ceremonial food pray to Pomonus Poplicus. Then at the litter pray with ceremonial vessels of whichever type you wish to Vesona of Pomonus Poplicus. Then if anyone wishes, he may place the food-baskets upon the litter. Then silently distribute the erus. Then grind the grain. The flute-player shall play the accompaniment. Pray with the ground grains. 30 In connection with this ceremony load the fire with incense. One shall have a caldron and have boiled mead. When he has done thus, the ceremony shall have been completed. When he has purified the jar, thereafter they shall not use any of that mead.

[5a]   The Atiedian Brothers resolved as follows at the regular annual festival during the auctorship of Titus Castrucius, son of Titus. Whoever shall be adfertor among the members of the Atiedian college, he shall look after the religious ceremony, and provide what is necessary for that ceremony, and decide what persons shall be present at the ceremony. He shall select the sacred articles and those brought from elsewhere. Whatever are offered, he shall examine whether any of them should be accepted, and when there is to be a triad of propitiatory offerings, he shall make an inspection in the field, whether they should be accepted. 10 Whoever shall be adfertor, he shall provide vegetables in connection with the unburned sacrifices, at the discretion of the Atiedian Brothers, and at the rate of one new dupondius per head. 

The Atiedian Brothers resolved as follows at the regular annual festival during the auctorship of C. Cluvius, son of Titus. At the Atiedian assembly on the Mount, among the members of the Atiedian college, when the adfertor has slain the victims he shall receive a donation of a single nummus per head, and when the presentation has been made he shall receive a donation of two nummi per head, 20 and when the distribution has been made he shall receive a donation of three nummi per head, and when the brothers have dined the brother-superior or the quaestor shall call for a vote whether the dinner has been provided in a satisfactory manner. If a majority of the Atiedian Brothers who have come there declare that it has been provided in a satisfactory manner, it shall be well. If a majority of the Atiedian Brothers who have come there declare that it has not been provided in a satisfactory manner, [5b]   then the brother-superior or the quaestor shall call for an expression of opinion on the part of the brothers as to how great a fine shall be imposed on the adfertor. Whatever fine a majority of the Atiedian Brothers who have come there demand shall be imposed on the adfertor, so great a fine shall be imposed on the adfertor

The decuvia of the Clavernii are required to give to the Atiedian Brothers each year four pounds of choice spelt from the Ager Tlatius of Picus Martius, and dinner 10 for the two men who come to fetch the spelt, or else to give six  asses. The Atiedian Brothers are required to give to the Clavernii at the decurial festival of Semo each year ten portions of pork and five portions of goat-meat, the former pickled, the latter roasted, and dinner or six asses. The decuvia Casilas is required to give to the Atiedian Brothers each year six pounds of choice spelt from the Ager Casilus of Pious Martius, and dinner for the two men who come to fetch the spelt, or else to give six asses. The Atiedian Brothers are required to give to the decuvia Casilas at the decurial festival of Semo each year fifteen portions of pork and seven and a half portions of goat-meat or six asses.

[6a]   The adfertor shall commence this ceremony by observing the birds, the parra and crow in the west, the woodpecker and magpie in the east. The one who goes to observe the messengers, sitting shall call out from the tent to the adfertor : "Demand that I may observe a parra in the west, a crow in the west, a woodpecker in the east, a magpie in the east, in the east birds, in the east divine messengers." The adfertor shall thus demand : "There observe a parra in the west, a crow in the west, a woodpecker in the east, a magpie in the east, in the east birds, in the east divine messengers, for me, for the state of Iguvium, for this established ordinance. " While he who goes to observe the messengers sits in the seat, during that time no one shall make a noise nor shall any other person sit in the way until he who has gone to observe the birds returns. If a noise is made or any other person sits in the way, he will make the ceremony invalid. 

The templum where the adfertor remains for the purpose of purifying the Mount, when established, is bounded thus: from the lowest angle, which is next to the Ara Divina, to the highest angle, which is next to the augural seats : 10 thence from the highest angle to the augural seats to the city boundary, from the lowest angle to the Ara Divina to the city boundary. Then within the city boundaries he shall make observation in either direction. 

The city boundaries are : from the augural seats to the Exit, to the observation-post, to the fore-area of Nurpius, to the Vale, to the Temple of Smurcia, to the house of the gens Miletina, to the third tower of the rampart; and from the augural seats to the avenue of Vesticius, to the garden of Rufer, to the house of the gens Nonia, to the house of Salius, to the avenue of Hoius, to the gate of Padella. Below these limits which are described above, watch for a parra in the west, a crow in the west. Above these limits watch for a woodpecker in the east, a magpie in the east. If the messengers sing forth, the augur sitting shall thus make announcement from the tent and shall call the adfertor by name: "I have seen a parra in the west, a crow in the west, a woodpecker in the east, a magpie in the east, in the east birds, in the east divine messengers for you, for the state of Iguvium, for this established ordinance." At each of these rites for the lustration of the people and the purification of the mount the adfertor shall hold a ritual wand. The vessels at the Trebulan Gate 20 which are to be exhibited for the purification of the mount he shall so exhibit as to cause fire to be kindled from fire. Similarly at the Tesenacan Gate, similarly at the Veian Gate. 

Before the Trebulan Gate he shall sacrifice three oxen to Jupiter Grabovius. Thus shall he speak after making the libation: "Thee I invoke as the one invoked, Jupiter Grabovius, for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state. Be thou favourable, be thou propitious to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. In the consecration I invoke thee as the one invoked, Jupiter Grabovius; in trust of the consecration I invoke thee as the one invoked, Jupiter Grabovius. Jupiter Grabovius, thee I invoke with this perfect ox as a propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state. Jupiter Grabovius, by the effect of this ox bring it to pass, if on the Fisian Mount fire hath occurred or in the state of Iguvium the due rites have been omitted, that it be as not intended. Jupiter Grabovius, if in thy sacrifice there hath been any omission, any sin, any transgression, any damage, any delinquency, if in thy sacrifice there be any seen or unseen fault, Jupiter Grabovius, if it be right, with this perfect ox as a propitiatory offering may purification be made. Jupiter Grabovius, purify the Fisian Mount, purify the state of Iguvium. Jupiter Grabovius, purify the name of the Fisian Mount, 30 of the state of Iguvium, purify the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Jupiter Grabovius, keep safe the Fisian Mount, keep safe the state of Iguvium. Jupiter Grabovius, keep safe the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Jupiter Grabovius, thee with this perfect ox as a propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state, Jupiter Grabovius, thee I invoke. 

"Jupiter Grabovius, thee with this perfect ox as a second propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state I invoke. Jupiter Grabovius, by the effect of this ox bring it to pass, if on the Fisian Mount fire hath occurred or in the state of Iguvium the due rites have been omitted, that it be as not intended. Jupiter Grabovius, if in thy sacrifice there hath been any omission, any sin, any transgression, any damage, any delinquency, if in thy sacrifice there be any seen or unseen fault, Jupiter Grabovius, if it be right, with this perfect ox as a second propitiatory offering may purification be made. Jupiter Grabovius, purify the Fisian Mount, purify the state of Iguvium. Jupiter Grabovius, purify the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, 40 purify the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Jupiter Grabovius, keep safe the Fisian Mount, keep safe the state of Iguvium. Jupiter Grabovius, keep safe the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Jupiter Grabovius, thee with this perfect ox as a second propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state, Jupiter Grabovius, thee I invoke.

"Jupiter Grabovius, thee with this perfect ox as a third propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state I invoke. Jupiter Grabovius, by the effect of this ox bring it to pass, if on the Fisian Mount fire hath occurred or in the state of Iguvium the due rites have been omitted, that it be as not intended. Jupiter Grabovius, if in thy sacrifice there hath been any omission, any sin, any transgression, any damage, any delinquency, if in thy sacrifice there be any seen or unseen fault, Jupiter Grabovius, if it be right, with this perfect ox as a third propitiatory offering may purification be made. Jupiter Grabovius, purify the Fisian Mount, purify the state of Iguvium. Jupiter Grabovius, purify the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, 50 purify the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Jupiter Grabovius, keep safe the Fisian Mount, keep safe the state of Iguvium. Jupiter Grabovius, keep safe the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Jupiter Grabovius, thee with this perfect ox as a third propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state, I invoke. Jupiter Grabovius, bringing forward the triad of perfect oxen as propitiatory offerings for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state, Jupiter Grabovius, thee I invoke." He shall pray each portion silently. In the same manner he shall make the presentation, make pronouncement upon the parts cut off, add to the parts cut off a mefa spefa cake and a ficla cake, and offer grain. He shall perform this sacrifice either with wine or with mead. He shall place the ribs on a tray.

Behind the Trebulan Gate he shall sacrifice three pregnant sows to Trebus Jovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. He shall perform the sacrifice upon the ground, offer grain, sacrifice with mead, pray silently, recite the same formulas as before the Trebulan Gate, and add to the parts cut off a strusla cake and a ficla cake.

[6b]   Before the Tesenacan Gate he shall sacrifice three oxen to Mars Grabovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. He shall offer grain, place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice with mead, pray silently, add spelt-cakes and a ficla cake to the parts cut off, and recite the same formulas as before the Trebulan Gate.

Behind the Tesenacan Gate he shall sacrifice three sucking pigs to Fisus Sancius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. He shall sacrifice with mead, perform the sacrifice upon the ground, offer grain, recite the same formulas as before the Trebulan Gate, pray silently, have a maniple folded double upon his right hand, and add to the parts cut off a ficla cake and a strusla cake. When he has put the under-parts at the back of the altar, kneeling he shall offer a libation and a mefa spefa cake in a cup to Fisovius Sancius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. Thus shall he pray after pouring the libation: "Thee I invoke as the one invoked, Fisovius Sancius, for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state. Be thou favourable, be thou propitious to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. In the consecration I invoke thee as the one invoked, Fisovius Sancius, in trust of the consecration I invoke thee as the one invoked, Fisovius Sancius." Likewise shall he pray with the mead. Thus shall he pray with the mefa spefa cake: "Fisovius Sancius, thee with this Fisovian mefa spefa cake for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, 10 for the name of the mount, for the name of the state I invoke. Fisovius Sancius, grant to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the men and beasts of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, success in word and deed, before and behind, in private and in public, in vow, in augury, and in sacrifice. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Fisovius Sancius, keep safe the Fisian Mount, the state of Iguvium. Fisovius Sancius, keep safe the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Fisovius Sancius, thee with this Fisovian mefa spefa cake for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state, Fisovius Sancius, thee I invoke. In trust of Fisovius I invoke thee." In the middle of the prayer he shall pour a libation and dance the tripudium. When he has presented this cake he shall distribute the erus of the parts cut off. Then kneeling, from a cup he shall distribute the erus of the libation. Then he shall remove from the platter the mefa cake and the libation and scatter them down into the fire. Then sitting he shall grind the cakes and shall pray with the ground cakes. He shall move the two loaned bowls, he shall move the two consecrated bowls. 

Before the Veian Gate he shall sacrifice three oxen with white foreheads to Vofionus Grabovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. He shall place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice either with wine 20 or with mead, offer grain, pray silently, and add to the parts cut off a mefa spefa cake and a ficla cake, and recite the same formulas as before the Trebulan Gate. 

Behind the Veian Gate he shall sacrifice three lambs to Tefer Jovius for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium. He shall sacrifice sitting, he shall sacrifice the victims for burial, offer grain, sacrifice with mead, pray silently, add to the parts cut off a strusla cake and a ficla cake, and recite the same formulas as at the Trebulan Gate. When he has presented the lambs, the same one who has presented the lambs shall offer at his right foot a libation and a pig-persondro. He shall make a mound for the bowl; he shall hold it in his left hand until he has poured the libation; he shall set down the bowl. In like manner he shall distribute the erus at his foot. Thus shall he pray after making the libation: "Thee I invoke as the one invoked, Tefer Jovius, for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state. Be thou favourable, be thou propitious to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. In the consecration I invoke thee as the one invoked, Tefer Jovius. In trust of the consecration I invoke thee as the one invoked, Tefer Jovius. Tefer Jovius, I invoke thee with this pig-persondro for Tefer as a propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state. Tefer Jovius, by the effect of this bring it to pass, if on the Fisian Mount fire hath occurred or in the state of Iguvium the due rites have been omitted, that it be as not intended. 30 Tefer Jovius, if in thy sacrifice there hath been any omission, any sin, any transgression, any damage, any delinquency, if in thy sacrifice there be any seen or unseen fault, Tefer Jovius, if it be right, with this pig-persondro as a propitiatory offering may purification be made. Tefer Jovius, purify the Fisian Mount, the state of Iguvium. Tefer Jovius, purify the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, purify the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Tefer Jovius, keep safe the Fisian Mount, the state of Iguvium. Tefer Jovius, keep safe the name of the Fisian Mount, of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the Fisian Mount, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the mount, to the name of the state. Tefer Jovius, thee with this pig-persondro for Tefer as a propitiatory offering for the Fisian Mount, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the mount, for the name of the state, Tefer Jovius, thee I invoke." In the middle of the prayer he shall dance the tripudium.

He shall offer a persondro for Stabilis at his left foot: he shall make a mound for the bowl in the same manner, he shall pray in the same manner as in the case of the pig-persondro for Tefer. When he has presented the persondro, he shall distribute the erus of the parts cut off. Then he shall distribute the erus of the libation accompanying the pig-persondro, at his right foot, toward the mound, where he has offered the pig-persondro. Then he shall offer the libation for Stabilis at his left foot, and likewise distribute the erus. Then where he has prayed, there he shall place the pig-persondro for Tefer on the mound and bury it. 40 Then where he has prayed, there he shall place the persondro for Stabilis on the mound and bury it. Then, sitting, he shall throw over his head the vessels which he has kept with the persondra. He shall sit during the interval until he has prayed with the ground cakes. Anyone at all, sitting, shall grind the cakes. Sitting, the adfertor shall pray with the ground cakes. The sacrifice will have been completed. 

At the Grove of Jupiter, while they are placing on a platter the remains of the sheep, he shall sacrifice three bull-calves; he shall sacrifice to Mars Hodius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. He shall place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice with mead, offer grain, pray silently, add spelt-cakes and a ficla cake to the parts cut off, and recite the same formulas as at the Trebulan Gate. 

At the Grove of Coredius he shall sacrifice three bull-calves; he shall sacrifice to Hondus Serfius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. He shall place the ribs on a tray, offer grain, sacrifice either with wine or with mead, pray silently, add to the parts cut off a twisted cake and a ficla cake, and recite the same formulas as at the Trebulan Gate. Then the Mount will have been purified. If there is any interruption of these rites, they shall be invalid; he must take an observation of the birds, return to the Trebulan Gate, and perform the rite anew.

When he wishes to perform a lustration of the people, he shall go and observe the birds, make the same demands as for the purification of the Mount, make announcement in the same manner, and observe the birds within the same limits. When he has announced the divine messengers he shall hold a ritual wand, take a stole, and place it over his right shoulder. He shall place fire in the fire-carrier. 50 When that in which he has placed the fire is brought to the sacrifice, he who holds the ritual wand shall carry it; the same shall carry it lighted on his right shoulder. With him shall go two prinuati; they shall hold the wands of a puniceatus. Then he shall demand a parra in the west for himself and for the state of Iguvium. In the same manner the augur shall make his announcement in the direction of the augural seats. He shall not walk about until he has announced a parra in the west, they shall proceed by the Augural Way to the sacrifice with the unblemished victims. When he has come to Acedonia, to the exits, then they shall stand at the boundary. He who holds the ritual wand shall pronounce banishment. Thus shall he pronounce banishment : "Whoever is of the Tadinate people, of the Tadinate tribe, of the Tuscan, the Narcan, the Iapudic name, let him go out from this people. Unless a going out from this people takes place, if anyone is caught among this people, bring him to that place to which it is the law, do with him that which is the law." Three times shall he pronounce banishment. He shall stand on the same spot at the boundary together with the prinuati. Then he shall say: "Arrange yourselves in priestly ranks and military ranks, men of Iguvium." Then along with the prinuati they shall make the circuit with the unblemished victims. When they have made the circuit and have come to the boundary, at the boundary he and the prinuati shall thus pray silently: "Serfus Martius, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, Tursa Serfia of Serfus Martius: the Tadinate state, the Tadinate tribe, the Tuscan, the Narcan, the Iapudic name, the chief citizens in office and not in office, the young men under arms and not under arms, of the Tadinate state, of the Tadinate tribe, of the Tuscan, the Narcan, the Iapudic name: terrify them and cause them to tremble, 60 cast them down to Hondus, to Hola, overwhelm them with snow, overwhelm them with water, deafen them with thunder and wound them, trample them under foot and bind them. Serfus Martius, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, Tursa Serfia of Serfus Martius,be favourable and propitious with your peace to the people of the state of Iguvium, to the state of Iguvium, to their chief citizens in office and not in office, to their young men under arms and not under arms, to their name, to the name of the state." When they have said this, then he that holds the ritual wand shall say "Go, men of Iguvium." When he has said this, the same ones shall make the circuit a second time. When the boundary has been reached again, they shall pray in the same manner. He shall speak in the same manner; he shall direct them to go. Then for the third time they shall make the circuit. When the boundary has been reached, in the same manner they shall pray, in the same manner he shall direct them to go. Then the prinuati shall go back by the same road by which they came. 

[7a]   In the same manner they shall pray, in the same manner he shall direct them to go. Then the prinuati shall go back by the same road by which they came.

At Fontuli he shall sacrifice three boars, either red or black; to Serfus Martius he shall sacrifice for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. He shall place the ribs on a tray, sacrifice with mead, offer grain, pray silently, add to the parts cut off a mefa spefa cake and a ficla cake, and recite the same formulas as at the Trebulan Gate. When the porrectio has been announced from Trans Sanctam then the erus shall be distributed.

At Rubinia he shall sacrifice three sows, red or black, to Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. He shall sacrifice the victims upon the ground, sacrifice with mead, offer grain, recite the same formulas as before the Trebulan Gate, pray silently, and add to the parts cut off a strusla cake and a ficla cake. When he has put the underparts at the back of the altar, then with a prayer he shall pour a libation into a trench to Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. Then pouring from the black vessels into the trench he shall pray thus : 10 "Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee I invoke with these black vessels for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the people, for the name of the state. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, in every way turn thou evil against the Tadinate people, the Tadinate tribe, the Tuscan, the Narcan, the Iapudic name, against the chief citizens in office and not in office, against the young men under arms and not under arms, of the Tadinate state, of the Tadinate tribe, of the Tuscan, the Narcan, the Iapudic name, and against their name. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the people of the state of Iguvium, to the state of Iguvium, to their name, to the name of the state, to its chief citizens in office and not in office, to its young men under arms and not under arms. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, keep safe the people of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the state of Iguvium. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, keep safe the name of the people of the state of Iguvium, the name of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the people of the state of Iguvium, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the people, to the name of the state. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee I invoke with these black vessels for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the people, for the name of the state. 20 Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, I invoke thee; in trust of thy favour, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, I invoke thee." Then in prayer he shall speak thus: "Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee with these black vessels, thee with full vessels, for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the people, for the name of the state, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee I invoke. In trust of thy favour, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, I invoke thee." Then he shall pour a libation and dance the tripudium. Then with a prayer he shall pour a libation into the trench to Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. Then he shall pray with the white vessels; he shall place them crosswise above the black vessels; thus shall he pray: "Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee I invoke with these white vessels for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the people, for the name of the state. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, in every way turn thou aside evil from the people of the state of Iguvium, from the state of Iguvium, from the chief citizens of the people of the state of Iguvium and of the state of Iguvium, in office and not in office, from the young men under arms and not under arms, from their name, from the name of the state. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, keep safe the people of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the state of Iguvium. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, 30 keep safe the name of the people of the state of Iguvium and of the state of Iguvium, keep safe the magistrates, the priesthoods, the lives of men and of beasts, the fruits. Be favourable and propitious with thy peace to the people of the state of Iguvium, to the state of Iguvium, to the name of the people, to the name of the state. Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee with these white vessels for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the people, for the name of the state, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee I invoke; in trust of thy favour, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, I invoke thee." Then in prayer shall he pray thus: "Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee with these white vessels, thee with full vessels, for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium, for the name of the people, for the name of the state, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, thee I invoke ; in trust of thy favour, Prestota Serfia of Serfus Martius, I invoke thee." Then he shall pour a libation and dance the tripudium. Kneeling he shall offer a libation and a mefa spefa cake in a cup to Fisovius Sancius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. He shall recite the same formulas as behind the Tesenacan Gate. He shall distribute the erus of the libation. Then he shall remove from the platter the libation and the mefa spefa cake and scatter them down into the fire. He shall go to Trans Sanctam. When he has returned from Trans Sanctam, then he shall grind the cakes and pray with the ground cakes. 40 He shall move the consecrated bowls. 

At Trans Sanctam he shall sacrifice three heifer-calves to Tursa Serfia of Serfus Martius for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. He shall sacrifice the victims upon the ground, sacrifice with mead, offer grain, pray silently, add to the parts cut off a strusla cake and a ficla cake, and recite the same formulas as at the Trebulan Gate. When the porrectio has been completed, the order shall be called to the place where they have sacrificed the boars, to distribute the erus. When the erus has been distributed, the instruction shall be passed back to Rubinia to distribute the erus. Then the instruction shall be passed to Trans Sanctam to distribute the erus. Then the adfertor shall return to Rubinia, grind the cakes, pray with the ground cakes and move the consecrated bowls. Then he shall return to Trans Sanctam, grind the cakes, and pray with the ground cakes. Then the sacrifice will have been completed. When he has made the circuit around the people for the third time, he who holds the ritual wand and the two prinuati shall silently pray thus from the place of burnt offerings, to Tursa: "Tursa Jovia: the Tadinate state, the Tadinate tribe, the Tuscan, the Narcan, the Iapudic name, the chief citizens in office and not in office, the young men under arms and not under arms, of the Tadinate state, of the Tadinate tribe, of the Tuscan, the Narcan, the Iapudic name: terrify them and cause them to tremble, cast them down to Hondus, to Hola, overwhelm them with snow, overwhelm them with water, deafen them with thunder and wound them, trample them under foot and bind them. Tursa Jovia, be favourable 50 and propitious with thy peace to the people of the state of Iguvium, to the state of Iguvium, to the chief citizens in office and not in office, to the young men under arms and not under arms, of the state, to their name, to the name of the state." This he shall say three times. Then he who holds the ritual wand and the prinuati shall chase the heifers selected from among those fit for sacrifice. Below the Forum of Semonia whoever of the state wishes shall catch them. Whichever three they catch first, these the adfertor shall sacrifice at Acedonia to Tursa Jovia for the people of the state of Iguvium, for the state of Iguvium. He shall recite the same formulas as at the Trebulan Gate, offer grain, sacrifice the victims upon the ground, add to the parts cut off a strusla cake and a ficla cake, pray silently, and sacrifice with mead. 

[7b]   Whoever at any time shall be brother-superior among the Atiedian Brothers, during his term of office shall bring twelve victims for the Atiedian Brothers, which are required on the brotherhood's account, to be let loose when the heifers are to be chased, when the Atiedian adfertor has performed the circuit around the people. If he does not bring them just as it is written above, the fine for the brother-superior shall be 300 asses.


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